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1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring the seroprevalence of antibodies to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is central to understanding infection risk and fatality rates. We studied Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-antibody seroprevalence in a community sample drawn from Santa Clara County. METHODS: On 3 and 4 April 2020, we tested 3328 county residents for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using a rapid lateral-flow assay (Premier Biotech). Participants were recruited using advertisements that were targeted to reach county residents that matched the county population by gender, race/ethnicity and zip code of residence. We estimate weights to match our sample to the county by zip, age, sex and race/ethnicity. We report the weighted and unweighted prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. We adjust for test-performance characteristics by combining data from 18 independent test-kit assessments: 14 for specificity and 4 for sensitivity. RESULTS: The raw prevalence of antibodies in our sample was 1.5% [exact binomial 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.0%]. Test-performance specificity in our data was 99.5% (95% CI 99.2-99.7%) and sensitivity was 82.8% (95% CI 76.0-88.4%). The unweighted prevalence adjusted for test-performance characteristics was 1.2% (95% CI 0.7-1.8%). After weighting for population demographics, the prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.3-4.2%), using bootstrap to estimate confidence bounds. These prevalence point estimates imply that 53 000 [95% CI 26 000 to 82 000 using weighted prevalence; 23 000 (95% CI 14 000-35 000) using unweighted prevalence] people were infected in Santa Clara County by late March-many more than the ∼1200 confirmed cases at the time. CONCLUSION: The estimated prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Santa Clara County implies that COVID-19 was likely more widespread than indicated by the number of cases in late March, 2020. At the time, low-burden contexts such as Santa Clara County were far from herd-immunity thresholds.

2.
Lancet ; 397(10273): 522-532, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503456

RESUMO

Women and children bear substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of armed conflicts. This Series paper focuses on the direct (due to violence) and indirect health effects of armed conflict on women and children (including adolescents) worldwide. We estimate that nearly 36 million children and 16 million women were displaced in 2017, on the basis of international databases of refugees and internally displaced populations. From geospatial analyses we estimate that the number of non-displaced women and children living dangerously close to armed conflict (within 50 km) increased from 185 million women and 250 million children in 2000, to 265 million women and 368 million children in 2017. Women's and children's mortality risk from non-violent causes increases substantially in response to nearby conflict, with more intense and more chronic conflicts leading to greater mortality increases. More than 10 million deaths in children younger than 5 years can be attributed to conflict between 1995 and 2015 globally. Women of reproductive ages living near high intensity conflicts have three times higher mortality than do women in peaceful settings. Current research provides fragmentary evidence about how armed conflict indirectly affects the survival chances of women and children through malnutrition, physical injuries, infectious diseases, poor mental health, and poor sexual and reproductive health, but major systematic evidence is sparse, hampering the design and implementation of essential interventions for mitigating the harms of armed conflicts.

