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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809077

RESUMO

Pregnancy is a unique situation of physiological immunomodulation, as well as a strong Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease modulator whose mechanisms are still unclear. Both maternal (decidua) and fetal (trophoblast) placental cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are known to mediate cellular communication and modulate the maternal immune response. Their contribution to the MS disease course during pregnancy, however, is unexplored. Here, we provide a first phenotypic and functional characterization of EVs isolated from cultures of term placenta samples of women with MS, differentiating between decidua and trophoblast. In particular, we analyzed the expression profile of 37 surface proteins and tested the functional role of placental EVs on mono-cultures of CD14+ monocytes and co-cultures of CD4+ T and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Results indicated that placental EVs are enriched for surface markers typical of stem/progenitor cells, and that conditioning with EVs from samples of women with MS is associated to a moderate decrease in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by activated monocytes and in the proliferation rate of activated T cells co-cultured with Tregs. Overall, our findings suggest an immunomodulatory potential of placental EVs from women with MS and set the stage for a promising research field aiming at elucidating their role in MS remission.

2.
Minerva Obstet Gynecol ; 73(1): 45-56, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821598

RESUMO

Over the last three decades, the decrease in operative vaginal delivery (OVD) has lead to an increase in the rate of cesarean sections, giving rise to intense debate amongst healthcare providers. As the use of vacuum and forceps requires personnel be adequately trained so as to become familiar with the correct use of instruments, the lack of skilled and experienced instructors may well lead to this technique being discarded in the near future. The aim of this study was to review the literature, compare the recommendations from international OVD guidelines and to illustrate the correct technique of obstetrical vacuum and forceps application to promote OVD among clinicians as a safe way of delivery.

3.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848139

RESUMO

Over the past 20 years, important relationships between the microbiota and human health have emerged. A link between alterations of microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and cancer development has been recently demonstrated. In particular, the composition and the oncogenic role of intestinal bacterial flora has been extensively investigated in preclinical and clinical studies focusing on gastrointestinal tumors. Overall, the development of gastrointestinal tumors is favored by dysbiosis as it leads to depletion of antitumor substances (e.g., short-chain fatty acids) produced by healthy microbiota. Moreover, dysbiosis leads to alterations of the gut barrier, promotes a chronic inflammatory status through activation of toll-like receptors, and causes metabolic and hormonal dysregulations. However, the effects of these imbalances are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract and they can influence gynecological tumor carcinogenesis as well. The purpose of this Review is to provide a synthetic update about the mechanisms of interaction between gut microbiota and the female reproductive tract favoring the development of neoplasms. Furthermore, novel therapeutic approaches based on the modulation of microbiota and their role in gynecological oncology are discussed.

4.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(3)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800021

RESUMO

The segmentation of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle, consisting of the freezing of all embryos and the postponement of embryo transfer (ET), has become popular in recent years, with the main purpose of preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients with high response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Indeed cycle segmentation (CS), especially when coupled to a GnRH-agonist trigger, was shown to reduce the incidence of OHSS in high-risk patients. However, CS increases the economic costs and the work amount for IVF laboratories. An alternative strategy is to perform a fresh ET in association with intensive luteal phase pharmacological support, able to overcome the negative effects of the GnRH-agonist trigger on the luteal phase and on endometrial receptivity. In order to compare these two strategies, we performed a retrospective, real-life cohort study including 240 non-polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO) women with expected high responsiveness to COS (AMH >2.5 ng/mL), who received either fresh ET plus 100 IU daily human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as luteal support (FRESH group, n = 133), or cycle segmentation with freezing of all embryos and postponed ET (CS group, n = 107). The primary outcomes were: implantation rate (IR), live birth rate (LBR) after the first ET, and incidence of OHSS. Overall, significantly higher IR and LBR were observed in the CS group than in the FRESH group (42.9% vs. 27.8%, p < 0.05 and 32.7% vs. 19.5%, p < 0.05, respectively); the superiority of CS strategy was particularly evident when 16-19 oocytes were retrieved (LBR 42.2% vs. 9.5%, p = 0.01). Mild OHSS appeared with the same incidence in the two groups, whereas moderate and severe OHSS forms were observed only in the FRESH group (1.5% and 0.8%, respectively). In conclusion, in non-PCO women, high responders submitted to COS with the GnRH-antagonist protocol and GnRH-agonist trigger, CS strategy was associated with higher IR and LBR than the strategy including fresh ET followed by luteal phase support with a low daily hCG dose. CS appears to be advisable, especially when >15 oocytes are retrieved.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5661, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707570

