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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Cancer Res ; 81(8): 1954-1964, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602785

RESUMO

The success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in identifying common, low-penetrance variant-cancer associations for the past decade is undisputed. However, discovering additional high-penetrance cancer mutations in unknown cancer predisposing genes requires detection of variant-cancer association of ultra-rare coding variants. Consequently, large-scale next-generation sequence data with associated phenotype information are needed. Here, we used genotype data on 166,281 Icelanders, of which, 49,708 were whole-genome sequenced and 408,595 individuals from the UK Biobank, of which, 41,147 were whole-exome sequenced, to test for association between loss-of-function burden in autosomal genes and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cancer in Caucasians. A total of 25,205 BCC cases and 683,058 controls were tested. Rare germline loss-of-function variants in PTPN14 conferred substantial risks of BCC (OR, 8.0; P = 1.9 × 10-12), with a quarter of carriers getting BCC before age 70 and over half in their lifetime. Furthermore, common variants at the PTPN14 locus were associated with BCC, suggesting PTPN14 as a new, high-impact BCC predisposition gene. A follow-up investigation of 24 cancers and three benign tumor types showed that PTPN14 loss-of-function variants are associated with high risk of cervical cancer (OR, 12.7, P = 1.6 × 10-4) and low age at diagnosis. Our findings, using power-increasing methods with high-quality rare variant genotypes, highlight future prospects for new discoveries on carcinogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies the tumor-suppressor gene PTPN14 as a high-impact BCC predisposition gene and indicates that inactivation of PTPN14 by germline sequence variants may also lead to increased risk of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Penetrância , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Fatores Etários , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Bancos de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Laeknabladid ; 107(3): 121, 2021 03.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625377
4.
Nature ; 584(7822): 619-623, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581359

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disease and is highly heritable1. Here, by using a genome-wide association study of 30,234 cases and 725,172 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank, we find 99 sequence variants at 93 loci, of which 84 variants are previously unreported2-7. A low-frequency (1.36%) intronic variant in FLT3 (rs76428106-C) has the largest effect on risk of autoimmune thyroid disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, P = 2.37 × 10-24). rs76428106-C is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.90, P = 6.46 × 10-4), rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.41, P = 4.31 × 10-4) and coeliac disease (OR = 1.62, P = 1.20 × 10-4). FLT3 encodes fms-related tyrosine kinase 3, a receptor that regulates haematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells. RNA sequencing revealed that rs76428106-C generates a cryptic splice site, which introduces a stop codon in 30% of transcripts that are predicted to encode a truncated protein, which lacks its tyrosine kinase domains. Each copy of rs76428106-C doubles the plasma levels of the FTL3 ligand. Activating somatic mutations in FLT3 are associated with acute myeloid leukaemia8 with a poor prognosis and rs76428106-C also predisposes individuals to acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.90, P = 5.40 × 10-3). Thus, a predicted loss-of-function germline mutation in FLT3 causes a reduction in full-length FLT3, with a compensatory increase in the levels of its ligand and an increased disease risk, similar to that of a gain-of-function mutation.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ligantes , Mutação , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Islândia , Íntrons/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação com Perda de Função , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Reino Unido
5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 2982-2994, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that has no established therapy. The attribute of Lp(a) that affects cardiovascular risk is not established. Low levels of Lp(a) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether cardiovascular risk is conferred by Lp(a) molar concentration or apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] size, and whether the relationship between Lp(a) and T2D risk is causal. METHODS: This was a case-control study of 143,087 Icelanders with genetic information, including 17,715 with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 8,734 with T2D. This study used measured and genetically imputed Lp(a) molar concentration, kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) repeats (which determine apo(a) size), and a splice variant in LPA associated with small apo(a) but low Lp(a) molar concentration to disentangle the relationship between Lp(a) and cardiovascular risk. Loss-of-function homozygotes and other subjects genetically predicted to have low Lp(a) levels were evaluated to assess the relationship between Lp(a) and T2D. RESULTS: Lp(a) molar concentration was associated dose-dependently with CAD risk, peripheral artery disease, aortic valve stenosis, heart failure, and lifespan. Lp(a) molar concentration fully explained the Lp(a) association with CAD, and there was no residual association with apo(a) size. Homozygous carriers of loss-of-function mutations had little or no Lp(a) and increased the risk of T2D. CONCLUSIONS: Molar concentration is the attribute of Lp(a) that affects risk of cardiovascular diseases. Low Lp(a) concentration (bottom 10%) increases T2D risk. Pharmacologic reduction of Lp(a) concentration in the 20% of individuals with the greatest concentration down to the population median is predicted to decrease CAD risk without increasing T2D risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Islândia , Kringles , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Peso Molecular , Isoformas de Proteínas/sangue , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2054, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053729

