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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 292, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) associated to ticks are among the most important health issues affecting dogs. In Italy, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia conorii and Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) have been studied in both healthy canine populations and those clinically ill with suspected CVBDs. However, little information is currently available on the overall prevalence and distribution of these pathogens in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in clinically suspect dogs from three Italian macro areas during a 15-year period (2006-2020). METHODS: A large dataset (n = 21,992) of serological test results for selected TBPs in three macro areas in Italy was analysed using a Chi-square test to evaluate the associations between the categorical factors (i.e. macro area, region, year, sex and age) and a standard logistic regression model (significance set at P = 0.05). Serological data were presented as annual and cumulative prevalence, and distribution maps of cumulative positive cases for TBPs were generated. RESULTS: Of the tested serum samples, 86.9% originated from northern (43.9%) and central (43%) Italy. The majority of the tests was requested for the diagnosis of E. canis (47%; n = 10,334), followed by Rickettsia spp. (35.1%; n = 7725), B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (11.6%; n = 2560) and Anaplasma spp. (6.2%; n = 1373). The highest serological exposure was recorded for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (83.5%), followed by Rickettsia spp. (64.9%), Anaplasma spp. (39.8%) and E. canis (28.7%). The highest number of cumulative cases of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) was recorded in samples from Tuscany, central Italy. Rickettsia spp. was more prevalent in the south and on the islands, particularly in dogs on Sicily older than 6 years, whereas Anaplasma spp. was more prevalent in the north and E. canis more prevalent in the south and on the islands. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study highlight the high seroprevalence and wide distribution of the four TBPs in dogs with clinically suspected CVBDs from the studied regions of Italy. The very high seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) exemplifies a limitation of this study, given the use of clinically suspect dogs and the possibility of cross-reactions when using serological tests. The present research provides updated and illustrative information on the seroprevalence and distribution of four key TBPs, and advocates for integrative control strategies for their prevention.

2.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dragonfly and damselfly larvae have been considered as possible biocontrol agents against young instars of mosquito vectors in urban environments. Yet, our knowledge about adult odonate predation against mosquito adults is scarce. We quantified daily and annual predation rates, consumption rates and prey preferences of adult Hetaerina vulnerata male damselflies in an urban park. A focus on predation of mosquito species was provided, quantified their arbovirus (dengue, chikungunya and Zika) infection rates and biting activity. RESULTS: Foraging times of H. vulnerata overlapped with those of maximum activity of hematophagous mosquitoes. The most consumed preys were Diptera and Hymenoptera and, in lower quantities, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Psocoptera, and Neuroptera. Of note, 7% of the diet was represented by hematophagous dipterans, with 2.4% being Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Prey abundance in the diet coincided with that of the same species in the environment. The arboviral infection rate (dengue, chikungunya and Zika) was 1.6% for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The total biting rate of these mosquito vectors was 16 bites per person per day, while the annual rate of infectious bites was 93.4. CONCLUSION: Although 2.4% for both Aedes species seems a low consumption, considering the presence of 12 odonate species at the park, it can be argued that adult odonates may play a relevant role as mosquito vector regulators, therefore impacting the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Our study outlines the need of further research on the topic on the possible role of adult odonates for mosquito biocontrol. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063780

RESUMO

Populations of pollinating insects are in concrete decline globally [...].

4.
Vet Parasitol ; 295: 109450, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038808

RESUMO

Taeniosis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis are neglected zoonotic helminth infections with high disease burden caused by tapeworms which circulate between definitive and intermediate host reflecting a predator-prey interaction. Taeniid eggs can remain vital for months, allowing arthropods to mechanically transport them to intermediate hosts. However, the multiple routes that arthropods provide as carriers of taeniid eggs are still often unregarded or not considered. This review focuses on the prevalence and importance of arthropods as carriers and spreaders of taeniid eggs in the epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis. Current scientific knowledge showed a relevant role of houseflies (Muscidae), blowflies (Calliphoridae), dung beetles (Scarabaeoidea), darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae), ground beetles (Carabidae) and skin beetles (Dermestidae) in the spread of taeniid eggs in the environment, which may favor the infection of new hosts through the direct ingestion of an insect or of contaminated food and water. At last, key research challenges are highlighted, illustrating that further knowledge on the topic is needed to develop and improve guidelines and actions to prevent taeniid infections worldwide.