RESUMO

The 4-decade (1980-2017) trends in lymph node status of patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) in a province of northern Italy were investigated. Information was collected on lymph node dissection, number of lymph nodes dissected, lymph node involvement, and number of positive lymph nodes from a series of 760 patients admitted to a tertiary referral centre for vulvar disease. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for lymph node involvement, for ≥ 2 positive nodes, and for a lymph node ratio ≥ 20% were estimated from multiple logistic regression models. The adjusted OR for lymph node dissection was greater in the 2000s and 2010s versus the 1980s. The adjusted OR for lymph node involvement was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-2.60) in the 1990s, 1.31 (95% CI, 0.72-2.38) in the 2000s and 1.32 (95% CI, 0.73-2.41) in the 2010s versus the 1980s. The adjusted OR for ≥ 2 positive nodes was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.68-2.72), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.44-1.65) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.34-1.31), respectively. The adjusted OR for lymph node ratio ≥ 20% was 1.45 (95% CI, 0.62-3.43), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.54-2.72) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.35-1.89), respectively. This stagnation indicates the need for a serious rethink of the local model for the care of VSCC.

6.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 80, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many oncologists debate if lobular neoplasia (LN) is a risk factor or an obligatory precursor of more aggressive disease. This study has three aims: (i) describe the different treatment options (surgical resection vs observation), (ii) investigate the upgrade rate in surgically treated patients, and (iii) evaluate the long-term occurrences of aggressive disease in both operated and unoperated patients. METHODS: A series of 122 patients with LN bioptic diagnosis and follow-up information were selected. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data were collected from medical charts. At definitive histology, either invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ was considered upgraded lesions. RESULTS: Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and high-grade LN (HG-LN) were diagnosed in 44, 63, and 15 patients, respectively. The median follow-up was 9.5 years. Ninety-nine patients were surgically treated, while 23 underwent clinical-radiological follow-up. An upgrade was observed in 28/99 (28.3%). Age ≥ 54 years (OR 4.01, CI 1.42-11.29, p = 0.009), Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories 4-5 (OR 3.76, CI 1.37-10.1, p = 0.010), and preoperatory HG-LN diagnosis (OR 8.76, 1.82-42.27, p = 0.007) were related to upgraded/aggressive disease. During follow-up, 8 patients developed an ipsilateral malignant lesion, four of whom were not initially operated (4/23, 17%). CONCLUSIONS: BI-RADS categories 4-5, HG-LN diagnosis, and age ≥ 54 years were features associated with an upgrade at definitive surgery. Moreover, 17% of unoperated cases developed an aggressive disease, emphasizing that LN patients need close surveillance due to the long-term risk of breast cancer.

7.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ketogenic diet (KD) is based on restriction of carbohydrate intake. Metabolism is forced to obtain energy starting from ß-oxidation of fatty acids which, turned into ketone bodies, can also be used by central nervous system (CNS). KD use in treatment of chronic migraine has recently been considered. We set out to verify modification of symptoms in patients with refractory chronic migraine in response to KD. METHODS: Fifty patients were enrolled of which 38 completed the procedures the study and 23 were considered in the statistics. All of the patients considered in our study were affected by medication overuse headache (MOH). They were on a KD for 3 months. The following parameters have been checked at t = 0 and every 30 days for 6 months: migraine episode length (n. hours/day), frequency (n. days/month), level of pain of every episode measured on a scale from 1 to 3 (1 = mild; 2 = moderate; 3 = severe), and n. analgesic drugs taken/month. RESULTS: Days with symptoms decreased from 30 (median value) to 7.5 with p < 0.0001. The duration of the migraine episodes decreased from 24 h (median value) to 5.5 h with p < 0.0016. The patients' pain level, initially at maximum value for 83% of the participants, improved for 55% of them (p < 0.0024). The number of drugs taken in a month decreased from 30 doses (median value) to 6 doses. CONCLUSIONS: It can be stated that a 3-month KD resulted in a reduction of painful symptoms of drug refractory chronic migraine. This result may suggest an improvement in quality of life of the patients, even without a tabulated data collection.