RESUMO

Bone area is one measure of bone size that is easily derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In a GWA study of DXA bone area of the hip and lumbar spine (N ≥ 28,954), we find thirteen independent association signals at twelve loci that replicate in samples of European and East Asian descent (N = 13,608 - 21,277). Eight DXA area loci associate with osteoarthritis, including rs143384 in GDF5 and a missense variant in COL11A1 (rs3753841). The strongest DXA area association is with rs11614913[T] in the microRNA MIR196A2 gene that associates with lumbar spine area (P = 2.3 × 10-42, ß = -0.090) and confers risk of hip fracture (P = 1.0 × 10-8, OR = 1.11). We demonstrate that the risk allele is less efficient in repressing miR-196a-5p target genes. We also show that the DXA area measure contributes to the risk of hip fracture independent of bone density.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas do Quadril/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estatura/genética , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno Tipo XI/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2358, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127096

RESUMO

The original HTML version of this Article was updated shortly after publication to add links to the Peer Review file.In addition, affiliations 16 and 17 incorrectly read 'School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney, WA, 6160, Australia' and 'St Vincent's Clinical School, University of New South Wales Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.' This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1777, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992453

RESUMO

Nerve conduction (NC) studies generate measures of peripheral nerve function that can reveal underlying pathology due to axonal loss, demyelination or both. We perform a genome-wide association study of sural NC amplitude and velocity in 7045 Icelanders and find a low-frequency splice-donor variant in PRPH (c.996+1G>A; MAF = 1.32%) associating with decreased NC amplitude but not velocity. PRPH encodes peripherin, an intermediate filament (IF) protein involved in cytoskeletal development and maintenance of neurons. Through RNA and protein studies, we show that the variant leads to loss-of-function (LoF), as when over-expressed in a cell line devoid of other IFs, it does not allow formation of the normal filamentous structure of peripherin, yielding instead punctate protein inclusions. Recall of carriers for neurological assessment confirms that from an early age, homozygotes have significantly lower sural NC amplitude than non-carriers and are at risk of a mild, early-onset, sensory-negative, axonal polyneuropathy.


Assuntos
Condução Nervosa/genética , Periferinas/genética , Polineuropatias/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Nervo Sural/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Axônios/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polineuropatias/epidemiologia , Polineuropatias/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Splicing de RNA/fisiologia
9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 224-230, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004670

RESUMO

AIMS: Type1 diabetes is generally regarded as an abruptly presenting disease in children without family history. The incidence and prevalence of insulin requiring diabetes in adults is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify this issue by examining the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in adulthood in a countrýs whole population. METHODS: Complete clinical and prescription data were used to identify cases of insulin requiring diabetes in the Icelandic population 18 years and older during the decade preceding February 2013. Health care databases and the insulin reimbursement system allowed for near 100% ascertainment of cases. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 32.1 years. The WHO age-adjusted incidence rate was 4.29/100.000 individuals and the point prevalence 0.10%. One fourth of cases were diagnosed after the age of forty. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.59. Almost 30% of cases presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and 40% had a positive family history. CONCLUSION: Type 1 like diabetes commonly presents in adults and family history is not rare. One can expect one case of type 1 diabetes in adults for every two children diagnosed. These results emphasize the need to acknowledge the possibility of absolute insulin deficiency in any newly presenting adult with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(7): 1199-1211, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476138

RESUMO

Urine dipstick tests are widely used in routine medical care to diagnose kidney and urinary tract and metabolic diseases. Several environmental factors are known to affect the test results, whereas the effects of genetic diversity are largely unknown. We tested 32.5 million sequence variants for association with urinary biomarkers in a set of 150 274 Icelanders with urine dipstick measurements. We detected 20 association signals, of which 14 are novel, associating with at least one of five clinical entities defined by the urine dipstick: glucosuria, ketonuria, proteinuria, hematuria and urine pH. These include three independent glucosuria variants at SLC5A2, the gene encoding the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT2), a protein targeted pharmacologically to increase urinary glucose excretion in the treatment of diabetes. Two variants associating with proteinuria are in LRP2 and CUBN, encoding the co-transporters megalin and cubilin, respectively, that mediate proximal tubule protein uptake. One of the hematuria-associated variants is a rare, previously unreported 2.5 kb exonic deletion in COL4A3. Of the four signals associated with urine pH, we note that the pH-increasing alleles of two variants (POU2AF1, WDR72) associate significantly with increased risk of kidney stones. Our results reveal that genetic factors affect variability in urinary biomarkers, in both a disease dependent and independent context.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/urina , Variação Genética/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Feminino , Hematúria/genética , Hematúria/urina , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Islândia , Cetose/genética , Cetose/urina , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/genética , Proteinúria/urina , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
11.
Laeknabladid ; 104(7): 347-349, 2018 07.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972136