3.
Lancet ; 397(10273): 511-521, 2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503458

RESUMO

The nature of armed conflict throughout the world is intensely dynamic. Consequently, the protection of non-combatants and the provision of humanitarian services must continually adapt to this changing conflict environment. Complex political affiliations, the systematic use of explosive weapons and sexual violence, and the use of new communication technology, including social media, have created new challenges for humanitarian actors in negotiating access to affected populations and security for their own personnel. The nature of combatants has also evolved as armed, non-state actors might have varying motivations, use different forms of violence, and engage in a variety of criminal activities to generate requisite funds. New health threats, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and new capabilities, such as modern trauma care, have also created new challenges and opportunities for humanitarian health provision. In response, humanitarian policies and practices must develop negotiation and safety capabilities, informed by political and security realities on the ground, and guidance from affected communities. More fundamentally, humanitarian policies will need to confront a changing geopolitical environment, in which traditional humanitarian norms and protections might encounter wavering support in the years to come.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Saúde da Criança , Socorro em Desastres , Violência , Saúde da Mulher , Conflitos Armados/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Política , Medidas de Segurança , Violência/prevenção & controle
4.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13484, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The most restrictive nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for controlling the spread of COVID-19 are mandatory stay-at-home and business closures. Given the consequences of these policies, it is important to assess their effects. We evaluate the effects on epidemic case growth of more restrictive NPIs (mrNPIs), above and beyond those of less-restrictive NPIs (lrNPIs). METHODS: We first estimate COVID-19 case growth in relation to any NPI implementation in subnational regions of 10 countries: England, France, Germany, Iran, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, South Korea, Sweden and the United States. Using first-difference models with fixed effects, we isolate the effects of mrNPIs by subtracting the combined effects of lrNPIs and epidemic dynamics from all NPIs. We use case growth in Sweden and South Korea, 2 countries that did not implement mandatory stay-at-home and business closures, as comparison countries for the other 8 countries (16 total comparisons). RESULTS: Implementing any NPIs was associated with significant reductions in case growth in 9 out of 10 study countries, including South Korea and Sweden that implemented only lrNPIs (Spain had a nonsignificant effect). After subtracting the epidemic and lrNPI effects, we find no clear, significant beneficial effect of mrNPIs on case growth in any country. In France, for example, the effect of mrNPIs was +7% (95% CI: -5%-19%) when compared with Sweden and + 13% (-12%-38%) when compared with South Korea (positive means pro-contagion). The 95% confidence intervals excluded 30% declines in all 16 comparisons and 15% declines in 11/16 comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: While small benefits cannot be excluded, we do not find significant benefits on case growth of more restrictive NPIs. Similar reductions in case growth may be achievable with less-restrictive interventions.

5.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869035

RESUMO

Understanding the outbreak dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic has important implications for successful containment and mitigation strategies. Recent studies suggest that the population prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, a proxy for the number of asymptomatic cases, could be an order of magnitude larger than expected from the number of reported symptomatic cases. Knowing the precise prevalence and contagiousness of asymptomatic transmission is critical to estimate the overall dimension and pandemic potential of COVID-19. However, at this stage, the effect of the asymptomatic population, its size, and its outbreak dynamics remain largely unknown. Here we use reported symptomatic case data in conjunction with antibody seroprevalence studies, a mathematical epidemiology model, and a Bayesian framework to infer the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19. Our model computes, in real time, the time-varying contact rate of the outbreak, and projects the temporal evolution and credible intervals of the effective reproduction number and the symptomatic, asymptomatic, and recovered populations. Our study quantifies the sensitivity of the outbreak dynamics of COVID-19 to three parameters: the effective reproduction number, the ratio between the symptomatic and asymptomatic populations, and the infectious periods of both groups For nine distinct locations, our model estimates the fraction of the population that has been infected and recovered by Jun 15, 2020 to 24.15% (95% CI: 20.48%-28.14%) for Heinsberg (NRW, Germany), 2.40% (95% CI: 2.09%-2.76%) for Ada County (ID, USA), 46.19% (95% CI: 45.81%-46.60%) for New York City (NY, USA), 11.26% (95% CI: 7.21%-16.03%) for Santa Clara County (CA, USA), 3.09% (95% CI: 2.27%-4.03%) for Denmark, 12.35% (95% CI: 10.03%-15.18%) for Geneva Canton (Switzerland), 5.24% (95% CI: 4.84%-5.70%) for the Netherlands, 1.53% (95% CI: 0.76%-2.62%) for Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), and 5.32% (95% CI: 4.77%-5.93%) for Belgium. Our method traces the initial outbreak date in Santa Clara County back to January 20, 2020 (95% CI: December 29, 2019 - February 13, 2020). Our results could significantly change our understanding and management of the COVID-19 pandemic: A large asymptomatic population will make isolation, containment, and tracing of individual cases challenging. Instead, managing community transmission through increasing population awareness, promoting physical distancing, and encouraging behavioral changes could become more relevant.

