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1.
Pediatr Res ; 87(2): 391-398, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666689

RESUMO

Improved intensive care therapies have increased the survival of children born preterm. Yet, many preterm children experience long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Indeed, preterm birth remains a leading cause of lifelong neurodevelopmental disability globally, posing significant challenges to the child, family, and society. Neurodevelopmental disability in children born preterm is traditionally linked to acquired brain injuries such as white matter injury and to impaired brain maturation resulting from neonatal illness such as chronic lung disease. Socioeconomic status (SES) has long been recognized to contribute to variation in outcome in children born preterm. Recent brain imaging data in normative term-born cohorts suggest that lower SES itself predicts alterations in brain development, including the growth of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Recent evidence in children born preterm suggests that the response to early-life brain injuries is modified by the socioeconomic circumstances of children and families. Exciting new data points to the potential of more favorable SES circumstances to mitigate the impact of neonatal brain injury. This review addresses emerging evidence suggesting that SES modifies the relationship between early-life exposures, brain injury, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born preterm. Better understanding these relationships opens new avenues for research with the ultimate goal of promoting optimal outcomes for those children born preterm at highest risk of neurodevelopmental consequence.

2.
Pediatr Radiol ; 50(2): 234-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation can be measured accurately by MRI. However, two-dimensional (2-D) cranial US can be used at the bedside on a daily basis. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the ventricular volume can be determined accurately using US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 31 preterm infants with germinal matrix intraventricular haemorrhage. Two-dimensional cranial US images were acquired and the ventricular index, anterior horn width and thalamo-occipital distance were measured. In addition, cranial MRI was performed. The ventricular volume on MRI was determined using a previously validated automatic segmentation algorithm. We obtained the correlation and created a linear model between MRI-derived ventricular volume and 2-D cranial US measurements. RESULTS: The ventricular index, anterior horn width and thalamo-occipital distance as measured on 2-D cranial US were significantly associated with the volume of the ventricles as determined with MRI. A general linear model fitted the data best: ∛ventricular volume (ml) = 1.096 + 0.094 × anterior horn width (mm) + 0.020 × thalamo-occipital distance (mm) with R2 = 0.831. CONCLUSION: The volume of the lateral ventricles of infants with germinal matrix intraventricular haemorrhage can be estimated using 2-D cranial US images by application of a model.

5.
Cardiol Young ; 29(11): 1414-1415, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566150

RESUMO

In Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection, the early identification of infants at risk for severe disease in order to potentially decrease morbidity could be considered a major goal. Current guidelines recommend only clinical observation for this purpose in infants without known comorbidities. However, recent evidence shows that the presence of pulmonary hypertension in this population is a relevant risk factor for the development of a severe illness, even in healthy infants. The determination of plasmatic NT-proBNP levels could help to identify those cases that benefit of echocardiographic screening to detect pulmonary hypertension in this population during hospitalization.

6.
Neurology ; 93(13): e1231-e1240, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple imaging rule to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4.5 years in a cohort of preterm neonates with white matter injury (WMI) based on lesion location and examine whether clinical variables enhance prediction. METHODS: Sixty-eight preterm neonates born 24-32 weeks' gestation (median 27.7 weeks) were diagnosed with WMI on early brain MRI scans (median 32.3 weeks). 3D T1-weighted images of 60 neonates with 4.5-year outcomes were reformatted and aligned to the posterior commissure-eye plane and WMI was classified by location: anterior or posterior-only to the midventricle line on the reformatted axial plane. Adverse outcomes at 4.5 years were defined as Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence full-scale IQ <85, cerebral palsy, or Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition percentile <5. The prediction of adverse outcome by WMI location, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Six children had adverse cognitive outcomes and 17 had adverse motor outcomes. WMI location predicted cognitive outcomes in 90% (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.80) and motor outcomes in 85% (AUC 0.75). Adding IVH, BPD, and ROP to the model enhances the predictive strength for cognitive and motor outcomes (AUC 0.83 and 0.88, respectively). Rule performance was confirmed in an independent cohort of children with WMI. CONCLUSIONS: WMI on early MRI can be classified by location to predict preschool age outcomes in children born preterm. The predictive value of this WMI classification is enhanced by considering clinical factors apparent by term-equivalent age.