RESUMO

A 77-year-old woman with a history of anal squamous cell carcinoma was admitted because of malaise, diarrhea and nausea, in addition to back pain related to a verte- bral compression fracture. During the course of treatment, opioid therapy was initiated, following which the patient became progressively hypotensive and hyponatraemic and respiratory drive progressively decreased. Serum levels of cortisol, TSH and LH were decreased and prolactin slightly elevated, but a Synacthen test and brain MRI turned out normal, suggesting a diagnosis of opioid-induced pituitary dysfunction. The patient was given glucocorticoid replacement therapy with good results. Here we present a case of this serious but less well recognised side-effect of opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Hipopituitarismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipopituitarismo/sangue , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Hipopituitarismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Hipófise/metabolismo , Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Prolactina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 24, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263835

RESUMO

A meta-analysis of publicly available summary statistics on multiple sclerosis combined with three Nordic multiple sclerosis cohorts (21,079 cases, 371,198 controls) revealed seven sequence variants associating with multiple sclerosis, not reported previously. Using polygenic risk scores based on public summary statistics of variants outside the major histocompatibility complex region we quantified genetic overlap between common autoimmune diseases in Icelanders and identified disease clusters characterized by autoantibody presence/absence. As multiple sclerosis-polygenic risk scores captures the risk of primary biliary cirrhosis and vice versa (P = 1.6 × 10-7, 4.3 × 10-9) we used primary biliary cirrhosis as a proxy-phenotype for multiple sclerosis, the idea being that variants conferring risk of primary biliary cirrhosis have a prior probability of conferring risk of multiple sclerosis. We tested 255 variants forming the primary biliary cirrhosis-polygenic risk score and found seven multiple sclerosis-associating variants not correlated with any previously established multiple sclerosis variants. Most of the variants discovered are close to or within immune-related genes. One is a low-frequency missense variant in TYK2, another is a missense variant in MTHFR that reduces the function of the encoded enzyme affecting methionine metabolism, reported to be dysregulated in multiple sclerosis brain.

13.
Nat Genet ; 49(9): 1398-1402, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783164

RESUMO

Sequence variants that affect mean fasting glucose levels do not necessarily affect risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the effects of 36 reported glucose-associated sequence variants on between- and within-subject variance in fasting glucose levels in 69,142 Icelanders. The variant in TCF7L2 that increases fasting glucose levels increases between-subject variance (5.7% per allele, P = 4.2 × 10-10), whereas variants in GCK and G6PC2 that increase fasting glucose levels decrease between-subject variance (7.5% per allele, P = 4.9 × 10-11 and 7.3% per allele, P = 7.5 × 10-18, respectively). Variants that increase mean and between-subject variance in fasting glucose levels tend to increase T2D risk, whereas those that increase the mean but reduce variance do not (r2 = 0.61). The variants that increase between-subject variance increase fasting glucose heritability estimates. Intuitively, our results show that increasing the mean and variance of glucose levels is more likely to cause pathologically high glucose levels than increase in the mean offset by a decrease in variance.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Glucoquinase/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética
14.
Diabetes ; 66(11): 2888-2902, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566273

RESUMO

To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in additional data sets (of 14,545 or 7,397 T2D case and 38,994 or 71,604 control subjects). We identified 13 novel T2D-associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8), including variants near the GLP2R, GIP, and HLA-DQA1 genes. Our analysis brought the total number of independent T2D associations to 128 distinct signals at 113 loci. Despite substantially increased sample size and more complete coverage of low-frequency variation, all novel associations were driven by common single nucleotide variants. Credible sets of potentially causal variants were generally larger than those based on imputation with earlier reference panels, consistent with resolution of causal signals to common risk haplotypes. Stratification of T2D-associated loci based on T2D-related quantitative trait associations revealed tissue-specific enrichment of regulatory annotations in pancreatic islet enhancers for loci influencing insulin secretion and in adipocytes, monocytes, and hepatocytes for insulin action-associated loci. These findings highlight the predominant role played by common variants of modest effect and the diversity of biological mechanisms influencing T2D pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Variação Genética , Humanos
15.
Nat Genet ; 47(12): 1415-25, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551672

