Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 136
Filtrar
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921036, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049294

RESUMO

Importance: Orofacial cleft (OFC) is one of the most common congenital malformations, with a wide variation in incidence worldwide. However, population-based studies on the incidence of OFC in North America are lacking. Objectives: To examine the incidence of OFC in Ontario, Canada, and to compare risk factors and mortality associated with children with OFC vs children without OFC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study used health administrative data from the province of Ontario, Canada. Children with OFC who were born from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2017, in Ontario were each matched to 5 children without OFC based on sex, date of birth (±30 days), and mother's age (±5 years). Analyses were conducted from September 2018 to January 2019. Exposures: Children born with OFC. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of OFC over time and regional variation. Risk factors for OFC were assessed using 1-way analysis of variance for means, Kruskal-Wallis for medians, and χ2 tests for categorical variables. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to assess mortality. Results: From 1994 to 2017, 3262 children were born with OFC in Ontario, Canada, and they were matched to 15 222 children born without OFC. Incidence of OFC in Ontario was 1.12 cases per 1000 live births, with wide geographic variation and a lower incidence from 2004 to 2017 compared with 1994 to 2003 (1.02 vs 1.13 cases per 1000 live births; P = .002), especially for the subgroup with cleft palate (0.52 vs 0.44 cases per 1000 live births; P = .006). Children with OFC, compared with children without OFC, were more likely to be born prematurely (406 children [13.3%] vs 1086 children [7.1%]; P < .001; standardized difference, 0.21) and had lower mean (SD) birth weight (3215.3 [687.6] g vs 3382.6 [580.0] g; P < .001; standardized difference, 0.26). The mortality rate among children with OFC was higher than among matched children without OFC (hazard ratio, 10.60; 95% CI, 7.79-14.44; P < .001). When mortality was adjusted for the presence of congenital or chromosomal anomalies, the risk of death was not significantly different between children with OFC and those without OFC (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.73-2.72). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that incidence of OFC In Ontario, Canada, decreased from 1994 to 2017. Mortality in children with OFC was high, especially in the first 2 years of life, and was predominantly associated with the presence of other congenital or chromosomal anomalies. Further research is required to better understand the causes of wide geographical variations of OFC incidence and improve the survival of these patients.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 157, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major cause of hospitalization in young children in Canada, despite routine immunoprophylaxis in those with medical risk factors. We aimed to determine if cold temperatures are associated with RSV hospitalization. METHODS: We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of children in Ontario, Canada, using health administrative data. We compared children hospitalized for RSV between September 1, 2011 and August 31, 2012 to age and sex matched controls. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify associations between minimum daily temperature and RSV hospitalizations with adjustment for sociodemographic and environmental factors. RESULTS: We identified 1670 children with RSV hospitalizations during the study period and 6680 matched controls. Warmer temperatures (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.95) were associated with lower odds of RSV hospitalization. Southern ecozone (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.2, 2.1), increased ozone concentration (OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.06) and living in a lower income neighbourhood (OR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.5) significantly increased the odds of RSV hospitalization, as did living in a household with a larger number of siblings in a sub-cohort of children (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.26, 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: In Ontario, the likelihood of having an RSV hospitalization is associated with colder temperature exposures and socioeconomic factors.

4.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during hospitalization. It is unclear if this association persists after discharge. We aimed to assess the incidence of postdischarge VTE in IBD patients and to determine if IBD is associated with increased VTE risk. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study between 2002 and 2016 using Ontario health administrative data sets. Hospitalized (≥72 hours) adults with IBD were stratified into nonsurgical and surgical cohorts and matched on propensity score to non-IBD controls. Time to postdischarge VTE was assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods, and VTE risk was assessed by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 81,900 IBD discharges (62,848 nonsurgical and 19,052 surgical) were matched to non-IBD controls. The cumulative incidence of VTE at 12 months after discharge was 2.3% for nonsurgical IBD patients and 1.6% for surgical IBD patients. The incidence increased in the nonsurgical IBD cohort by 4% per year (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). In our propensity score-matched analysis, the risk of VTE at 1-month postdischarge was greater in nonsurgical IBD patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.51-1.96) and surgical patients with ulcerative colitis (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.16-2.45) but not surgical patients with Crohn's disease. These trends persisted through 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Nonsurgical IBD patients and surgical patients with ulcerative colitis are 1.7-fold more likely to develop postdischarge VTE than non-IBD patients. These findings support the need for increased vigilance and consideration of thromboprophylaxis in this population.