6.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 19: 2325958220950902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 166,155 individuals in the United States have undiagnosed HIV infection. We modeled the numbers of HIV-infected individuals who could be diagnosed in clinical and community settings by broadly implementing HIV screening guidelines. SETTING: United States. METHODS: We modeled testing for general population (once lifetime) and high-risk populations (annual): men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, and high-risk heterosexuals. We used published data on HIV infections, HIV testing, engagement in clinical care, and risk status disclosure. RESULTS: In clinical settings, about 76 million never-tested low-risk and 2.6 million high-risk individuals would be tested, yielding 36,000 and 55,000 HIV diagnoses, respectively. In community settings, 30 million low-risk and 4.4 million high-risk individuals would be tested, yielding 75,000 HIV diagnoses. CONCLUSION: HIV testing in clinical and community settings diagnoses similar numbers of individuals. Lifetime and risk-based testing are both needed to substantially reduce undiagnosed HIV.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008551, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The key metric for monitoring the progress of deworming programs in controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is national drug coverage reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). There is increased interest in utilizing geographically-disaggregated data to estimate sub-national deworming coverage and equity, as well as gender parity. The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) offer a potential source of sub-national data. This study aimed to compare deworming coverage routinely reported to WHO and estimated by DHS in pre-school aged children to inform global STH measurement and evaluation. METHODOLOGY: We compared sub-national deworming coverage in pre-school aged children reported to WHO and estimated by DHS aligned geospatially and temporally. We included data from Burundi (2016-2017), Myanmar (2015-2016), and the Philippines (2017) based on data availability. WHO provided data on the date and sub-national coverage per mass drug administration reported by Ministries of Health. DHS included maternally-reported deworming status within the past 6 months for each child surveyed. We estimated differences in sub-national deworming coverage using WHO and DHS data, and performed sensitivity analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared data on pre-school aged children from 13 of 18 districts in Burundi (N = 6,835 in DHS), 11 of 15 districts in Myanmar (N = 1,462 in DHS) and 16 of 17 districts in the Philippines (N = 7,594 in DHS) following data exclusion. The national deworming coverages estimated by DHS in Burundi, Myanmar, and the Philippines were 75.5% (95% CI: 73.7%-77.7%), 47.0% (95% CI: 42.7%-51.3%), and 48.0% (95% CI: 46.0%-50.0%), respectively. The national deworming coverages reported by WHO in Burundi, Myanmar, and the Philippines were 80.1%, 93.6% and 75.7%, respectively. The mean absolute differences in district-level coverage reported to WHO and estimated by DHS in Burundi, Myanmar, and the Philippines were 9.5%, 41.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. Across countries, coverage reported to WHO was frequently higher than DHS estimates (32 of 40 districts). National deworming coverage from DHS estimates were similar by gender within countries. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Agreement of deworming coverage reported to WHO and estimated by DHS data was heterogeneous across countries, varying from broadly compatible in Burundi to largely discrepant in Myanmar. DHS data could complement deworming data reported to WHO to improve data monitoring practices and serve as an independent sub-national source of coverage data.


Assuntos
Demografia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Burundi , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mianmar , Filipinas
9.
Med Decis Making ; 40(5): 693-709, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639859

RESUMO

Background. Published data on a disease do not always correspond directly to the parameters needed to simulate natural history. Several calibration methods have been applied to computer-based disease models to extract needed parameters that make a model's output consistent with available data. Objective. To assess 3 calibration methods and evaluate their performance in a real-world application. Methods. We calibrated a model of cholera natural history in Bangladesh, where a lack of active surveillance biases available data. We built a cohort state-transition cholera natural history model that includes case hospitalization to reflect the passive surveillance data-generating process. We applied 3 calibration techniques: incremental mixture importance sampling, sampling importance resampling, and random search with rejection sampling. We adapted these techniques to the context of wide prior uncertainty and many degrees of freedom. We evaluated the resulting posterior parameter distributions using a range of metrics and compared predicted cholera burden estimates. Results. All 3 calibration techniques produced posterior distributions with a higher likelihood and better fit to calibration targets as compared with prior distributions. Incremental mixture importance sampling resulted in the highest likelihood and largest number of unique parameter sets to better inform joint parameter uncertainty. Compared with naïve uncalibrated parameter sets, calibrated models of cholera in Bangladesh project substantially more cases, many of which are not detected by passive surveillance, and fewer deaths. Limitations. Calibration cannot completely overcome poor data quality, which can leave some parameters less well informed than others. Calibration techniques may perform differently under different circumstances. Conclusions. Incremental mixture importance sampling, when adapted to the context of high uncertainty, performs well. By accounting for biases in data, calibration can improve model projections of disease burden.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 22: 100355, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490370