8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; : 100329, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in high compared to low-risk pregnancies complicated by SARS-COV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a multinational retrospective cohort study including women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-COV-2 from 76 centers from 25 different countries in Europe, United States, South America, Asia and Australia from 04 April 2020 till 28 October 2020. The primary outcome was a composite measure of maternal mortality and morbidity including admission to intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Secondary outcome was a composite measure of adverse perinatal outcome, including miscarriage, fetal loss, neonatal (NND) and perinatal (PND) death, and admission to neonatal intensive care unit. All these outcomes were assessed in high-risk compared to low-risk pregnancies. Pregnancies were considered as high risk in case of either pre-existing chronic medical conditions pre-existing pregnancy or obstetric disorders occurring in pregnancy. Fisher-test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: 887 singleton pregnancies tested positive to SARS-COV-2 at RT-PCR nasal and pharyngeal swab were included in the study. The risk of composite adverse maternal outcome was higher in high compared to low risk-pregnancies with an OR of 1.52 (95% CU 1.03-2.24; p= 0.035). Likewise, women carrying a high risk-pregnancies were also at higher risk of hospital admission (OR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04; p= 0.002), presence of severe respiratory symptoms (OR: 2.13, 95% CI .41-3.21; p= 0.001), admission to ICU (OR: 2.63, 95% CI 1.42-4.88) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.19- 5.94; p= .002). When exploring perinatal outcomes, high-risk pregnancies were also at high risk of adverse perinatal outcome with an OR 0f 1.78 (95% CI .15-2.72; p= 0.009). However, such association was mainly due to the higher incidence of miscarriage in high risk compared to low risk pregnancies (5.3% vs 1.6%, p= 0.008), while there was no difference as regard as the other explored outcomes between the two study groups. At logistic regression analysis, maternal age (OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.22, p= 0.023) and the presence of a high-risk pregnancies (OR: 4.21, 95% CI 3.90-5.11, p<0.001) were independently associated with adverse maternal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk pregnancies complicated by SARS-COV-2 infection are at higher risk of adverse maternal outcome compared to low-risk gestations.

9.
J Reprod Immunol ; 144: 103285, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582489

RESUMO

We report herein the longest-lasting study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile in pregnancy, from first trimester-infection to delivery. Seventeen out of 164 pregnant women tested positive for COVID-19. Throughout pregnancy, the neutralizing antibody titer remained stable, whilst a significant decline in the non-neutralizing antibodies was observed after 16 weeks of gestation. All the newborns of women who developed IgG antibodies showed the presence of the same antibodies in arterial cord blood. Knowledge on the longevity and type of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response may help to guide vaccination strategies in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , /metabolismo , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , /imunologia
10.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 25(2): 166-171, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of vulvar anatomy and vulvar self-examination (VSE) in a sample of Italian women attending a gynecology clinic. METHODS: For this original research from May to July 2019, 512 women attending the Lower Genital Tract Clinic at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the University of Torino were invited to participate in a 29-question survey about vulvar anatomy, VSE, and sociodemographic details. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of 512 patients, 500 completed the questionnaire (98% response rate). The mean age of respondents was 41 years (range = 17-77 years). Education level was evenly distributed between elementary, high school, and university graduates. Only 15% of interviewed women were able correctly sketching vulvar anatomy. Seventy-six percent of the women had not heard about VSE, and 61% of the women approach their genitalia with feelings of shame and embarrassment. Only 23% of the women would seek medical advice after identification of possible abnormalities during VSE. A majority (69%) of the women would like to have more information about VSE and vulvar health through educational videos and social media. CONCLUSIONS: Education about VSE may lead to earlier diagnosis of vulvar cancers and other pathologies. Further efforts are needed to disperse information about normal external female genital anatomy and VSE to achieve self-confidence among women.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375467