RESUMO

We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to noncoding sequence, implying that association with T2D is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that the T2D risk allele for this SNP increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 173(5): 655-64, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26423473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are among the most common human neoplasms. To describe the epidemiology and assess the disease burden of clinically significant PAs, population-based studies are needed. Iceland has a small well-defined population. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of PAs in Iceland over an expanded period of time. DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational study, including all PAs diagnosed in Iceland from 1955 to 2012. METHODS: Extensive clinical information was gathered in a database. Prevalence rates for all PA subtypes were calculated along with standardized incidence rates (SIR). Sex ratios and relationships with adenoma size, age, and symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: We identified 471 individuals: 190 men and 281 women. Total prevalence in 2012 was 115.57/100, 000, prolactinomas were most prevalent (54.37/100, 000) followed by non-functioning adenomas (NFPAs) (42.32/100 ,000). Throughout the period, NFPAs were most common (43.0%) followed by prolactinomas (39.9%) and 11.3% had acromegaly and 5.7% Cushing's disease. Women are diagnosed younger with smaller adenomas. Total SIR has increased significantly and is now 5.8/100 000 per year. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide study spanning six decades, we have confirmed PAs rising prevalence and incidence rates noted in recent studies. We demonstrated higher overall prevalence and incidence rates than ever previously recorded with an increasing predominance of NFPAs, which is not explained by incidental findings alone. There is a relationship with the introduction of imaging modalities, but the vast majority of patients are symptomatic at diagnosis. This underlines the importance of increased awareness, education, and appropriate allocation of resources for this growing group of patients.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prolactinoma/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Diabetes Care ; 37(12): 3213-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25315206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies in type 2 diabetes report both increased mortality for normal weight and no evidence of an obesity paradox. We aimed to examine whether adipose tissue, muscle size, and physical function, which are known to vary by weight, mediate associations between BMI and mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The AGES-Reykjavik cohort comprised participants aged 66-96 years with diabetes defined by fasting glucose, medications, or self-report. BMI was determined from measured height and weight and classified as normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), n = 117), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), n = 293, referent group) or obese (≥30.0 kg/m(2), n = 227). Thigh muscle area and intermuscular, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissues were assessed with computed tomography. Function was assessed from gait speed and knee extensor strength. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for demographics and diabetes-related risk factors. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 6.66 years, and there were 85, 59, and 44 deaths among normal weight, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. There was no mortality risk for obese participants and an increased risk among normal weight compared with overweight participants (HR 1.72 [95% CI 1.12-2.64]). Associations remained with adjustment for adipose tissues and knee extensor strength; however, mortality risk for normal weight was attenuated following adjustment for thigh muscle (HR 1.36 [95% CI 0.87-2.11]) and gait speed (HR 1.44 [95% CI 0.91-2.27]). Linear regression confirmed with bootstrapping indicated that thigh muscle size mediated 46% of the relationship between normal weight and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Normal weight participants had elevated mortality risk compared with overweight participants. This paradoxical association was mediated in part by muscle size.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Atividade Motora , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/mortalidade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nat Genet ; 46(4): 357-63, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584071

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ~150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10(-4)). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Glicemia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Transporte de Íons/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proinsulina/sangue , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transportador 8 de Zinco
19.
Nat Genet ; 46(3): 234-44, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24509480

RESUMO

To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nat Genet ; 46(3): 294-8, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24464100

RESUMO

Through whole-genome sequencing of 2,630 Icelanders and imputation into 11,114 Icelandic cases and 267,140 controls followed by testing in Danish and Iranian samples, we discovered 4 previously unreported variants affecting risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A low-frequency (1.47%) variant in intron 1 of CCND2, rs76895963[G], reduces risk of T2D by half (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, P = 5.0 × 10(-21)) and is correlated with increased CCND2 expression. Notably, this variant is also associated with both greater height and higher body mass index (1.17 cm per allele, P = 5.5 × 10(-12) and 0.56 kg/m(2) per allele, P = 6.5 × 10(-7), respectively). In addition, two missense variants in PAM, encoding p.Asp563Gly (frequency of 4.98%) and p.Ser539Trp (frequency of 0.65%), confer moderately higher risk of T2D (OR = 1.23, P = 3.9 × 10(-10) and OR = 1.47, P = 1.7 × 10(-5), respectively), and a rare (0.20%) frameshift variant in PDX1, encoding p.Gly218Alafs*12, associates with high risk of T2D (OR = 2.27, P = 7.3 × 10(-7)).


Assuntos
Amidina-Liases/genética , Ciclina D2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Transativadores/genética , Estatura/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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