5.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806970

RESUMO

Most insecticides commonly used in storage facilities are synthetic, an issue that generates concerns about food safety and public health. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly pest management tools is urgently needed. In the present study, a 6% (w/w) Hazomalania voyronii essential oil-based nanoemulsion (HvNE) was developed and evaluated for managing Tribolium confusum, T. castaneum, and Tenebrio molitor, as an eco-friendly wheat protectant. Larval and adult mortality was evaluated after 4, 8, and 16 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days, testing two HvNE concentrations (500 ppm and 1000 ppm). T. confusum and T. castaneum adults and T. molitor larvae were tolerant to both concentrations of the HvNE, reaching 13.0%, 18.7%, and 10.3% mortality, respectively, at 1000 ppm after 7 days of exposure. However, testing HvNE at 1000 ppm, the mortality of T. confusum and T. castaneum larvae and T. molitor adults 7 days post-exposure reached 92.1%, 97.4%, and 100.0%, respectively. Overall, the HvNE can be considered as an effective adulticide or larvicide, depending on the target species. Our results highlight the potential of H. voyronii essential oil for developing green nanoinsecticides to be used in real-world conditions against key stored-product pests.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Laurales/química , Óleos Voláteis , Tribolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/parasitologia , Animais , Emulsões , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
6.
Insects ; 12(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803668

RESUMO

The Comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a primary pest of orchards in the North and Northwest of China. This pest appeared recently in Europe, including Italy, where it is infesting mainly vineyards as well as apple and pear orchards. The present study investigated the efficacy of Anagyrus vladimiri, a known biological control agent (BCA) of Planococcus ficus, on P. comstocki to evaluate a potential use for the management of this new pest. No-choice tests were conducted to quantify the parasitoid behavior against P. ficus and P. comstocki. The parasitoid successfully parasitized both species (parasitization rate: 51% and 67% on P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively). The A.vladimiri developmental time (19.67 ± 1.12 vs. 19.70 ± 1.07 days), sex ratio (1.16 ± 1.12 vs. 1.58 ± 1.07) and hind tibia length of the progeny showed no differences when P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively, were exploited as hosts. Two-choice tests, conducted by providing the parasitoid with a mixed population of P. ficus and P. comstocki, showed no host preference for either of the two mealybug species (23 vs. 27 first choices on P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively). The parasitization rate (61.5% and 64.5% in P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively) did not differ between the two hosts. Overall, our study adds basic knowledge on parasitoid behavior and host preferences and confirms the use of this economically important encyrtid species as an effective BCA against the invasive Comstock mealybug.

7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 217, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum; nevertheless, recent investigations indicate a likely role for cats in the epidemiology of Leishmania infection. Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) remains poorly characterised, partly due to the lack of suitable diagnostic tools. This study aimed to compare serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) profiles (specifically, alpha 2 and gamma globulins) in cats naturally exposed to or infected by L. infantum from southern Italy versus those of healthy controls and versus cats with neoplastic or inflammatory conditions from non-endemic areas. METHODS: Serum or plasma samples from four cohorts of cats were analysed for SAA levels and by SPE: (i) G1: healthy controls from Leishmania-non-endemic regions of Switzerland; (ii) G2: cats pre-diagnosed with neoplastic or inflammatory conditions available from the University of Cambridge sample archive; (iii) G3: L. infantum-seropositive, quantitative (q)PCR-negative cats from southern Italy; (iv) G4: L. infantum-seropositive and qPCR-positive cats from southern Italy. SAA data were assessed for normality and homoscedasticity using the Shapiro-Wilk and Levene's tests, respectively; the Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's test with Bonferroni correction were subsequently used to compare SAA serum levels between groups. A weighted generalised linear model with a binomial distribution was used to assess statistically significant differences in the numbers of animals displaying elevated gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 globulins between groups. RESULTS: Overall, 68 samples were analysed (G1: n = 16, G2: n = 20, G3: n = 20, G4: n = 12). Cats suffering from neoplastic and inflammatory conditions (G2 ) showed significantly higher SAA levels than healthy controls (G1) (median values [interquartile range]: G1: 0.00 [0.00-0.00] mg/l versus G2: 0.85 [0.00-49.55] mg/l). G2, G3 and G4 cats showed higher percentages of individuals with increased alpha 2 globulins (percentages ± standard error: G1 = 20.0% ± 10.3, G2 = 80.0% ± 8.9, G3 = 70.0% ± 10.2, G4 = 75.0% ± 12.5) and gamma globulins (G1 = 0.0% ± 0, G2 = 65.0% ± 10.7, G3 = 50.0% ± 11.2, G4 = 58.3% ± 14.2) than healthy control cats (G1). For all three markers, no significant difference between cats within G2, G3 and G4 was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the proportions of animals with elevated levels of alpha 2 and gamma globulins are significantly higher in cats exposed to and infected with L. infantum. Levels of SAA and alpha 2 and gamma globulins may not be used to differentiate between L. infantum infection or exposure, and neoplastic and/or inflammatory conditions.