RESUMO

Vulvar cancer (VC) is a rare neoplasm, usually arising in postmenopausal women, although human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated VC usually develop in younger women. Incidences of VCs are rising in many countries. Surgery is the cornerstone of early-stage VC management, whereas therapies for advanced VC are multimodal and not standardized, combining chemotherapy and radiotherapy to avoid exenterative surgery. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are scarce due to the rarity of the disease and prognosis has not improved. Hence, new therapies are needed to improve the outcomes of these patients. In recent years, improved knowledge regarding the crosstalk between neoplastic and tumor cells has allowed researchers to develop a novel therapeutic approach exploiting these molecular interactions. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems play a key role in anti-tumor immunesurveillance. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated efficacy in multiple tumor types, improving survival rates and disease outcomes. In some gynecologic cancers (e.g., cervical cancer), many studies are showing promising results and a growing interest is emerging about the potential use of ICIs in VC. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest developments in the field of VC immunoncology, to present the role of state-of-the-art ICIs in VC management and to discuss new potential immunotherapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/imunologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/imunologia , Doença de Paget Extramamária/imunologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Doença de Paget Extramamária/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Paget Extramamária/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Vulvares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/virologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248313

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The classical surgical anatomy of the female pelvis was born with radical hysterectomy [1] and focused on the pivotal role of the lateral parametrium, a conceptually complex structure, artifact of surgical anatomy [2], without which, the whole classical model would collapse. Here, using natural planes, we tried to simplify the puzze of virtual spaces surrounding this structure [3,4]. With the aim of better conceptualizing the classical model of female pelvic surgical anatomy, we broadened its perspective, narrowed on the historical gynecological setting, by developing a comprehensive model of pelvic retroperitoneal compartmentalization. This dissection was based on invariable anatomical (fasciae), rather than surgical-anatomical (parametrium) structures and aims at providing a holistic, more user-friendly approach, intended for surgical and educational purposes [5]. As each compartment has its own surgical function (hence the name), the excavation of a single compartment may be used as a rational guide to tailor surgery to the site of the pathology to be treated or the type of procedure required; while their sequential development may be useful in planning surgical strategies. Redefining the classical model according to the anatomical fascial planes of dissection, potentially allows for an intrinsic surgical reproducibility, minimizing dissective bias. A reinterpretation of known anatomy is required to enhance education. The breaking down of such a complex system (the pelvis) into smaller parts (compartments) will hopefully provide a useful guide to conceptualize and navigate; surgical navigation requires a holistic mental map and a few invariable anatomical reference points or landmarks. DESIGN: a step-by-step laparoscopic demonstration of the fascial model, developed on a fresh frozen female pelvis and its correlation with the classical female retroperitoneal surgical anatomy.. SETTING: Cadaver Lab, Legal Medicine, University of Turin. INTERVENTIONS: The first part of the video shows the progressive development of the three hemi-compartments in the right hemipelvis and of the fourth median compartment, after the identification of three invariable anatomical reference points: the obliterated umbilical artery, the ureter and the sacrouterine ligament as superficial landmarks of 3 deeper fascial-ligamentous structures: the umbilicovesical fascia, the urogenital-hypogastric fascia, the sacropubic ligament, respectively. The areas delimited by the aforementioned deep fascial ligamentous structures have been called compartments: - the right parietal hemi-compartment, as it is bordered by the sidewall of the pelvis, laterally to the umbilicovesical fascia - the right vascular hemi-compartment, so-called because of the presence of the internal iliac vessel visceral branches, between the umbilicovesical fascia and the urogenital-hypogastric fascia - the visceral compartment, as it contains the pelvic organs, between the sacropubic ligaments - the right neural hemi-compartment, because of the presence of the organ-specific vegetative bundles, medially to the urogenital-hypogastric fascia. The second part of the video describes the retrorectal, presacral and retropubic connection areas between the neural, vascular and parietal hemi-compartments of each hemipelvis, justifying their overall crescent shape. Lastly, the spaces of classical surgical anatomy included in each hemi-compartment are listed not only according to their anatomical but also functional criterion. In fact, the parietal compartment should be developed for the evaluation of pelvic lymph node status or during exenterative and urogynecological procedures. The vascular compartment must be prepared when sectioning of the vascular visceral pedicles at their origin is required. Development of the neural compartment is required whenever visceral neural components are to be spared. The visceral compartment has to be developed for a complete organ mobilization and exposure. CONCLUSION: Taken as a whole, our four-compartment model of pelvic anatomical surgery is intended for use in planning and optimizing surgical strategies. Moreover, it is potentially able to simplify surgical teaching and training, allowing to fit puzzle-like pieces of disjointed organ-specific retroperitoneal spaces together, according their function. Correlation of this approach to clinical outcomes is still being determined.

