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1.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 30(4): 170-180, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184481

RESUMO

Introducción: Los catéteres centrales de inserción periférica se han convertido en una prioridad en los neonatos que necesitan terapia intravenosa de larga duración, pero su uso no está exento de riesgos. Objetivo: Describir la aparición de eventos adversos en neonatos portadores de catéteres venosos centrales de inserción periférica y determinar factores de riesgo asociados a ellos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo transversal en el que se incluyeron la totalidad de neonatos portadores de catéteres venosos centrales de inserción periférica desde el 1 de octubre de 2014 hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2015. Se registraron los eventos adversos y variables sociodemográficas y clínicas relacionadas con los neonatos y los catéteres analizados. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 116 neonatos y 140 catéteres. Se registraron eventos adversos en el 16,4% de ellos: bacteriemia asociada al catéter (5,7%), obstrucción (5,7%), extravasación (2,1%) y flebitis (2,1%). Los factores asociados a bacteriemia con el odds de prevalencia corresponde a neonatos: < 27 semanas de gestación (OR = 1,2; p = 0,02), con peso < 1.000 g (OR = 6,7; p = 0,02), portadores de catéter > 1 semana (OR = 9,8; p = 0,02) y con perfusión de antibióticos por catéter (OR = 1,3; p < 0,01). La flebitis se asocia con la inserción del catéter en miembros inferiores y cabeza (OR = 1,1; p = 0,03). Los factores asociados a bacteriemia con odds de prevalencia ajustada corresponde a neonatos de peso extremo (OR = 6,38; p = 0,03) y portadores del catéter > 7 días (OR = 9,41; p = 0,04). Conclusiones: La evaluación periódica de eventos adversos relacionados con catéteres es de gran utilidad para elaborar planes de mejora. Esto permitirá extremar la seguridad en los RN más vulnerables, en especial los neonatos con extremo bajo peso que precisan tratamientos muy prolongados


Background: Peripherally inserted central catheters have become a priority in infants who require long-term intravenous therapy, but their use involves certain risks. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the occurrence of adverse events in newborns with peripherally inserted central catheters and to determine the risk factors associated with them. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed and performed. All neonates with peripherally inserted central catheters from October 1st, 2014 to September 30 th, 2015 were included. The adverse events and sociodemographic and clinical variables related to neonates and analyzed catheters were recorded. Results: A total of 140 catheters were placed in 116 infants. All of them were analyzed. Adverse events occurred in 16.4%: catheter-associated bacteraemia (5.7%), obstruction (5.7%), extravasation (2.1%) and phlebitis (2.1%), < 27 weeks of pregnancy (OR = 1.2, P = .02), birth weight < 1000 g (OR = 6.7, P = .02), with catheters in situ for longer than one week (OR = 9.8, P = .02) and with perfusion of antibiotics per catheter (OR = 1.3, P < .01). Phlebitis is associated with the insertion of the catheter in LL and head (OR = 1.1, P = .03). Factors associated with bacteraemia risk with adjusted prevalence odds ratio are extremely low birth weight neonates (OR = 6.38; P = .03) and with a catheter in situ for longer than one week (OR = 9.41; P = .04). Conclusions: The periodic evaluation of catheter-related adverse events is very useful to prepare improvement plans. This will maximize safety for the most vulnerable newborns, especially those of extremely low birth weight that require very long treatments


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Flebite/prevenção & controle , Intervalos de Confiança
2.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 30(2): 72-77, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182962