5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(1): 128-137, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. The total direct costs of IBD have not been assessed on a population-wide level in the era of biologic therapy. DESIGN: We identified all persons with IBD in Manitoba between 2005 and 2015, with each matched to 10 controls on age, sex, and area of residence. We enumerated all hospitalizations, outpatient visits and prescription medications including biologics, and their associated direct costs. Total and per capita annual IBD-attributable costs and health care utilization (HCU) were determined by taking the difference between the costs/HCU accrued by an IBD case and their controls. Generalized linear modeling was used to evaluate trends in direct costs and Poisson regression for trends in HCU. RESULTS: The number of people with IBD in Manitoba increased from 6,323 to 7,603 between 2005 and 2015. The total per capita annual costs attributable to IBD rose from $3,354 in 2005 to $7,801 in 2015, primarily driven by an increase in per capita annual anti-tumor necrosis factor costs, which rose from $181 in 2005 to $5,270 in 2015. There was a significant decline in inpatient costs for CD ($99 ± 25/yr. P < 0.0001), but not for ulcerative colitis ($8 increase ±$18/yr, P = 0.63). DISCUSSION: The direct health care costs attributable to IBD have more than doubled over the 10 years between 2005 and 2015, driven mostly by increasing expenditures on biological medications. IBD-attributable hospitalization costs have declined modestly over time for persons with CD, although no change was seen for patients with ulcerative colitis.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(2): 206-215, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a chronic noncurable disorder often diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) confers a significant financial lifetime burden. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the disease-associated costs (both direct and indirect) associated with IBD in children and young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and included any study reporting direct health services-related costs or the indirect economic burden of IBD in persons aged ≤19 years (PROSPERO protocol number CRD2016036128). A technical panel of experts in pediatric gastroenterology and research methodology formulated the review questions, reviewed the search strategies and review methods, and provided input throughout the review process. RESULTS: Nine studies met criteria for inclusion, 6 of which examined direct costs, 1 of which examined both direct and indirect costs, 1 of which assessed indirect costs, and 1 of which assessed out-of-pocket (OOP) costs. Inflammatory bowel disease-associated costs were significantly higher compared with costs in non-IBD populations, with wide variations in cost estimates, which prevented us from conducting a meta-analysis. Costs in Crohn's disease were higher than in ulcerative colitis. Overall, direct costs shifted from inpatient hospitalization as a major source of direct costs to medications, mainly driven by anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, as the leading cause of direct costs. Predictors of high costs included uncontrolled disease, corticosteroid treatment in the previous year, and comorbidity burden. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric literature examining IBD-attributable costs is limited, with widely variable cost estimates. There is a significant knowledge gap in the research surrounding indirect costs and OOP expenses.

7.
Gut ; 69(2): 274-282, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To better understand the real-world impact of biologic therapy in persons with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), we evaluated the effect of marketplace introduction of infliximab on the population rates of hospitalisations and surgeries and public payer drug costs. DESIGN: We used health administrative data to study adult persons with CD and UC living in Ontario, Canada between 1995 and 2012. We used an interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis to evaluate the impact of infliximab introduction on the rates of IBD-related hospitalisations, intestinal resections and public payer drug costs over 10 years among patients with CD and 5 years among patients with UC, allowing for a 1-year transition. RESULTS: Relative to what would have been expected in the absence of infliximab, marketplace introduction of infliximab did not produce significant declines in the rates of CD-related hospitalisations (OR at the last observation quarter 1.06, 95% CI 0.811 to 1.39) or intestinal resections (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.810 to 1.50), or in the rates of UC-related hospitalisations (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.39) or colectomies (OR 0.933, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.61). The findings were similar among infliximab users, except that hospitalisation rates declined substantially among UC patients following marketplace introduction of infliximab (OR 0.515, 95% CI 0.342 to 0.777). There was a threefold rise over expected trends in public payer drug cost among patients with CD following infliximab introduction (OR 2.98,95% CI 2.29 to 3.86), suggesting robust market penetration in this group, but no significant change among patients with UC (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.955 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Marketplace introduction of infliximab has not yielded anticipated reductions in the population rates of IBD-related hospitalisations or intestinal resections, despite robust market penetration among patients with CD. Misguided use of infliximab in CD patients and underuse of infliximab in UC patients may largely explain our study findings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , /uso terapêutico , Adulto , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/tendências , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(1): 134-138, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies examining the prevalence of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antagonist utilization in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are lacking. We aimed to describe the trend of anti-TNF utilization in pediatric IBD over time. METHODS: Survival analyses were performed for all patients diagnosed with IBD before age 18 years in the province of Manitoba to determine the time from diagnosis to first anti-TNF prescription in different time eras (2005-2008, 2008-2012, 2012-2016). RESULTS: There were 291 persons diagnosed with IBD (157 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 134 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) over the study period. The likelihood of being initiated on an anti-TNF by 1, 2, and 5 years postdiagnosis was 18.4%, 30.5%, and 42.6%, respectively. The proportion of persons aged <18 years utilizing anti-TNFs rose over time; in 2010, 13.0% of CD and 4.9% of UC; by 2016, 60.0% of CD and 25.5% of UC. For those diagnosed after 2012, 42.5% of CD and 28.4% of UC patients had been prescribed an anti-TNF antagonist within 12 months of IBD diagnosis. Initiating an anti-TNF without prior exposure to an immunosuppressive agent increased over time (before 2008: 0%; 2008-2012: 18.2%; 2012-2016: 42.8%; P < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in median cumulative dose of corticosteroids (CS) in the year before anti-TNF initiation (2005-2008: 4360 mg; 2008-2012: 2010 mg; 2012-2016: 1395 mg prednisone equivalents; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over a period of 11 years, anti-TNFs are being used earlier in the course of pediatric IBD, with a parallel reduction in the cumulative CS dose.