13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 703, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma, natural and man-made catastrophic events can be predictors of postpartum psychological distress. In a public health response due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the Italian government imposed a lockdown from March 9 to May 3. This extraordinary situation may have been challenging for maternal psychological health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women giving birth during the Covid-19 pandemic and its associations with quarantine measures, obstetrical factors, and relational attachment style. METHODS: Women who gave birth in a high-volume obstetric/gynaecological medical centre located in an epidemic area during the Covid-19 pandemic (March 8 to June 15) were asked to complete an online survey about their childbirth experience and the perceived effect of the pandemic. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered to assess levels of postpartum depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and relational style of attachment, respectively. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify associations between quarantine measures, childbirth experience, attachment style, and EPDS and IES-R scores. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 163 women (response rate 60.8%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.2% (EPDS cut-off score ≥ 11) and the PTSS rate was 42.9% (IES-R cut-off score ≥ 24). Dismissive and fearful avoidant attachment styles were significantly associated with the risk of depression and PTSS, respectively. Perceived pain during birth was a risk factor for postpartum depression. Perceived support provided by healthcare staff was a protective factor against depression and PTSS. Another protective factor against PTSS was quiet on the ward due to the absence of hospital visitors. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of postpartum depressive and PTSS in women who gave birth during the Covid-19 pandemic. Postnatal psychological distress seemed to be associated more with the prenatal experience and other individual factors than with the pandemic hospital restrictions. Early detection during pregnancy of an insecure attachment style is fundamental to provide targeted preventive and therapeutic psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Parto/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Prevalência , Psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to give a global overview of trends in access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and what is being done to mitigate its impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis and content analysis based on an online survey among clinicians, researchers, and organizations. Our data were extracted from multiple-choice questions on access to SRHR services and risk of SRHR violations, and written responses to open-ended questions on threats to access and required response. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 51 people representing 29 countries. Eighty-six percent reported that access to contraceptive services was less or much less because of COVID-19, corresponding figures for surgical and medical abortion were 62% and 46%. The increased risk of gender-based and sexual violence was assessed as moderate or severe by 79%. Among countries with mildly restrictive abortion policies, 69% had implemented changes to facilitate access to abortion during the pandemic, compared with none among countries with severe restrictions (P < .001), 87.5% compared with 46% had implemented changes to facilitate access to contraception (P = .023). The content analysis showed that (a) prioritizations in health service delivery at the expense of SRHR, (b) lack of political will, (c) the detrimental effect of lockdown, and (d) the suspension of sexual education, were threats to SRHR access (theme 1). Requirements to mitigate these threats (theme 2) were (a) political will and support of universal access to SRH services, (b) the sensitization of providers, (c) free public transport, and (d) physical protective equipment. A contrasting third theme was the state of exception of the COVID-19 pandemic as a window of opportunity to push forward women's health and rights. CONCLUSIONS: Many countries have seen decreased access to and increased violations of SRHR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with severe restrictions on abortion seem less likely to have implemented changes to SRHR delivery to mitigate this impact. Political will to support the advancement of SRHR is often lacking, which is fundamental to ensuring both continued access and, in a minority of cases, the solidification of gains made to SRHR during the pandemic.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 972, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to estimate the risk of subsequent extra-cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related cancer in patients surgically treated for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3). This is the first study in Italy investigating the occurrence of extra-cervical tumors in this cohort of patients. METHODS: 3184 patients surgically treated for CIN2-3 since 1992 at the Department of Surgical Sciences of University of Torino were considered. The risk of HPV-related cancer was calculated as Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR), using as expected values tumour age specific incidence of resident population. RESULTS: 173 second primary cancer (SCPs) were identified. SIR to develop cancer after treatment for CIN2-3 was 2.2 (CI 95% 1.89-2.50). Among these occurrences, 10 are in HPV related sites: 1 anus (SIR = 1.8; 0.04-10.0), 3 vagina (SIR = 12.4; 2.56-36.3), 1 vulva (SIR = 1.7; 0.04-9.59), 5 oropharynx (SIR = 8.5; 2.76-19.8). Significant risk has been also recorded for pulmonary (SIR = 3.1; 0.70-5.27) and bladder (SIR = 4.05; 1.10-10.56), with smoking as possible cofactor. We also found increased risk for breast (SIR = 2.4; 2.07-2.84) and ovarian cancers (SIR = 2.1; 1.13-3.49), probably due to an higher adherence to spontaneous and programmed screening programs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the hypothesis of an increased risk of HPV-related tumours for CIN treated patients, mostly for CIN3. It is conceivable the need of early diagnosis for these cancers in this higher-risk populations.