7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357664

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether the presence of left ventricular myocardial dysfunction (LVMD) assessed by Tei index (LVTX) impacts the outcomes of healthy infants with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis (RSVB). To explore whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) increases the accuracy of traditional clinical markers in predicting the outcomes. METHODS: A single-centre, prospective, cohort study including healthy infants aged 1-12 months old admitted for RSVB between 1 October 2016 and 1 April 2017. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic evaluation within 24 h of admission. Paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission was defined as severe disease. RESULTS: We enrolled 50 cases of RSVB (median age of 2 (1-6.5) months; 40% female) and 50 age-matched controls. We observed higher values of LVTX in infants with RSVB than in controls (0.42 vs. 0.36; p = 0.008). Up to nine (18%) children presented with LVMD (LVTX > 0.5), with a higher incidence of PICU admission (89% vs. 5%; p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP in predicting LVMD was high (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) 0.95, CI 95% 0.90-1). The diagnostic yield of the predictive model for PICU admission that included NT-proBNP was excellent (AUC 0.945, CI 95% 0.880-1), and significantly higher than the model without NT-proBNP (p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: LVMD could be present in healthy infants with RSVB who develop severe disease. NT-proBNP seems to improve traditional clinical markers for outcomes.

8.
Biomark Med ; 13(8): 605-618, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157543

RESUMO

Aim: To explore NT-proBNP as biomarker for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSVI). Patients & methods: We prospectively enrolled 93 healthy infants with RSVI aged 1-12 months. NT-proBNP determination and echocardiography were performed at admission. Results: PH was found in 22% of patients and associated with a severe course of the disease. NT-proBNP >1635 pg/ml resulted an independent predictor for PH (odds ratio: 16.46 [95% CI: 4.10-66; p < 0.001]). The diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP to detect PH in RSVI was high (area under receiver operator curve of 0.932 [95% CI: 0.883-0.981; p < 0.001]). Conclusions: The presence of PH in healthy infants with RSVI is associated with worse outcomes. NT-proBNP resulted an accurate biomarker for PH in this setting.

9.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(6): 1165-1170, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175403

RESUMO

The objective is to examine the correlation between plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographic parameters in the first 28 days of life in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI). VLBWI admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Hospital Puerta del Mar, Spain, from January 2015 to January 2017 were prospectively enrolled. Weekly determination of plasma NT-proBNP (pg/mL), and echocardiograms were done during the first 28 days of life. 101 preterm infants with a mean GA of 28.85 weeks (± 1.85 SD) and mean birth weight of 1152 g (± 247.4 SD) were included. A total of 483 echocardiograms and 139 NT-proBNP determinations were performed. We found a negative correlation between plasma NT-proBNP levels and diastolic velocities: mitral A' (ρ = - 0.15, p = 0.04), mitral E' (ρ = - 0.17, p = 0.02), tricuspid A' (ρ = - 0.20, p = 0.006), tricuspid E' (ρ = - 0.24, p = 0.0009). In the first 24 h of life, NT-proBNP levels were strongly correlated with mitral A' and E' velocities in patients with no patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (ρ = - 0.75, p = 0.04). In preterm patients, elevated NT-proBNP levels are related to worse diastolic myocardial function. In the first 24 h, this correlation is much stronger in the absence of PDA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/genética , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue
10.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 90(6): 401.e1-401.e5, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3909

RESUMO

El cuidado del cordón umbilical hasta su desprendimiento continúa siendo motivo de controversia en la actualidad. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda en su última revisión realizar la cura en seco en países con cuidados obstétricos adecuados y una tasa baja de mortalidad neonatal. Por otro lado, en los últimos años han surgido nuevos estudios y revisiones que atribuyen un beneficio a aplicar clorhexidina tópica en el muñón. El presente documento analiza la evidencia disponible y concluye en la conveniencia de continuar recomendando la cura en seco en los nacimientos de nuestro entorno