8.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(176): 20210056, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726543

RESUMO

Social learning represents a high-level complex process to acquire information about the environment, which is increasingly reported in invertebrates. The animal-robot interaction paradigm turned out to be an encouraging strategy to unveil social learning in vertebrates, but it has not been fully exploited in invertebrates. In this study, Lucilia sericata adults were induced to observe bio-robotic conspecific and predator demonstrators to reproduce different flower foraging choices. Can a fly manage two flows of social information with opposite valence? Herein, we attempt a reply. The selection process of L. sericata was affected by social information provided through different bio-robotic demonstrators, by avoiding coloured discs previously visited by a bio-robotic predator and preferring coloured discs previously visited by a bio-robotic conspecific. When both bio-robotic demonstrators visited the same disc, the latency duration increased and the flies significantly tended to avoid this disc. This indicates the complex risk-benefit evaluation process carried out by L. sericata during the acquisition of such social information. Overall, this article provides a unique perspective on the behavioural ecology of social learning in non-social insects; it also highlights the high potential of the animal-robot interaction approach for unveiling the full spectrum of invertebrates' abilities in using social information.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Robótica , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Flores
9.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(1): 454-461, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558905

RESUMO

The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., is one of the most significant insect species of economic importance for producing protein-rich food and feed. The larvae are a promising fishmeal substitute for fish feed, and a good alternative source for human nutrition. In this study, the effect of behavioral asymmetries on male mating success of T. molitor was evaluated. Males performing antennal waving (63%) when detecting a female approached the apex of the female abdomen in a comparable manner from both sides (32% from left side vs 31% from right side). Fewer males showed antennal waving and also raised the anterior part of their body (37%) during mate recognition; 14% of them approached on the apex of female abdomen from the left side, and 23% of them approached from the right side of female body. The duration of mate recognition, antennal tapping, rubbing behavior, and the whole mating sequence of males that moved on the apex of the abdomen from the left side of females was significantly lower over that of males approaching from the right side (10.7, 12.6, 16.4, and 126.1 s for left-biased males vs 12.2, 14.8, 18.6, and 139.6 s for right-biased males, respectively). Concerning mounting side, left-biased males showed a shorter duration of rubbing behavior and the whole mating sequence (15.5 and 123.2 s) over right-biased (18.9 and 138.3 s) and backside approaching males (19.4 and 144.1 s). The duration of mate recognition, antennal tapping, and copula was not affected by the presence of a male laterality bias. Overall, this study sheds light on how laterality affects mating traits and the male success of this important edible insect species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Tenebrio , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Reprodução
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(5): 2324-2336, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a broadleaf host plant suitable for rearing the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). Here, the possibility of using yacon as an alternative host plant for production of the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most important natural enemies of whiteflies, was explored. Data on the demographic characteristics, parasitism rate, and host-feeding rate were collected and analyzed using the TWOSEX-MSChart, CONSUME-MSChart, and TIMING-MSChart computer programs, and then contrasted with comparable data from the more commonly utilized host plant, tobacco. RESULTS: Higher fecundity (F) (190.13 eggs/female) and more oviposition days (Od ) (16.60 days) were observed in E. formosa when yacon was used as the host plant for rearing T. vaporariorum, compared with when tobacco was used (F = 150.13 eggs/female, Od = 15.27 days). The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproduction rate (R0 ) were significantly higher in E. formosa parasitizing T. vaporariorum reared on yacon compared with those parasitizing tobacco-reared T. vaporariorum. Furthermore, the net host-feeding rate (C0 = 40.87 prey/parasitoid), net killing rate (Z0 = 239.73 prey/parasitoid), and finite killing rate ( υ = 0.2560/day) for E. formosa on yacon-reared whiteflies were significantly higher than those from tobacco-reared whiteflies. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that yacon is more suitable than tobacco as a host plant for mass-rearing E. formosa for biological control programs to manage whiteflies. An innovative application of the multinomial theorem for calculating the exact probability of bootstrap samples in life table research was also introduced. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Oviposição , Taiwan
11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(1): 101585, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113476