16.
AJP Rep ; 10(3): e198-e201, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094004

RESUMO

Background In a recently published multicenter randomized controlled trial, we demonstrated that progestogens are not effective as maintenance tocolysis. Objective This study was aimed to evaluate if previous finding may be affected by positive urine culture and/or vaginal swab. Study Design We performed a secondary analysis of the PROTECT trial (NCT01178788). Women with singleton pregnancy between 22 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation, admitted for threatened preterm labor were considered. At admission, we collected urine culture and vaginal swabs. At discharge, women with a cervical length ≤25 mm were randomized to vaginal progesterone or 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or observation group. We used Chi-square statistics, considering 97.5% CI (confidence interval) and p -value less than 0.025 for significance. Results Urine culture and vaginal swabs were collected in 232 out of 235 patients included in the primary analysis. Overall, 31 out of 232 women (13.4%) had positive urine culture and 60 out of 232 (25.9%) had positive vaginal swab. In women with negative urine culture, a higher rate of preterm birth was found in vaginal progesterone group (27/69, 39.7%) respect with controls (14/68, 20.6%; relative risk [RR] = 1.90; 97.5% CI: 1.01-3.57; p = 0.018). Conclusion Among women with negative urine culture, the rate of preterm birth <37 weeks' gestation was significantly increased in those receiving vaginal progesterone, reinforcing our previous findings in symptomatic women.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was named coronavirus disease 2019 and classified as a global public health emergency. The evidence related to the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnancy is limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy, whereas data on the first trimester are scant. Many viral infections can be harmful to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy, and whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is one of them is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss in the first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, coronavirus disease 2019 course in the first trimester was assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Between February 22 and May 21, 2020, we conducted a case-control study at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, among pregnant women in their first trimester, paired for last menstruation. The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 was compared between women with spontaneous abortion (case group, n=100) and those with ongoing pregnancy (control group, n=125). Current or past infection was determined by the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swab and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies in a blood sample. Patient demographics, coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms, and the main risk factors for abortion were collected. RESULTS: Of 225 women, 23 (10.2%) had a positive test result for coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 between the cases (11/100, 11%) and the controls (12/125, 9.6%) (P=.73). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that coronavirus disease 2019 was not an independent predictor of early pregnancy loss (odds ratio, 1.28; confidence interval, 0.53-3.08). Coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms in the first trimester were fever, anosmia, ageusia, cough, arthralgia, and diarrhea; no cases of pneumonia or hospital admission owing to coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms were recorded. No difference in the incidence of symptoms was noted between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy does not seem to predispose to early pregnancy loss; its cumulative incidence did not differ between women with spontaneous abortion and women with ongoing pregnancy. Coronavirus disease 2019 appears to have a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy, consistent with what has been observed during the second and third trimesters.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932604