The care of the umbilical cord until its detachment still remains controversial. The latest updated recommendations by the World Health Organisation advocate dry cord care in those countries with adequate obstetric care and low neonatal mortality rate. In recent years, new studies and reviews attribute some benefit to applying chlorhexidine on the umbilical stump. An analysis is presented here of the available evidence and results in the advisability of still recommending the dry cord care in the newborns in our setting

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e192914, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050776

RESUMO

Importance: Studies of socioeconomic status and neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm neonates have not sensitively accounted for brain injury. Objective: To determine the association of brain injury and maternal education with motor and cognitive outcomes at age 4.5 years in very preterm neonates. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of preterm neonates (24-32 weeks' gestation) recruited August 16, 2006, to September 9, 2013, at British Columbia Women's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis of 4.5-year outcome was performed in 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: At age 4.5 years, full-scale IQ assessed using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition, and motor outcome by the percentile score on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Results: Of 226 survivors, neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in 170 (80 [47.1%] female). Based on the best model to assess full-scale IQ accounting for gestational age, standardized ß coefficients demonstrated the effect size of maternal education (standardized ß = 0.21) was similar to that of white matter injury volume (standardized ß = 0.23) and intraventricular hemorrhage (standardized ß = 0.23). The observed and predicted cognitive scores in preterm children born to mothers with postgraduate education did not differ in those with and without brain injury. The best-performing model to assess for motor outcome accounting for gestational age included being small for gestational age, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, white matter injury volume, and chronic lung disease. Conclusions and Relevance: At preschool age, cognitive outcome was comparably associated with maternal education and neonatal brain injury. The association of brain injury with poorer cognition was attenuated in children born to mothers of higher education level, suggesting opportunities to promote optimal outcomes.

12.
Neonatology ; 116(1): 76-84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic interventions to improve the efficacy of whole-body cooling for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are desirable. Topiramate has been effective in reducing brain damage in experimental studies. However, in the clinical setting information is limited to a small number of feasibility trials. We launched a randomized controlled double-blinded topiramate/placebo multicenter trial with the primary objective being to reduce the antiepileptic activity in cooled neonates with HIE and assess if brain damage would be reduced as a consequence. STUDY DESIGN: Neonates were randomly assigned to topiramate or placebo at the initiation of hypothermia. Topiramate was administered via a nasogastric tube. Brain electric activity was continuously monitored. Topiramate pharmacokinetics, energy-related and Krebs' cycle intermediates, and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and MRI for assessing brain damage. RESULTS: Out of 180 eligible patients 110 were randomized, 57 (51.8%) to topiramate and 53 (48.2%) to placebo. No differences in the perinatal or postnatal variables were found. The topiramate group exhibited less seizure burden in the first 24 h of hypothermia (topiramate, n = 14 [25.9%] vs. placebo, n = 22 [42%]); needed less additional medication, and had lower mortality (topiramate, n = 5 [9.2%] vs. placebo, n = 10 [19.2%]); however, these results did not achieve statistical significance. Topiramate achieved a therapeutic range in 37.5 and 75.5% of the patients at 24 and 48 h, respectively. A significant association between serum topiramate levels and seizure activity (p < 0.016) was established. No differences for oxidative stress, energy-related metabolites, or MRI were found. CONCLUSIONS: Topiramate reduced seizures in patients achieving therapeutic levels in the first hours after treatment initiation; however, they represented only a part of the study population. Our results warrant further studies with higher loading and maintenance dosing of topiramate.

13.
Am J Perinatol ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of newborns diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and assess the influence of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and the severity of HIE. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively recruited infants ≥35 weeks of gestational age diagnosed with HIE from 2000 to 2013 and compared CRP levels in the first 120 hours of life according to the severity of HIE and the use of TH, which was introduced in 2009. RESULTS: Moderate HIE was diagnosed in 115 newborns, severe HIE in 90 (hypothermia was performed in 151 cases), and mild HIE in 20. Cooled newborns showed lower levels of CRP in the first 34 hours, but reached higher median maximum CRP levels (15.4 vs. 8.5 mg/L), and at a significantly older age (53 vs. 17 hours). Levels of CRP in mild HIE were lower than those of moderate-severe forms. Moderate and severe HIE had similar CRP levels, but time to maximum CRP was significantly less in moderate cases. CONCLUSION: CRP levels of mild HIE are similar to healthy newborns, while CRP elevations can be expected in newborns with moderate-severe HIE. TH produced a slower rise, with a higher and late maximum CRP peak level.