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) agents is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, which may decrease the effectiveness of efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs. However, due to recent safety concerns, there has been hesitancy to replace efavirenz-based ART with dolutegravir in women of reproductive potential. Our objective was to evaluate whether PDR testing for women not initiating dolutegravir-based ART would be a cost-effective strategy to address the challenges posed by PDR. Methods: We developed an HIV drug resistance model that simulates the emergence and transmission of resistance mutations, calibrated to the Kenyan epidemic. We modeled three care strategies for PDR testing among women not initiating dolutegravir-based ART: no PDR testing, PDR testing with a low-cost point mutation assay, known as oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA), and PDR testing with consensus sequencing. Using a health sector perspective, this model was used to evaluate the health outcomes, lifetime costs, and cost-effectiveness under each strategy over a 15-year time horizon starting in 2019. Findings: OLA and CS PDR testing were projected to have incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of $10,741/QALY gained and $134,396/QALY gained, respectively, which are not cost-effective by national income standards. Viral suppression rates among women at 12 months after ART initiation were 87·8%, 89·0%, and 89·3% with no testing, OLA testing, and CS testing, respectively. PDR testing with OLA and CS were associated with a 0.5% and 0.6% reduction in incidence rate compared to no PDR testing. Initial PDR prevalence among women was 13.1% in 2019. By 2034, this prevalence was 17·6%, 17·4%, and 17·3% with no testing, OLA testing, and CS testing, respectively. Interpretation: PDR testing for women is unlikely to be cost-effective in Kenya whether one uses a low-cost assay, such as OLA, or consensus sequencing. Funding: National Institutes of Health, Gilead Sciences.

11.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 470-478, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate racial disparities in the rates of infection and mortality from the 2019 novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). The aim of this study was to determine whether disparities exist in the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) related to COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1216 adults in the March 2020 Kaiser Family Foundation 'Coronavirus Poll', to determine levels of KAPs across different groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of KAPs. RESULTS: In contrast to White respondents, Non-White respondents were more likely to have low knowledge (58% versus 30%; P < 0.001) and low attitude scores (52% versus 27%; P < 0.001), but high practice scores (81% versus 59%; P < 0.001). By multivariate regression, White race (odds ratio [OR] 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70-5.50), higher level of education (OR 1.80; 95% CI: 1.46-2.23) and higher income (OR 2.06; 95% CI: 1.58-2.70) were associated with high knowledge of COVID-19. Race, sex, education, income, health insurance status and political views were all associated with KAPs. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and socioeconomic disparity exists in the levels of KAPs related to COVID-19. More work is needed to identify educational tools that tailor to specific racial and socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23 Suppl 1: e25494, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have an elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to their HIV-negative peers. Expanding statin use may help alleviate this burden. However, the choice of statin in the context of antiretroviral therapy is challenging. Pravastatin and pitavastatin improve cholesterol levels in PLHIV without interacting substantially with antiretroviral therapy. They are also more expensive than most statins. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of pravastatin and pitavastatin for the primary prevention of CVD among PLHIV in Thailand who are not currently using lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS: We developed a discrete-state microsimulation model that randomly selected (with replacement) individuals from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort who were aged 40 to 75 years, receiving antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, and not using lipid-lowering therapy. The model simulated each individual's probability of experiencing CVD. We evaluated: (1) treating no one with statins; (2) treating everyone with pravastatin 20mg/day (drug cost 7568 Thai Baht ($US243)/year) and (3) treating everyone with pitavastatin 2 mg/day (drug cost 8182 Baht ($US263)/year). Direct medical costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were assigned in annual cycles over a 20-year time horizon and discounted at 3% per year. We assumed the Thai healthcare sector perspective. RESULTS: Pravastatin was estimated to be less effective and less cost-effective than pitavastatin and was therefore dominated (extended) by pitavastatin. Patients receiving pitavastatin accumulated 0.042 additional QALYs compared with those not using a statin, at an extra cost of 96,442 Baht ($US3095), giving an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 2,300,000 Baht ($US73,812)/QALY gained. These findings were sensitive to statin costs and statin efficacy, pill burden, and targeting of PLHIV based on CVD risk. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of 160,000 Baht ($US5135)/QALY gained, we estimated that pravastatin would become cost-effective at an annual cost of 415 Baht ($US13.30)/year and pitavastatin would become cost-effective at an annual cost of 600 Baht ($US19.30)/year. CONCLUSIONS: Neither pravastatin nor pitavastatin were projected to be cost-effective for the primary prevention of CVD among PLHIV in Thailand who are not currently using lipid-lowering therapy. We do not recommend expanding current use of these drugs among PLHIV in Thailand without substantial price reduction.