10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Originally used for screening of inborn errors of metabolism, routine metabolite profiles of newborns have also been associated with prematurity and some childhood diseases. We sought to determine whether metabolites measured during routine newborn screening could identify infants who develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted a population-based matched case-control study using health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Children born 2006 to 2015 with IBD were identified using a validated algorithm and matched to 5 controls based on birth date, sex, rural/urban household, and mean neighborhood income quintile at birth. Cases and controls were linked deterministically to metabolic profiles from Newborn Screening Ontario. We fit a lasso penalized logistic regression model and used 10-fold cross-validation to obtain internally valid performance measures. Models included metabolites, amino acids, and endocrine markers. Models also included ratios of metabolites, gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, age at serum collection, maternal age at delivery, maternal history of IBD, and parity. RESULTS: Three hundred eight cases of IBD, diagnosed at 5.5 ± 2.8 years, were matched to 1540 controls. No individual metabolites were associated with IBD. The c-statistic was 0.50 for the training data. After 10-fold cross-validation the C statistic was 0.50, indicating no significant association between metabolites and IBD diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Newborn screening serum metabolites could not identify children who will develop IBD in this population-based cohort. Future studies with an expanded panel of metabolites may provide improved prediction of IBD.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common reason for liver transplant in childhood, and outcomes worsen with older age at hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE). We determined direct health care costs in children with BA, compared to controls in a population-based cohort of children in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We used health administrative data to identify all children diagnosed with BA between 2002 and 2016 (n = 121) and matched controls (n = 602). We determined annual direct healthcare costs, and rates of health services utilization, liver transplantation, death, portal hypertension, cirrhosis, esophageal varices, and major upper gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization. Multivariable regression models determined the association between age at HPE, risk of liver transplant, and direct costs. RESULTS: Incidence of BA was 6.07 (4.99-7.15) per 100,000 live births. The annual median (interquartile range, IQR) direct health care costs were higher in BA cases ($4,210; IQR $1,091-$16,765) compared to controls ($283; $112-$634). Compared to age at HPE <45d, there was no significant association between direct costs and HPE ≥90d (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.78-1.97) or 45-90d (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.73-1.50). Age at HPE ≥90 days was significantly associated with risk of undergoing liver transplant compared to age <45 days (HR 5.27, 95% CI 2.45-11.34). Direct costs were higher in BA patients who underwent liver transplantation compared to those who did not ($39,476±$84,367 vs. $22,579 ±â€Š$67,913) CONCLUSIONS:: Direct health care costs were high in patients with BA, especially in those who underwent liver transplantation. Age at HPE was associated with risk of liver transplantation, but not direct healthcare costs, utilization, or other risk outcomes.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(11): e13687, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health researchers are increasingly using social media in a professional capacity, and the applications of social media for health researchers are vast. However, there is currently no published evidence synthesis of the ways in which health researchers use social media professionally, and uncertainty remains as to how best to harness its potential. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed to explore how social media is used by health researchers professionally, as reported in the literature. METHODS: The scoping review methodology guided by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al was used. Comprehensive searches based on the concepts of health research and social media were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Web of Science databases, with no limitations applied. Articles were screened at the title and abstract level and at full text by two reviewers. One reviewer extracted data that were analyzed descriptively to map the available evidence. RESULTS: A total of 8359 articles were screened at the title and abstract level, of which 719 were also assessed at full text for eligibility. The 414 articles identified for inclusion were published in 278 different journals. Studies originated from 31 different countries, with the most prevalent being the United States (52.7% [218/414]). The health discipline of the first authors varied, with medicine (33.3% [138/414]) being the most common. A third of the articles covered health generally, with 61 health-specific topics. Papers used a range of social media platforms (mean 1.33 [SD 0.7]). A quarter of the articles screened reported on social media use for participant recruitment (25.1% [104/414]), followed by practical ways to use social media (15.5% [64/414]), and use of social media for content analysis research (13.3% [55/414]). Articles were categorized as celebratory (ie, opportunities for engagement, 72.2% [299/414]), contingent (ie, opportunities and possible limitations, 22.7% [94/414]) and concerned (ie, potentially harmful, 5.1% [21/414]). CONCLUSIONS: Health researchers are increasingly publishing on their use of social media for a range of professional purposes. Although most of the sentiment around the use of social media in health research was celebratory, the uses of social media varied widely. Future research is needed to support health researchers to optimize their social media use.