RESUMO

Introducción: El retraso en la expulsión de meconio es una causa de obstrucción intestinal en el recién nacido (RN) extremadamente prematuro (< 28 SEG) con un peso inferior a 1.500 g al nacimiento. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento conservador en la prevención de la obstrucción meconial en RN prematuros de muy bajo peso. Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales de un hospital de nivel terciario. Se incluyó a todos los RN prematuros extremos de bajo peso que nacieron durante el periodo del estudio, desde agosto del 2016 hasta enero del 2017, y que presentaban obstrucción meconial. Resultados: Se obtuvo una muestra de 42 RN. Respecto a la expulsión de meconio, un 57,1% de la muestra expulsó meconio de forma espontánea, mientras que un 42,9% recibió los diferentes tratamientos conservadores. De estos, un 72,2% fueron tratados con enemas de suero fisiológico. Del 27,8% restante, un 16% con enemas de N-acetilcisteína, 16% con Gastrografin(R) y ninguno precisó tratamiento quirúrgico. Conclusión: El tratamiento conservador parece ser una medida terapéutica efectiva para la prevención de la obstrucción meconial en los RN prematuros de muy bajo peso, ya que logró la expulsión de meconio sin tener que aplicar tratamiento quirúrgico


Introduction: Delayed meconium expulsion is a cause of bowel obstruction in the extremely premature newborn (< 28 WGE) weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment in the prevention of meconium obstruction in very-low-birt- weight preterm infants. Method: Descriptive and retrospective study performed at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary level hospital. All very-low-birth-weight preterm infants who were born during the study period, from August 2016 to January 2017, and who had meconium obstruction were included. Results: A sample of 42 newborn infants was obtained. Regarding the expulsion of meconium, 57.1% of the sample spontaneously ejected meconium, while 42.9% received different treatments. Of these, 72.2% were treated with saline enemas, 16% with acetylcysteine enemas, 16% with Gastrografin(R) and none required surgical treatment. Conclusion: Conservative treatment seems to be an effective therapeutic measure for the prevention of meconium obstruction in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants since it achieved the expulsion of meconium without having to apply surgical treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obstrução Intestinal/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Resultado do Tratamento , Mecônio , Obstrução Intestinal/enfermagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Enema/enfermagem , Diagnóstico Precoce
3.
Enferm Intensiva ; 30(2): 72-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delayed meconium expulsion is a cause of bowel obstruction in the extremely premature newborn (<28 WGE) weighing less than 1500g at birth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment in the prevention of meconium obstruction in very-low-birt- weight preterm infants. METHOD: Descriptive and retrospective study performed at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary level hospital. All very-low-birth-weight preterm infants who were born during the study period, from August 2016 to January 2017, and who had meconium obstruction were included. RESULTS: A sample of 42 newborn infants was obtained. Regarding the expulsion of meconium, 57.1% of the sample spontaneously ejected meconium, while 42.9% received different treatments. Of these, 72.2% were treated with saline enemas, 16% with acetylcysteine enemas, 16% with Gastrografin® and none required surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: Conservative treatment seems to be an effective therapeutic measure for the prevention of meconium obstruction in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants since it achieved the expulsion of meconium without having to apply surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/prevenção & controle , Mecônio , Protocolos Clínicos , Tratamento Conservador , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Enferm Intensiva ; 30(4): 170-180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters have become a priority in infants who require long-term intravenous therapy, but their use involves certain risks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the occurrence of adverse events in newborns with peripherally inserted central catheters and to determine the risk factors associated with them. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed and performed. All neonates with peripherally inserted central catheters from October 1st, 2014 to September 30th, 2015 were included. The adverse events and sociodemographic and clinical variables related to neonates and analyzed catheters were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 140 catheters were placed in 116 infants. All of them were analyzed. Adverse events occurred in 16.4%: catheter-associated bacteraemia (5.7%), obstruction (5.7%), extravasation (2.1%) and phlebitis (2.1%), <27weeks of pregnancy (OR=1.2, P=.02), birth weight <1000g (OR=6.7, P=.02), with catheters in situ for longer than one week (OR=9.8, P=.02) and with perfusion of antibiotics per catheter (OR=1.3, P<.01). Phlebitis is associated with the insertion of the catheter in LL and head (OR=1.1, P=.03). Factors associated with bacteraemia risk with adjusted prevalence odds ratio are extremely low birth weight neonates (OR=6.38; P=.03) and with a catheter in situ for longer than one week (OR=9.41; P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: The periodic evaluation of catheter-related adverse events is very useful to prepare improvement plans. This will maximize safety for the most vulnerable newborns, especially those of extremely low birth weight that require very long treatments.

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