14.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003064, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought has many known deleterious impacts on human health, but little is known about the relationship between drought and intimate partner violence (IPV). We aimed to evaluate this relationship and to assess effect heterogeneity between population subgroups among women in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 19 Demographic and Health Surveys from 2011 to 2018 including 83,990 partnered women aged 15-49 years. Deviations in rainfall in the year before the survey date were measured relative to the 29 previous years using Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data, with recent drought classified as ordinal categorical variable (severe: ≤10th percentile; mild/moderate: >10th percentile to ≤30th percentile; none: >30th percentile). We considered 4 IPV-related outcomes: reporting a controlling partner (a risk factor for IPV) and experiencing emotional violence, physical violence, or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to survey. Logistic regression was used to estimate marginal risk differences (RDs). We evaluated the presence of effect heterogeneity by age group and employment status. Of the 83,990 women included in the analytic sample, 10.7% (9,019) experienced severe drought and 23.4% (19,639) experienced mild/moderate drought in the year prior to the survey, with substantial heterogeneity across countries. The mean age of respondents was 30.8 years (standard deviation 8.2). The majority of women lived in rural areas (66.3%) and were married (73.3%), while less than half (42.6%) were literate. Women living in severe drought had higher risk of reporting a controlling partner (marginal RD in percentage points = 3.0, 95% CI 1.3, 4.6; p < 0.001), experiencing physical violence (marginal RD = 0.8, 95% CI 0.1, 1.5; p = 0.019), and experiencing sexual violence (marginal RD = 1.2, 95% CI 0.4, 2.0; p = 0.001) compared with women not experiencing drought. Women living in mild/moderate drought had higher risk of reporting physical (marginal RD = 0.7, 95% CI 0.2, 1.1; p = 0.003) and sexual violence (marginal RD = 0.7, 95% CI 0.3, 1.2; p = 0.001) compared with those not living in drought. We did not find evidence for an association between drought and emotional violence. In analyses stratified by country, we found 3 settings where drought was protective for at least 1 measure of IPV: Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. We found evidence for effect heterogeneity (additive interaction) for the association between drought and younger age and between drought and employment status, with stronger associations between drought and IPV among adolescent girls and unemployed women. This study is limited by its lack of measured hypothesized mediating variables linking drought and IPV, prohibiting a formal mediation analysis. Additional limitations include the potential for bias due to residual confounding and potential non-differential misclassification of the outcome measures leading to an attenuation of observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that drought was associated with measures of IPV towards women, with larger positive associations among adolescent girls and unemployed women. There was heterogeneity in these associations across countries. Weather shocks may exacerbate vulnerabilities among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Future work should further evaluate potential mechanisms driving these relationships.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Secas , Abuso Físico/etnologia , Delitos Sexuais/etnologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Emoções , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(1): e002214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133179