13.
Clin Epidemiol ; 11: 833-843, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572014

RESUMO

Background: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood with a worldwide incidence that is increasing by 3-5% per year. The incidence of type 2 diabetes, traditionally viewed as an adult disease, is increasing at alarming rates in children, paralleling the rise in childhood obesity. As the rates of diabetes increase in children, accurate population-based assessment of disease burden is important for those implementing strategies for health services delivery. Health administrative data are a powerful tool that can be used to track disease burden, health services use, and health outcomes. Case validation is essential in ensuring accurate disease identification using administrative databases. Aim: The aim of our study was to define and validate a pediatric diabetes case ascertainment algorithm (including any form of childhood-onset diabetes) using health administrative data. Research design and methods: We conducted a two-stage method using linked health administrative data and data extracted from charts. In stage 1, we linked chart data from a large urban region to health administrative data and compared the diagnostic accuracy of various algorithms. We selected those that performed the best to be validated in stage 2. In stage 2, the most accurate algorithms were validated with chart data within two other geographic areas in the province of Quebec. Results: Accurate identification of diabetes in children (ages ≤15 years) required four physician claims or one hospitalization (with International Classification of Disease codes within 1 year (sensitivity 91.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 89.2-92.9]; positive predictive value [PPV] 93.5%, 95% CI 91.7-95.0) or using only four physician claims in 2 years (sensitivity 90.4%, 95% CI 88.3-92.2; PPV 93.2%, 95% CI 91.7-95.0). Separating the physician claims by 30 days increased the PPV of all algorithms tested. Conclusion: Patients with child-onset diabetes can be accurately identified within health administrative databases providing a valid source of information for health care resource planning and evaluation.

14.
Healthc Q ; 22(2): 6-9, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556371

RESUMO

Canada has one of the highest rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the world, with 1 in 140 Canadians currently living with the disease. IBD occurs less often among individuals living in rural households. This protective effect is particularly pronounced in young children, and early-life exposure to the rural environment greatly reduces the risk. However, individuals living in rural areas who have IBD have decreased access to specialist gastroenterology care.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(3): e35-e63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294379

RESUMO

Background & Aims: We aim to provide guidance for medical treatment of luminal Crohn's disease in children. Methods: We performed a systematic search of publication databases to identify studies of medical management of pediatric Crohn's disease. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. We developed statements through an iterative online platform and then finalized and voted on them. Results: The consensus includes 25 statements focused on medical treatment options. Consensus was not reached, and no recommendations were made, for 14 additional statements, largely due to lack of evidence. The group suggested corticosteroid therapies (including budesonide for mild to moderate disease). The group suggested exclusive enteral nutrition for induction therapy and biologic tumor necrosis factor antagonists for induction and maintenance therapy at diagnosis or at early stages of severe disease, and for patients failed by steroid and immunosuppressant induction therapies. The group recommended against the use of oral 5-aminosalicylate for induction or maintenance therapy in patients with moderate disease, and recommended against thiopurines for induction therapy, corticosteroids for maintenance therapy, and cannabis in any role. The group was unable to clearly define the role of concomitant immunosuppressants during initiation therapy with a biologic agent, although thiopurine combinations are not recommended for male patients. No consensus was reached on the role of aminosalicylates in treatment of patients with mild disease, antibiotics or vedolizumab for induction or maintenance therapy, or methotrexate for induction therapy. Patients in clinical remission who are receiving immunomodulators should be assessed for mucosal healing within 1 year of treatment initiation. Conclusions: Evidence-based medical treatment of Crohn's disease in children is recommended, with thorough ongoing assessments to define treatment success.