RESUMO

Herein we aimed at assessing whether Myo-Inositol (MI), Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA), and Folic acid (FA) could improve oocyte quality and embryo development in non-PCOS overweight/obese women undergoing IVF. Three hundred and twenty-four mature oocytes were obtained from non-PCOS overweight/obese patients, randomized to receive either MI, ALA, and FA (MI + ALA + FA group, n = 155 oocytes) or FA alone (FA-only group, n = 169 oocytes). Oocytes were examined using Polarized Light Microscopy to assess morphological features of zona pellucida (ZP) and meiotic spindle (MS). One hundred and seventy-six embryos (n = 84 in the MI + ALA + FA group, n = 92 in the FA-only group) were assessed by conventional morphology on days 2 and 5, as well as using the Time-Lapse System morphokinetic analysis. A significantly higher ZP retardance, area, and thickness (p < 0.05), and a shorter MS axis (p < 0.05) were observed in the MI + ALA + FA group, suggesting a positive effect on oocyte quality. Conventional morphology evaluation on day 2 showed a higher mean embryo score in the MI + ALA + FA group, whereas embryo morphokinetic was comparable in the two groups. Overall, our data show a possible beneficial effect of the combination of MI, ALA, and FA on oocyte and embryo morphology, encouraging testing of this combination in adequately powered randomized trials to assess their impact of clinical IVF results.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative specimen mammography (ISM) is a diffuse technique that allows surgeons to check specimens immediately after lumpectomy. Although the specimen is slightly compressed, the radiological image can be distorted by tissue overlap, and this may affect the evaluation of tumour borders, resulting in extension of the lumpectomy. As ISM may be less precise due to inadequate compression, a vacuum effect was applied to the specimen to increase the precision of margin detection. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted at St. Anna Hospital Breast Unit, Turin, Italy. Women who underwent lumpectomy for cancer were eligible for inclusion. Both standard ISM (sISM) and vacuum ISM (vISM) were performed. Eighteen specimens obtained after lumpectomy from 1 April 2018 to 31 April 2018 were scanned. sISM (two orthogonal projections) was performed. Next, the specimen was placed in a vacuum, and vISM was performed. The examination was completed with a second orthogonal projection after removal of the vacuum, replacement of the specimen and repositioning of the vacuum. Additional tissue was removed if the surgeon considered that excision was inadequate. Finally, the specimen was sent for definitive histopathological analysis, which is the gold standard for the assessment of surgical margins. Intraoperative histological margin assessment was not performed. The sISM and vISM images and final histopathology reports were compared. RESULTS: For sISM, specificity was 47 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 25-70], sensitivity was 67 % (95 % CI 21-94), positive predictive value (PPV) was 20 % (95 % CI 6-51) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 88 % (95 % CI 53-98). For vISM, specificity was 100 % (95 % CI 80-100), sensitivity was 67 % (95 % CI 21-94), PPV was 100 % (95 % CI 34-100) and NPV was 94 % (95 % CI 72-99). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the vacuum technique is feasible, cost-saving and yields results that are similar to those from frozen sections but without the limitations, such as prolonged operating time, high variability in sensitivity due to pathologists' abilities, risk of compromising the histological report, and unreliability for small lumps and ductal carcinoma in situ.

20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(11): 2921-2928, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are known to increase the risk of obstetrical complications. However, aPL significance and prevalence in women with late-onset pregnancy complications (LO-PC) need further clarification. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of aPL in a cohort of women who experienced LO-PC and to compare it with a cohort of uneventful pregnancies. METHODS: One hundred pregnant women who experienced LO-PC, had a low risk for chromosomal abnormalities, and absence of fetal abnormalities were recruited from August 2018 to August 2019. One hundred women with uneventful pregnancy were included as controls. aPL testing was performed on serum samples derived from prenatal screening test and included both criteria and "extra criteria" aPL. RESULTS: Patients with LO-PC had significantly higher aPL prevalence when compared with controls (31/100 [31%] vs 10/100 [10%]; P < .001). More in detail, up to 26% of women with LO-PC were positive for one aPL, with an overall prevalence significantly higher than controls (26% vs 9%; P < .05). Among single aPL positivity, patients had significantly higher rate of positivity and titers of anticardiolipin IgG (10% vs 2%; mean ± standard deviation 11 ± 13 vs 4 ± 9.6 chemoluminescent unit; P < .05) and phosphatidylserine-prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) IgM (15% vs 6%; mean ± standard deviation 10.2 ± 21.7 vs 3.7 ± 13.7 U; P < .05). Testing for aPS/PT (IgM/IgG) alone allowed the identification of 17 patients negative for criteria aPL. aPL-positive patients had a significantly higher risk of preterm birth (34-36 + 6 weeks; 10% vs 8%; P < .012). CONCLUSIONS: We report a high prevalence of aPL in our cohort. Testing for both criteria and "extra criteria" aPL in women with previous LO-PC could improve the diagnostic accuracy identifying women at higher risk for recurrent pregnancy complications.

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