14.
Echocardiography ; 36(6): 1145-1152, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the variability between two trained neonatologists when performing consecutive echocardiograms using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and conventional methods in very low birth weight infant (VLBWI). METHODS: Two serial echocardiograms were performed in 30 VLBWI infants. The echocardiographic parameters analyzed were tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), A', E', and S' waves, and myocardial performance index acquired by TDI (MPI-TDI) of both ventricles and shortening fraction (SF). The intra-observer and inter-observer agreements and the intra-operator agreement were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative statistical methods. RESULTS: The intra-observer agreement was very good, TAPSE, and TDI-derived parameters had an intra-class correlation (ICC) > 0.8. TDI-derived velocities had a coefficient of variation (COV) < 11%, while MPI-TDI had a COV between 20%-28%. The inter-observer agreement was excellent. There was greater variability when analyzing intra-operator agreement, with the least variable parameter being TAPSE. According to PABAK, the variability presented moderately substantial agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is very reproducible between observers and operators. Measurements of TDI wave velocities are more reproducible than MPI-TDI. TDI is sufficiently reproducible in the VLBWI if adequate training is performed, and guidelines are followed to obtain standardized echocardiographic images.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Valva Tricúspide/fisiologia , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 90(6): 401.e1-401.e5, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971383

RESUMO

The care of the umbilical cord until its detachment still remains controversial. The latest updated recommendations by the World Health Organisation advocate dry cord care in those countries with adequate obstetric care and low neonatal mortality rate. In recent years, new studies and reviews attribute some benefit to applying chlorhexidine on the umbilical stump. An analysis is presented here of the available evidence and results in the advisability of still recommending the dry cord care in the newborns in our setting.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Cordão Umbilical , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
16.
J Pediatr ; 208: 191-197.e2, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of early and late intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation on additional brain injury and ventricular volume using term-equivalent age-MRI. STUDY DESIGN: In the Early vs Late Ventricular Intervention Study (ELVIS) trial, 126 preterm infants ≤34 weeks of gestation with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation were randomized to low-threshold (ventricular index >p97 and anterior horn width >6 mm) or high-threshold (ventricular index >p97 + 4 mm and anterior horn width >10 mm) groups. In 88 of those (80%) with a term-equivalent age-MRI, the Kidokoro Global Brain Abnormality Score and the frontal and occipital horn ratio were measured. Automatic segmentation was used for volumetric analysis. RESULTS: The total Kidokoro score of the infants in the low-threshold group (n = 44) was lower than in the high-threshold group (n = 44; median, 8 [IQR, 5-12] vs median 12 [IQR, 9-17], respectively; P < .001). More infants in the low-threshold group had a normal or mildly increased score vs more infants in the high-threshold group with a moderately or severely increased score (46% vs 11% and 89% vs 54%, respectively; P = .002). The frontal and occipital horn ratio was lower in the low-threshold group (median, 0.42 [IQR, 0.34-0.63]) than the high-threshold group (median 0.48 [IQR, 0.37-0.68], respectively; P = .001). Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volumes could be calculated in 47 infants and were smaller in the low-threshold group (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: More brain injury and larger ventricular volumes were demonstrated in the high vs the low-threshold group. These results support the positive effects of early intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN43171322.