16.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(Suppl 1): S1-S5, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294380

RESUMO

Canada has among the highest rates of IBD in the world, and the number of people living with these disorders is growing rapidly. This has placed a high burden on the health care system and on the Canadian economy-a burden that is only expected to grow in the future. It is important to understand IBD and its impact on Canadian society in order to appropriately plan for health care expenditures, reduce the burden on patients and their families, and improve the quality of life for those afflicted with IBD. In Canada, there is a lack of public awareness of the impact of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Raising awareness is crucial to reducing the social stigma that is common with these diseases and to help individuals maximize their overall quality of life. A better public understanding of IBD can also help to raise and direct funds for research, which could lead to improved treatments and, ultimately, to a cure. This report from Canadian clinicians and researchers to Crohn's and Colitis Canada makes recommendations aimed at the public, policy-makers, scientific funding agencies, charitable foundations and patients regarding future directions for advocacy efforts and areas to emphasize for research spending. The report also identifies gaps in knowledge in the fields of clinical, health systems and epidemiological research.

17.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(Suppl 1): S6-S16, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294381

RESUMO

Canada has among the highest incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the world. After decades of rising incidence of IBD in Canada during the 20th Century, the prevalence of IBD in 2018 is 0.7% of the Canadian population. Forecasting models predict that prevalence of IBD will continue to rise to 1.0% of the population by 2030. In 2018, the number of Canadians living with IBD is approximately 270,000 and is predicted to rise to 403,000 Canadians in 2030. Inflammatory bowel disease affects all age groups with adolescents and young adults at highest risk of diagnosis. Canadians of all ethnicities are being diagnosed with IBD including known high-risk groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and offspring of South Asian immigrants who were previously thought to be low risk. Moreover, IBD has evolved into a global disease with rising incidence in newly industrialized countries in Asia and South America. The causes of IBD remain unsolved; however, the high rates of disease in Western countries and its emergence in newly industrialized countries suggest that environmental factors associated with urbanization, modernization, or Western diets may be pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Highlights: 1. Canada continues to have among the highest prevalence of IBD in the world.2. Today, approximately 270,000 Canadians live with IBD. By 2030 it is estimated that nearly 403,000 Canadians will have a diagnosis of IBD.3. Inflammatory bowel disease has become a worldwide disease with increasing rates in Asia, Africa, and South America-continents where IBD was rarely diagnosed prior to 1990.4. The causes of IBD are unknown, but the high rates of disease over the past 60 years in Western countries and the emergence of disease in developing countries suggest that factors associated with urbanization, modernization, or Western diets may be pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of the disease.5. Many of the leading hypotheses as to the causes of IBD tie in with alteration of the gut microbiome, the suite of organisms that reside in the bowel and maintain bowel health throughout life. Key Summary Points: 1. The incidence (the number of new diagnoses annually) of IBD rose throughout the 20th century in Canada and then stabilized at the turn of the 21st century.2. The prevalence (the total number of diagnosed persons in the population) of IBD in Canada is among the highest in the world.3. Today, 270,000 (0.7%, or 7 in 1000) Canadians are estimated to live with IBD. By 2030, that number is expected to rise to 403,000 Canadians (1% or 1 in 100).4. Inflammatory bowel disease can be diagnosed at any age. However, the age groups that are most likely to be diagnosed are adolescents and young adults from 20 to 30 years of age.5. Inflammatory bowel disease in Canada affects the lives of Canadians of all ethnicities, including known high-risk groups such as Ashkenazi Jews, and those thought previously to be at low risk, such as first-generation offspring of South Asian immigrants.6. Canadian health policy makers will need to prepare the Canadian health care system for the rising burden of IBD.7. As newly industrialized countries in Asia, Africa, and South America are transitioning to a Westernized society, IBD has emerged and its incidence in these countries is rising rapidly.8. The gut microbiome includes microorganisms that maintain digestive health. Thus, changes in the microbiome, which may change the immune system's response to triggers, may be important in initiating and perpetuating IBD.9. A number of factors can alter the gut microbiome and early childhood may be a particularly important time such that breastfeeding, early life diet, use of antibiotics, infections, and other environmental exposures may impact the gut microbiome in such a way that facilitates developing IBD.10. Smoking is associated with an increased risk and worsening disease course of Crohn's disease. Quitting smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing ulcerative colitis. Therefore, never initiating smoking can mitigate the risk for IBD. Educational programs aimed at those at-risk for IBD should emphasize the risk of starting to smoke tobacco.11. Modifying exposure to environmental risk factors associated with the Westernization of society (e.g., Western diet and lifestyles) may provide an avenue for reducing the risk of IBD in Canada and worldwide. Gaps in Knowledge and Future Directions: 1. While the incidence of IBD appears to be stabilizing in some regions in Canada, IBD may be occurring more frequently in certain populations such as in children, South Asians, Ashkenazi Jews, and immigrants. Future research should focus on the changing demographics of IBD in Canada.2. The prevalence of IBD will rise steadily over the next decade. To enable better health care system planning and to respond adequately to the increasing burden of IBD, ongoing surveillance of the epidemiology and health services utilization of IBD in Canada is necessary.3. Most studies have focused on the mortality associated with IBD. Future research is necessary to assess health-adjusted life expectancy and overall life expectancy for those living with IBD.4. Analyses of resources, infrastructure, and personnel need to be modeled into the future in order to prepare our health care system for the rising burden of IBD.5. Research on the interaction between genes, microbes, and our environment will inform our understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD, information necessary to prevent IBD in the future.