RESUMO

Introduction: Conflict adversely impacts health and health systems, yet its effect on health inequalities, particularly for women and children, has not been systematically studied. We examined wealth, education and urban/rural residence inequalities for child mortality and essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions between conflict and non-conflict low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We carried out a time-series multicountry ecological study using data for 137 LMICs between 1990 and 2017, as defined by the 2019 World Bank classification. The data set covers approximately 3.8 million surveyed mothers (15-49 years) and 1.1 million children under 5 years including newborns (<1 month), young children (1-59 months) and school-aged children and adolescents (5-14 years). Outcomes include annual maternal and child mortality rates and coverage (%) of family planning services, 1+antenatal care visit, skilled attendant at birth (SBA), exclusive breast feeding (0-5 months), early initiation of breast feeding (within 1 hour), neonatal protection against tetanus, newborn postnatal care within 2 days, 3 doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine, measles vaccination, and careseeking for pneumonia and diarrhoea. Results: Conflict countries had consistently higher maternal and child mortality rates than non-conflict countries since 1990 and these gaps persist despite rates continually declining for both groups. Access to essential reproductive and maternal health services for poorer, less educated and rural-based families was several folds worse in conflict versus non-conflict countries. Conclusions: Inequalities in coverage of reproductive/maternal health and child vaccine interventions are significantly worse in conflict-affected countries. Efforts to protect maternal and child health interventions in conflict settings should target the most disadvantaged families including the poorest, least educated and those living in rural areas.

17.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(3): 257-265, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) can result in severe disability. Nonoperative management minimally slows scoliosis progression, but operative management with posterior spinal fusion (PSF) carries high risks of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we compare health and economic outcomes of PSF to nonoperative management for children with NMS to identify opportunities to improve care. METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis. Our decision analytic model included patients aged 5 to 20 years with NMS and a Cobb angle ≥50°, with a base case of 15-year-old patients. We estimated costs, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness from published literature and conducted sensitivity analyses on all model inputs. RESULTS: We estimated that PSF resulted in modestly decreased discounted life expectancy (10.8 years) but longer quality-adjusted life expectancy (4.84 QALYs) than nonoperative management (11.2 years; 3.21 QALYs). PSF costs $75 400 per patient. Under base-case assumptions, PSF costs $50 100 per QALY gained. Our findings were sensitive to quality of life (QoL) and life expectancy, with PSF favored if it significantly increased QoL. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NMS, whether PSF is cost-effective depends strongly on the degree to which QoL improved, with larger improvements when NMS is the primary cause of debility, but limited data on QoL and life expectancy preclude a definitive assessment. Improved patient-centered outcome assessments are essential to understanding the effectiveness of NMS treatment alternatives. Because the degree to which PSF influences QoL substantially impacts health outcomes and varies by patient, clinicians should consider shared decision-making during PSF-related consultations.

18.
AIDS Care ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986900

RESUMO

High prevalence of depression among people living with HIV (PLHIV) impedes antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and viral suppression. We estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to treat depression among PLHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We developed a microsimulation model of HIV disease and care in Uganda which captured individuals' depression status and the relationship between depression and HIV behaviors. We consider a strategy of screening for depression and providing antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine at ART initiation or re-initiation (if a patient has dropped out). We estimate that over 10 years this strategy would reduce prevalence of depression among PLHIV by 16.0% [95% uncertainty bounds 15.8%, 16.1%] from a baseline prevalence of 28%, increase adherence to ART by 1.0% [1.0%, 1.0%], and decrease rates of loss to followup by 3.7% [3.4%, 4.1%]. This would decrease first-line ART failure rates by 2.5% [2.3%, 2.8%] and increase viral suppression rates by 1.0% [1.0%, 1.0%]. This strategy costs $15/QALY compared to the status quo, and was highly cost-effective over a broad range of sensitivity analyses. We conclude that screening for and treating depression among PLHIV in SSA with fluoxetine would be effective in improving HIV treatment outcomes and would be highly cost-effective.