RESUMO

Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata mites, as well as Ixodida ticks, infest ectothermic tetrapods worldwide, potentially acting as vectors of bacteria, viruses and protozoa. The relationship among ectoparasites, transmitted pathogenic agents (e.g., Borrelia spp., Coxiella spp., Hepatozoon spp., and Rickettsia spp.) and ectothermic hosts has been scarcely investigated. This research focuses on a large collection of Brazilian herpetofauna screened for the presence of arthropod ectoparasites and vector-borne microbial agents. Reptiles (n = 121) and amphibians (n = 49) from various locations were infested by ectoparasites. Following genomic extraction, microbial agents were detected in 81 % of the Acari (i.e. n = 113 mites and n = 26 ticks). None of the mites, ticks and tissues from amphibians yielded positive results for any of the screened agents. Blood was collected from reptiles and processed through blood cytology and molecular analyses (n = 48). Of those, six snakes (12.5 %) showed intraerythrocytic alterations compatible with Hepatozoon spp. gamonts and Iridovirus inclusions. Hepatozoon spp. similar to Hepatozoon ayorgbor and Hepatozoon musa were molecularly identified from seven hosts, two mite and two tick species. Rickettsia spp. (e.g., Rickettsia amblyommatis, Rickettsia bellii-like, Rickettsia sp.) were detected molecularly from four mite species and Amblyomma rotundatum ticks. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the molecular identification of the above-mentioned microbial agents of mites and ticks related to snakes and lizards. Overall, our findings highlighted that the Brazilian herpetofauna and its ectoparasites harbour potentially pathogenic agents, particularly from the northern and south-eastern regions. The detection of several species of spotted fever group Rickettsia pointed out the potential role of ectothermic hosts and related arthropod ectoparasites in the epidemiological cycle of these bacteria in Brazil.

12.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis, v. 12, n. 1, 101585, jan. 2020
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3296

RESUMO

Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata mites, as well as Ixodida ticks, infest ectothermic tetrapods worldwide, potentially acting as vectors of bacteria, viruses and protozoa. The relationship among ectoparasites, transmitted pathogenic agents (e.g., Borrelia spp., Coxiella spp., Hepatozoon spp., and Rickettsia spp.) and ectothermic hosts has been scarcely investigated. This research focuses on a large collection of Brazilian herpetofauna screened for the presence of arthropod ectoparasites and vector-borne microbial agents. Reptiles (n = 121) and amphibians (n = 49) from various locations were infested by ectoparasites. Following genomic extraction, microbial agents were detected in 81 % of the Acari (i.e. n = 113 mites and n = 26 ticks). None of the mites, ticks and tissues from amphibians yielded positive results for any of the screened agents. Blood was collected from reptiles and processed through blood cytology and molecular analyses (n = 48). Of those, six snakes (12.5 %) showed intraerythrocytic alterations compatible with Hepatozoon spp. gamonts and Iridovirus inclusions. Hepatozoon spp. similar to Hepatozoon ayorgbor and Hepatozoon musa were molecularly identified from seven hosts, two mite and two tick species. Rickettsia spp. (e.g., Rickettsia amblyommatis, Rickettsia bellii-like, Rickettsia sp.) were detected molecularly from four mite species and Amblyomma rotundatum ticks. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the molecular identification of the above-mentioned microbial agents of mites and ticks related to snakes and lizards. Overall, our findings highlighted that the Brazilian herpetofauna and its ectoparasites harbour potentially pathogenic agents, particularly from the northern and south-eastern regions. The detection of several species of spotted fever group Rickettsia pointed out the potential role of ectothermic hosts and related arthropod ectoparasites in the epidemiological cycle of these bacteria in Brazil.

13.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172077

RESUMO

Discovering and validating effective drugs to manage arthropod-borne diseases (ABD) is a timely and important research challenge with major impacts on real-world control programs at the time of quick resistance development in the targeted pathogens. This editorial highlights major research advances in the development of drugs for the control of vector-borne diseases, with a significant focus on malaria, Chagas disease, dengue, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Zika. Broad reviews providing new insights on ABD recently published in Molecules have also been covered in "The Editors' pick" section.

14.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138103

RESUMO

The Editorial outlines recent research advances in green insecticide research. Particular attention is devoted to studies shedding light on the modes of action and non-target toxicity of natural substances of plant origin. Research focusing on the development of new formulations (including those relating to nano-objects) to magnify the effectiveness and stability of green insecticides in the field represents key advances. Herein, a carefully reviewed selection of cutting edge articles about green pesticide development recently published in Molecules is presented. The impact of sub-lethal doses of green insecticides on insect behavioral traits is still overlooked, representing a timely challenge for further research.

15.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114449

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of different drying processes (freeze-drying (FD), microwave-assisted drying (MWD) and classic hot air drying (HAD)) on the polyphenols, flavonoids, and amino acids content was investigated on bee-collected chestnut, willow and ivy pollen for human consumption. Furthermore, the pollen chemical properties were monitored after three and six months of storage, and then analyzed using a multivariate approach. Chestnut pollen was the richest source of polyphenols, flavonoids, and rutin, while ivy pollen contained the highest amount of total and free amino acids, and total and free proline. Drying and storage affected pollen chemical composition with species-dependent effects. MWD allowed the best retention of flavonoids in chestnut pollen for up to six months of storage. All drying techniques led to a depletion of flavonoids in willow pollen; however, MWD ensured the highest flavonoids content after six months. FD and MWD did not lead to flavonoids depletion in ivy pollen during storage. Additionally, storage did not affect the rutin content, which was highest in FD willow samples after six months. Notably, both FD and MWD techniques are efficient in preserving amino acids-related quality of bee pollen up to six months of storage.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143069, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127158

RESUMO

The combined effect of global warming and insecticide exposure on the spread of mosquito-borne diseases is poorly studied. In our opinion, more resources should be diverted to this topic to further research efforts and deal with this increasing threat. It is particularly important to determine how Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex vector species cope with insecticide exposure under warming temperatures, as well as how both stressors may impact the activity of mosquito biocontrol agents. Herein, we promote a discussion on the topic, fostering a research agenda with insights for the longer-term implementation of mosquito control strategies under the Integrated Vector Management framework.

17.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961890

RESUMO

The growing interest in the development of green pest management strategies is leading to the exploitation of essential oils (EOs) as promising botanical pesticides. In this respect, nanotechnology could efficiently support the use of EOs through their encapsulation into stable nanoformulations, such as nanoemulsions (NEs), to improve their stability and efficacy. This technology assures the improvement of the chemical stability, hydrophilicity, and environmental persistence of EOs, giving an added value for the fabrication of natural insecticides effective against a wide spectrum of insect vectors and pests of public and agronomical importance. Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) root EO has been recently proposed as a promising ingredient of a new generation of botanical insecticides. In the present study, a highly stable C. acaulis-based NE was developed. Interestingly, such a nanosystem was able to encapsulate 6% (w/w) of C. acaulis EO, showing a mean diameter of around 140 nm and a SOR (surfactant-to-oil ratio) of 0.6. Its stability was evaluated in a storage period of six months and corroborated by an accelerated stability study. Therefore, the C. acaulis EO and C. acaulis-based NE were evaluated for their toxicity against 1st instar larvae of the European grapevine moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a major vineyard pest. The chemical composition of C. acaulis EO was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealing carlina oxide, a polyacetylene, as the main constituent. In toxicity assays, both the C. acaulis EO and the C. acaulis-based NE were highly toxic to L. botrana larvae, with LC50 values of 7.299 and 9.044 µL/mL for C. acaulis EO and NE, respectively. The C. acaulis-based NE represents a promising option to develop highly stable botanical insecticides for pest management. To date, this study represents the first evidence about the insecticidal toxicity of EOs and EO-based NEs against this major grapevine pest.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937878

RESUMO

In the One Health scenario, a deep understanding of the dynamics potentially threatening the development and implementation of useful pest and vector management tools is of key importance. The New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is characterized by a wide host range. It acts as an important agent of myiasis in humans and warm-blooded animals in the Neotropics, and has been eliminated from a wide region through genetic methods. Of note, Serebrovsky had already proposed in 1940 the principles of autocidal control by the translocation of segments between two chromosomes, but his work was negated by Lysenko, based on the negation of Mendelian genetics. This entomological case study emphasizes the danger of politics interfering with science, a still contemporary hot issue. The negation of global warming or current pandemics are further examples of this noxious influence.

19.
Pathogens ; 9(8)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824571

RESUMO

Pathogens can manipulate the phenotypic traits of their hosts and vectors, maximizing their own fitness. Among the phenotypic traits that can be modified, manipulating vector behavior represents one of the most fascinating facets. How pathogens infection affects behavioral traits of key insect vectors has been extensively investigated. Major examples include Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma spp. manipulating the behavior of mosquitoes, sand flies and kissing bugs, respectively. However, research on how pathogens can modify tick behavior is patchy. This review focuses on current knowledge about the behavioral changes triggered by Anaplasma, Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection in tick vectors, analyzing their potential adaptive significance. As a general trend, being infected by Borrelia and TBEV boosts tick mobility (both questing and walking activity). Borrelia and Anaplasma infection magnifies Ixodes desiccation resistance, triggering physiological changes (Borrelia: higher fat reserves; Anaplasma: synthesis of heat shock proteins). Anaplasma infection also improves cold resistance in infected ticks through synthesis of an antifreeze glycoprotein. Being infected by Anaplasma, Borrelia and Babesia leads to increased tick survival. Borrelia, Babesia and Bartonella infection facilitates blood engorgement. In the last section, current challenges for future studies are outlined.

20.
Biol Cybern ; 114(4-5): 473-483, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737587

RESUMO

Ethorobotics, a new fascinating field of biorobotics, proposes the use of robotic replicas as an advanced method for investigating animal behaviour. This novel research approach can also encourage the development of advanced bioinspired robots. In the present study, we investigated the pushing behaviour, a particular display occurring in several beetle species, such as the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, during both male-female and male-male contexts. We developed a robotic apparatus actuating female and male-mimicking dummies to study if sex, mating experience and asymmetries of robotic cues can modulate the escalation of pushing behaviour. Results showed that the time needed by P. truncatus to react to female-smelling biomimetic dummies was chiefly affected by their mating experience and the dummy odour. This was likely due to reduce waste of costly sperm in mated males during the subsequent sexual interactions. The pushing behaviour was performed longer and with a higher number of acts when virgin females were approached from their right side. More and longer pushing acts were noted when virgin males were approached from their left side. Dedicated neural circuits would likely act in opposite direction in females and males producing population-level lateralized sensory-motor displays, which may be evolved to promote male approaches from the left side of females, thus improving short-distance sex recognition. Overall, this study provides new insights on the behavioural ecology of stored-product beetles, as well as on self-organization and decentralized decision making that can be exploited to develop bioinspired algorithms for task optimization, involving real-world scenarios.

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