18.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(Suppl 1): S17-S33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294382

RESUMO

Direct health care costs of illness reflect the costs of medically necessary services and treatments paid for by public and private payers, including hospital-based care, outpatient physician consultations, prescription medications, diagnostic testing, complex continuing care, and home care. The costs of caring for persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been rising well above inflation over the past fifteen years in Canada, largely due to the introduction and penetration of expensive biologic therapies. Changing paradigms of care toward frequent patient monitoring and achievement of stricter endpoints for disease control have also increased health services utilization and costs among IBD patients. While the frequency and costs of surgeries and hospitalizations have declined slightly in parallel with increased biologic use (due to better overall disease control), the direct medical costs of care for IBD patients are largely dominated by prescription drug costs. Introduction and penetration of biosimilar agents (at a markedly lower price point than the originator drugs) and increasing gastroenterologist involvement in the care of IBD patients may help to balance rising health care costs while improving health outcomes and quality of life for IBD patients. Ultimately, however, the predicted rise in the prevalence of IBD over the next decade, combined with increasing use of expensive biologic therapies, will likely dictate a continued rise in the direct costs of IBD patient care in Canada for years to come. In 2018, direct health care costs of IBD are estimated to be at least $1 billion Canadian dollars (CAD) and possibly higher than $2 billion CAD. Highlights: 1. In Canada, the direct cost of caring for people living with IBD is estimated in 2018 to be close to $1.28 billion (roughly $4731 per person with IBD).2. The costs of caring for people living with IBD are dominated by prescription drugs, followed by hospitalization costs. There has been a shift away from hospitalizations and toward pharmaceuticals as the predominant driver of direct health care costs in IBD patients, due to the introduction and widespread use of expensive biologic therapies.3. The rates of hospitalizations and major abdominal surgeries have been declining in IBD patients in Canada over the past two decades, possibly due to penetration of biologic therapies and advances in patient management paradigms.4. Inflammatory bowel disease patients cared for by gastroenterologists have better outcomes, including lower risks of surgery and hospitalization. Canadians who live in rural and underserviced areas are less likely to receive gastroenterologist care, potentially due to care preferences or poorer access, which may result in poorer long-term outcomes.5. Introduction of biosimilar agents at a lower price point than originator biologic therapies, increased gastroenterologist care of IBD patients, and improvements in IBD care paradigms may balance overall treatment costs while improving health outcomes and quality of life for IBD patients. However, in the long-term, direct costs of care may continue to increase, dictated by a rising IBD prevalence and increasing use of biologic therapies. Key Summary Points: 1. The costs of health care for patients with IBD are more than double those without IBD.2. Prescription drug use accounts for 42% of total direct costs in IBD patients, and costs to treat IBD continue to rise due to increased use of existing biologic therapies and the introduction of several new biologic therapies in recent years.3. In Manitoba, the mean health care utilization and medication costs for persons with IBD in the year before beginning anti-TNF therapy was $10,206 and increased to $44,786 in the first year of therapy.4. Biosimilar agents to anti-TNF drugs are now entering the Canadian marketplace and may result in cost savings in patients using biologic agents to treat their IBD.5. Timely gastroenterologist care has been associated with reduced risks of requiring surgery and emergency care among ambulatory IBD patients and a reduced risk of death among hospitalized patients with ulcerative colitis.6. Inflammatory bowel disease care provided by gastroenterologists has increased over the past two decades. Even then, the average time from symptom onset to IBD diagnosis exceeds six months, and only one-third of IBD patients receive continuing care with a gastroenterologist during the first five years following diagnosis.7. Senior (age ≥65), rural-dwelling, and non-immigrant IBD patients have less frequent gastroenterologist care than other groups.8. About one in five adults with Crohn's disease and one in eight adults with ulcerative colitis are hospitalized in Ontario every year. Hospitalizations are most common during the first year following IBD diagnosis. Children with IBD (age <18) have the highest rates of hospitalizations and hospital re-admissions.9. In Canada, 16% of patients hospitalized for Crohn's disease undergo an intestinal resection, and 11% of patients hospitalized for ulcerative colitis undergo a colectomy during their initial hospitalization. Rates of intestinal resection and colectomy are declining in Canada in persons with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively.10. In Ontario, one-third of adult-onset Crohn's disease patients undergo intestinal resection within ten years of diagnosis. Among Canadian children with Crohn's disease, approximately one in fifteen children will require intestinal surgery within the first year of diagnosis, and up to one-third will require surgery within ten years of diagnosis.11. In Ontario, the ten-year colectomy risk following ulcerative colitis diagnosis is 13.3% among young persons and adults and 18.5% among individuals with senior-onset ulcerative colitis. In children with ulcerative colitis, the risk of colectomy is 4.8% to 6% in the first year following diagnosis and increases to 15% to 17% by ten years. Gaps in Knowledge and Future Directions: 1. Forecasting models are necessary to predict the rising costs attributable to biologics associated with increasing prevalence of IBD, more frequent use of these medications, and the introduction of newer agents.2. Research into ways to minimize the escalating costs associated with increasing use of biologic therapies to treat IBD (and other chronic diseases) is necessary to ensure sustainability of our publicly funded health care system. Biosimilars offer an opportunity to drive down the cost of biologic therapies, and future research should assess the uptake of biosimilars as new biosimilars are introduced into the marketplace.3. Cost-utility models and budget impact analyses that integrate changes in direct costs (i.e., reduced hospitalizations and increased pharmaceutical costs) with indirect cost savings from improved quality of life are necessary to inform policy decisions.4. Research into ways to reduce IBD hospitalizations further through targeted outpatient interventions is equally important for health system sustainability and to improve patient quality of life.5. Research into reasons for reduced gastroenterologist care among rural and underserviced IBD residents would allow targeted interventions to improve specialist care and thereby improve patient health outcomes and quality of life.