17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(5): 755-761, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820654

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a severe complication of prematurity that impacts survival and neurodevelopment. Currently, no early marker exists which could help clinicians identify which preterm infants will develop BPD. Given the evidence that NTproBNP is elevated in children with BPD, we hypothesized that it could be used as an early marker of BPD development. We conducted a prospective cohort study including very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) admitted to our NICU between January 2015 and January 2017 in which we determined serial NTproBNP levels on days 1 and 3 and then weekly, until 49 days of life. A total of 101 patients were recruited (mean birth weight 1152 g (SD 247.5), mean gestational age 28.9 weeks (SD 1.9)). NTproBNP levels differed among infants who did and did not develop BPD from 14 to 35 days of life with the greatest difference on day 14 of life (non-BPD group (n = 86): 1155 (IQR 852-1908) pg/mL, BPD (n = 15): 9707 (IQR 3212-29,560) pg/mL; p = 0.0003). The presence of HsPDA did not account for higher levels of NTproBNP at day 14 (p = 0.165). We calculated an optimal cutoff point of 2264 pg/mL at 14 days of life (sensitivity 100%, specificity 86% and AUC 0.93).Conclusions: NTproBNP at 14 days of life could be used as an early marker of later BPD development in VLBWI. What is Known: • Children with BPD have elevated NTproBNP levels, which are related to the severity of BPD and the development of pulmonary hypertension. What is New: • NTproBNP at 14 days of life is higher in those who later develop BPD, regardless of the presence of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. • A calculated cutoff point of 2264 pg/mL of NTproBNP at 14 days has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86% in the prediction of BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Displasia Broncopulmonar/sangue , Displasia Broncopulmonar/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag ; 9(4): 243-250, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676288

RESUMO

Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides continuous, noninvasive assessment of the degree of hemoglobin saturation of the brain tissue. Previous studies suggest that high values of regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rScO2) during the first days in neonates with significant hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are correlated with an adverse neurological outcome. However, the results are not consistent among the studies. To examine the correlation of rScO2 values and their variability over time with HIE severity, amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) background and seizure activity, neuron-specific enolase levels in cerebrospinal fluid, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and neurological outcome. Retrospective study that included all consecutive infants with moderate-to-severe HIE born at ≥35 weeks gestational age admitted between January 2011 and December 2014. NIRS monitoring was initiated at admission and maintained during therapeutic hypothermia up to 12 hours after rewarming. To analyze rScO2, different periods (0-6, 6-24, 24-48, 48-72, and 72-100 hours of life) and three ranges (<55%, 55-90%, >90%) were considered. Variability in each patient was considered ≤5% when changes in rScO2 values in all periods were ≤5%. Twenty-three newborns were included. Infants who suffered from severe HIE, seizures, abnormal aEEG background, altered MRI or death, and abnormal outcome had rScO2 values >90% and with less variability (≤5%). rScO2 values >90% and a lack of variability over time in infants with HIE during cooling provide useful information about the severity of neurological status.

20.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(1): F70-F75, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare a low versus a higher threshold for intervention in preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN43171322). SETTING: 14 neonatal intensive care units in six countries. PATIENTS: 126 preterm infants ≤34 weeks gestation with ventricular dilatation after grade III-IV haemorrhage were randomised to low threshold (LT) (ventricular index (VI) >p97 and anterior horn width (AHW) >6 mm) or higher threshold (HT) (VI>p97+4 mm and AHW >10 mm). INTERVENTION: Cerebrospinal fluid tapping by lumbar punctures (LPs) (max 3), followed by taps from a ventricular reservoir, to reduce VI, and eventually a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt if stabilisation of the VI below the p97+4 mm did not occur. COMPOSITE MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: VP shunt or death. RESULTS: 19 of 64 (30%) LT infants and 23 of 62 (37%) HT infants were shunted or died (P=0.45). A VP shunt was inserted in 12/64 (19%) in the LT and 14/62 (23%) infants in the HT group. 7/12 (58%) LT infants and 1/14 (7%) HT infants required shunt revision (P<0.01). 62 of 64 (97%) LT infants and 36 of 62 (58%) HT infants had LPs (P<0.001). Reservoirs were inserted in 40 of 64 (62%) LT infants and 27 of 62 (43%) HT infants (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the primary composite outcome of VP shunt placement or death in infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation who were treated at a lower versus a higher threshold for intervention. Infants treated at the lower threshold received more invasive procedures. Assessment of neurodevelopmental outcomes will provide further important information in assessing the risks and benefits of the two treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/cirurgia , Doenças do Prematuro/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/métodos , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Punção Espinal
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