19.
BMJ ; 367: l6540, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the US government's Feed the Future initiative on nutrition outcomes in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Difference-in-differences quasi-experimental approach. SETTING: Households in 33 low and lower middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. POPULATION: 883 309 children aged less than 5 years with weight, height, and age recorded in 118 surveys conducted in 33 countries between 2000 and 2017: 388 052 children were from Feed the Future countries and 495 257 were from non-Feed the Future countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A difference-in-differences approach was used to compare outcomes among children in intervention countries after implementation of the initiative with children before its introduction and children in non-intervention countries, controlling for relevant covariates, time invariant national differences, and time trends. The primary outcome was stunting (height for age >2 standard deviations below a reference median), a key indicator of undernutrition in children. Secondary outcomes were wasting (low weight for height) and underweight (low weight for age). RESULTS: Across all years and countries, 38.3% of children in the study sample were stunted, 8.9% showed wasting, and 21.3% were underweight. In the first six years of Feed the Future's implementation, children in 12 countries with the initiative exhibited a 3.9 percentage point (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 5.5) greater decline in stunting, a 1.1 percentage point (0.1 to 2.1) greater decline in wasting, and a 2.8 percentage point (1.6 to 4.0) greater decline in underweight levels compared with children in 21 countries without the initiative and compared with trends in undernutrition before Feed the Future was launched. These decreases translate to around two million fewer stunted and underweight children aged less than 5 years and around a half million fewer children with wasting. For context, about 22 million children were stunted, 11 million children were underweight, and four million children were wasted in the Feed the Future countries at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Feed the Future's activities were closely linked to notable improvements in stunting and underweight levels and moderate improvements in wasting in children younger than 5 years. These findings highlight the effectiveness of this large, country tailored initiative focused on agriculture and food security and have important implications for the future of this and other nutrition interventions worldwide.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Magreza/terapia
20.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002994, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy, the reluctance or refusal to receive vaccination, is a growing public health problem in the United States and globally. State policies that eliminate nonmedical ("personal belief") exemptions to childhood vaccination requirements are controversial, and their effectiveness to improve vaccination coverage remains unclear given limited rigorous policy analysis. In 2016, a California policy (Senate Bill 277) eliminated nonmedical exemptions from school entry requirements. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between California's 2016 policy and changes in vaccine coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a quasi-experimental state-level synthetic control analysis and a county-level difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the impact of the 2016 California policy on vaccination coverage and prevalence of exemptions to vaccine requirements (nonmedical and medical). We used publicly available state-level data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on coverage of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination, nonmedical exemption, and medical exemption in children entering kindergarten. We used county-level data individually requested from state departments of public health on overall vaccine coverage and exemptions. Based on data availability, we included state-level data for 45 states, including California, from 2011 to 2017 and county-level data for 17 states from 2010 to 2017. The prespecified primary study outcome was MMR vaccination in the state analysis and overall vaccine coverage in the county analysis. In the state-level synthetic control analysis, MMR coverage in California increased by 3.3% relative to its synthetic control in the postpolicy period (top 2 of 43 states evaluated in the placebo tests, top 5%), nonmedical exemptions decreased by 2.4% (top 2 of 43 states evaluated in the placebo tests, top 5%), and medical exemptions increased by 0.4% (top 1 of 44 states evaluated in the placebo tests, top 2%). In the county-level analysis, overall vaccination coverage increased by 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9%-5.8%, p < 0.001), nonmedical exemptions decreased by 3.9% (95% CI 2.4%-5.4%, p < 0.001), and medical exemptions increased by 2.4% (95% CI 2.0%-2.9%, p < 0.001). Changes in vaccination coverage across counties after the policy implementation from 2015 to 2017 ranged from -6% to 26%, with larger increases in coverage in counties with lower prepolicy vaccine coverage. Results were robust to alternative model specifications. The limitations of the study were the exclusion of a subset of US states from the analysis and the use of only 2 years of postpolicy data based on data availability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, implementation of the California policy that eliminated nonmedical childhood vaccine exemptions was associated with an estimated increase in vaccination coverage and a reduction in nonmedical exemptions at state and county levels. The observed increase in medical exemptions was offset by the larger reduction in nonmedical exemptions. The largest increases in vaccine coverage were observed in the most "high-risk" counties, meaning those with the lowest prepolicy vaccine coverage. Our findings suggest that government policies removing nonmedical exemptions can be effective at increasing vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Cobertura Vacinal/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinas/economia , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/métodos
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