19.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(Suppl 1): S34-S41, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294383

RESUMO

The indirect cost of illness represents the portion of human capital that is foregone due to lost productivity of patients and their caregivers and out-of-pocket healthcare expenses borne directly by patients. Indirect costs among persons with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may be substantial because disease onset occurs during the teens and 20s for most persons and is lifelong. Thus, most persons with IBD are affected during periods of study or employment. The literature on indirect health-related costs among persons with IBD is limited, particularly with regard to Canadian studies. The greatest burden of indirect costs in this population relates to absenteeism and presenteeism among working individuals and premature retirement. However, costs related to reduced professional development and personal achievement due to illness-as well as caregiver costs-are largely unknown. After being extrapolated from multiple sources, the total indirect health-related cost of IBD in Canada in 2018 is estimated to be $1.29 billion Canadian dollars. Notably, this may be a significant underestimate because costs relating to presenteeism, reduced achievement and caregiver burden could not be estimated and are excluded from this calculation. Highlights: Indirect costs account for a major portion of total healthcare costs among persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and are higher than indirect costs among persons without IBD.Persons with IBD are more likely to require time off work (absenteeism) and have reduced productivity at work (presenteeism) due to illness as compared with persons without IBD.Premature retirement and long-term disability are major factors contributing to indirect costs among IBD patients.A substantial proportion of individuals with IBD pay out-of-pocket for complementary and alternative medicines.After being extrapolated from multiple sources, the total annual indirect cost of IBD in Canada is estimated to be $1.29 billion CAD in 2018, or $4781 CAD per person with IBD. Key Summary Points: The total indirect economic burden of IBD in Canada is estimated to be $1.29 billion CAD in 2018, or roughly $4781 CAD per person with IBD. This estimate comprises lost wages related to sick days and disability, premature retirement and premature death, and out-of-pocket costs. Losses from presenteeism, reduced professional development and caregiver burden are not included due to insufficient data on the cost impact of these factors.In a meta-analysis of studies between 1994 and 2014, the annual indirect cost of absenteeism for IBD patients ranged from $515.67 USD (USA) to $14,727 USD (Germany) per patient per annum (pooled estimate $7189 USD), after adjusting for purchasing power disparity.A large US survey found that, on average, IBD patients incurred an extra 4.8 days off of work and $783 USD in excess lost wages annually compared with persons without IBD.A study based on US private insurance claims found that ulcerative colitis patients cost an additional $2164 per person per annum relating to disability days and medically related absenteeism.A prospective study from an IBD centre reported weekly indirect health-related costs of $1133 for IBD patients with active disease, $370.13 for IBD patients in remission, and $191.23 for persons without IBD relating to both presenteeism and absenteeism.In a survey of 744 IBD patients from Manitoba, reduced workplace productivity during the previous 14 days was reported in 37% of individuals, including a reduction of one to two days by 18% of patients, thre to nine days by 16% of patients, and on most days by 3% of patients.The estimated average lifetime lost wages due to premature retirement is $1,044,498 CAD per person with Crohn's disease and $994,760 CAD per person with ulcerative colitis. Aggregated over all IBD retirees, this equates to roughly $629 million CAD in permanent lost wages annually due to premature retirement.The lifetime indirect cost associated with premature death among IBD patients is estimated to be $746,070 CAD per decedent, or roughly $33.6 million aggregated across all IBD decedents of working age.In a US study of caregivers of children, the average unadjusted annual work loss was 214 hours for caregivers of Crohn's disease patients and 170 hours for caregivers of children without IBD, translating to an additional $1122 in lost productivity for caregivers of persons with Crohn's disease.Canadian studies have reported complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) use in 56% to 74% of people with IBD. A US national survey study estimated annual per-person out of pocket costs of $1603 USD for Crohn's disease patients and $1263 USD for ulcerative colitis patients, which were substantially higher than in persons without IBD. Gaps in Knowledge and Future Directions: Canadian-specific data on indirect health-related costs of IBD is sparse across all domains of indirect costs.In particular, the rates of absenteeism, presenteeism and premature retirement among IBD patients living in Canada require further study to gauge more accurately the indirect health-related costs of IBD in Canada.Indirect costs relating to decreased professional development, caregiver burden and out-of-pocket purchases among IBD patients are largely unknown and require further study.Indirect costs incurred by Canadian children with IBD and their families or caregivers are largely unknown.

20.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(Suppl 1): S42-S48, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294384

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a substantial impact on quality of life. It causes considerable personal, emotional and social burdens. The impact of IBD on quality of life cannot readily be quantified as a cost; however, the impact places a significant burden on the patient and caregivers. Numerous studies have shown that health-related quality of life is impaired in patients living with IBD as compared with the general population. While disease activity and severity is an important driver of physical and mental health-related quality of life, patients may experience psychological distress even during clinical remission. Reduced quality of life can impact persons living with IBD as they pursue employment, family planning and personal milestones. Further, the impact of IBD extends to the patient influencing the quality of lives of those around them, including their caregivers. Improving quality of life requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes screening for and managing psychological distress. Adaptive coping mechanisms help manage illness perceptions and reduce psychosocial distress. Highlights: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important measure of the global impact of IBD on a person's physical, mental and emotional well-being.Persons living with IBD have significantly lower HRQOL compared with that of the general population.Inflammatory bowel disease often affects individuals as they pursue employment, family building and personal milestones.Inflammatory bowel disease affects the quality of life (QOL) of those afflicted and their caregivers.Access to multidisciplinary, collaborative, chronic disease models of care improves the HRQOL of people living with IBD. Key Summary Points: Inflammatory bowel disease impairs HRQOL by inhibiting need fulfillment (i.e., self-esteem, relationships, nutrition, hygiene and security) and causing psychological distress.Inflammatory bowel disease impairs interpersonal relationships, life activities, social participation and mental well-being.Patient symptoms like diarrhea and abdominal pain reduce HRQOL.While disease severity is an important driver of physical and mental HRQOL, patients experience psychological distress even during clinical remission.Psychological distress impairs work productivity and disrupts social activities and relationships.Patients with IBD experience emotional distress relating to factors such as loss of bowel control, impairment of body image, fear of sexual inadequacy, social isolation, fear of dependency, concern about not reaching one's full potential and fear of stigmatization.Families with children with IBD have impaired QOL as a collective-for example, parental stress from medical factors and child's perceived stress.Patients' perception of their illness affects their ability to adjust to a diagnosis of IBD. Adaptive coping mechanisms help manage illness perceptions and reduce psychosocial distress.Biologics are associated with improvement in long-term HRQOL in people with IBD.Patients with IBD should have access to multidisciplinary care, including mental health practitioners, to screen for and manage psychological distress. Gaps in Knowledge and Future Directions: Patients with IBD experience emotional distress that reduces HRQOL. Clinical tools are necessary to identify the key factors causing psychological distress in patients with IBD.HRQOL is reduced in individuals with IBD and their families. Studies should evaluate the cumulative burden of IBD on HRQOL in patients with IBD and their caregivers.Patient self-perception of their IBD influences their HRQOL. Clinical studies of interventions that improve adaptive coping are needed to reduce psychosocial distress.Multidisciplinary care including a psychologist to screen for and manage psychosocial risk and psychological distress should be evaluated in IBD clinics.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA