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1.
Acta Trop ; 208: 105515, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407792

RESUMO

This study focuses on the parasitic associations of mites and ticks infesting reptiles and amphibians through a multifocal approach. Herein, reptiles (n= 3,596) and amphibians (n= 919) were examined to ensure representativeness of the Brazilian herpetofauna megadiversity. The overall prevalence was calculated to better understand which were the preferred hosts for each order of Acari (Trombidiformes, Mesostigmata and Ixodida), as well as to determine which orders frequently parasitize reptiles and amphibians in Brazil, and their host specificity. Infestation rates were calculated [prevalence, mean intensity (MI) and mean abundance (MA)] for each order and species, determining which mites and ticks are more likely to be found parasitizing the ectothermic tetrapod fauna. Parasitic niches and preferred locations were recorded to help identify specific places exploited by different Acari, and to determine the host-parasite adaptations, specificity, and relationships in terms of co-evolution. In total 4,515 reptiles and amphibians were examined, of which 170 specimens were infested by mites and ticks (overall prevalence of 3.8%). Trombidiformes mites were prevalent in lizards (55.3%), followed by Ixodida on snakes (24.7%). Mesostigmata mites were the less prevalent, being identified only on Squamata reptiles (4.3% on snakes, 2.4% on lizards). In amphibians, Ixodida ticks were the most prevalent (63.2%), followed by Trombidiformes (34.6%), and lastly Oribatida (2%). From the 13 species of Trombidiformes identified, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (19.9%) was the most abundant in terms of number of host species and infested individuals. Specimens of Ixodida, yet more common, showed low preferred locations and different values of infestation rates. Co-infestations were recorded only on snakes. Lizard mites generally adhered to the ventral celomatic area (Pterygosomatidae), and some species to the pocket-like structures (Trombiculidae). Lizards, at variance from snakes, have adapted to endure high parasitic loads with minimum effects on their health. The high number of mites recorded in the digits of toads (Cycloramphus boraceiensis, Corythomantis greening, Cycloramphus dubius, Leptodactylus latrans, Melanophryniscus admirabilis) could lead to avascular necrosis. Frogs were often infested by Hannemania larvae, while Rhinella toads were likely to be infested by Amblyomma ticks. Of note, Rhinella major toad was found infested by an oribatid mite, implying first a new parasitic relationship. The effect of high parasitic loads on critically endangered species of anurans deserves further investigation. Our results add basic knowledge to host association of mites and ticks to Brazilian reptiles and amphibians, highlighting that routine ectoparasite examination is needed in cases of quarantine as well as when for managing reptiles and amphibians in captivity given the wide diversity of Acari on the Brazilian ectothermic tetrapod fauna.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372353

RESUMO

Medicinal and aromatic plants represent an outstanding source of green active ingredients for a broad range of real-world applications. In the present study, we investigated the insecticidal potential of the essential oils obtained from three medicinal and aromatic plants of economic importance in Algeria, Artemisia campestris, Pulicaria arabica, and Saccocalyx satureioides. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to study the essential oil chemical compositions. The three essential oils were tested against a mosquito vectoring filariasis and arboviruses, i.e., Culex quinquefasciatus, a fly pest acting also as pathogens vector, Musca domestica, and an agricultural moth pest, i.e., Spodoptera littoralis, using WHO and topical application methods, respectively. The essential oil from A. campestris, containing ß-pinene (15.2%), α-pinene (11.2%), myrcene (10.3%), germacrene D (9.0%) (Z)-ß-ocimene (8.1%) and γ-curcumene (6.4%), showed remarkable toxicity against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 of 45.8 mg L-1) and moderate effects (LD50 of 99.8 µg adult-1) against M. domestica. Those from P. arabica and S. satureioides, containing epi-α-cadinol (23.9%), δ-cadinene (21.1%), α-cadinol (19.8%) and germacrene D-4-ol (8.4%), and thymol (25.6%), α-terpineol (24.6%), borneol (17.4%) and p-cymene (11.4%), respectively, were more active on S. littoralis showing LD50 values of 68.9 and 61.2 µg larva-1, respectively. Based on our results, the essential oil from A. campestris may be further considered a candidate ingredient for developing botanical larvicides.

3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 140: 111312, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247803

RESUMO

Since time immemorial, the oleo-gum-resins of Ferula assa-foetida and F. gummosa are used in the traditional medical systems as well as in foodstuffs, perfumery and cosmetics. In the present study, we explored the insecticidal efficacy of the essential oils obtained from these oleo-gum-resins to widen their fields of industrial applications. The two essential oils were mainly composed of sulfides [sec-butyl (Z)-propenyl disulfide, sec-butyl (E)-propenyl disulfide, sec-butyl (Z)-propenyl trisulfide and sec-butyl (E)-propenyl trisulfide)] and monoterpenes (α-pinene, ß-pinene and ß-phellandrene), respectively, as determined by GC-MS analysis. The two essential oils were assayed for toxicity on a panel of insects, represented by species of public health relevance (Culex quinquefasciatus and Musca domestica), agricultural (Spodoptera littoralis) and stored-product pests (Prostephanus truncatus and Trogoderma granarium). The ecotoxicological effects of the essential oils were assessed on the aquatic microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the earthworm Eisenia fetida, as well as on human cells. Overall, the two essential oils were effective against important insect pests and vectors. On the other hand, they resulted cytotoxic to fibroblasts and non-target aquatic microcrustaceans. Thus, further insights are needed to determine the full spectrum of their eco-toxicological effects.

4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 193, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For long time, canine leishmaniosis (CanL) was considered endemic in the southern, central, and insular regions of Italy, whereas heartworm disease (HW) caused by Dirofilaria immitis was considered endemic in the northern region and in the swampy Po Valley. Following the reports of new foci of both diseases, in this study we update the distribution patterns and occurrence of new foci of CanL and HW discussing the main drivers for the changes in the epidemiology of these two important zoonotic canine vector-borne diseases. METHODS: Based on the statistical analyses of serological assays (n = 90,633) on L. infantum exposure and D. immitis infection performed by two reference diagnostic centres in Italy over a ten-year period (2009-2019) irrespective of the anamnesis of dogs. The distribution patterns of both parasites are herein presented along with the occurrence of new foci. RESULTS: Results highlighted the changing distribution patterns of L. infantum vs D. immitis infection in Italy. CanL is endemic in some areas of northern regions and HW has endemic foci in central and southern regions and islands. Significant differences in L. infantum exposure and HW infection prevalence among the study macroareas were detected. The overall results of the positive tested samples were 28.2% in southern Italy and islands, 29.6% in central Italy and 21.6% in northern Italy for L. infantum and 2.83% in northern Italy, 7.75% in central Italy and 4.97% in southern Italy and islands for HW. HW positivity significantly varied over years (χ2 = 108.401, df = 10, P < 0.0001), gradually increasing from 0.77% in 2009 to 8.47% in 2016-2017. CONCLUSIONS: New potential epidemiological scenarios are discussed according to a range of factors (e.g. environmental modifications, occurrence of competent insect vectors, transportation of infected animals to non-endemic areas, chemoprophylaxis or vector preventative measures), which may affect the current distribution. Overall, the results advocate for epidemiological surveillance programmes, more focussed preventative and control measures even in areas where few or no cases of both diseases have been diagnosed.

5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 139: 111255, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165233

RESUMO

The use of chemical pesticides to preserve food commodities is a global issue of concern due to their negative effect on the environment and public health. In recent years, the European Union is trying to reduce their use, favoring alternative or complementary approaches based on natural products. In this scenario, plant-borne essential oils (EOs) represent valid options for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. In the present study, the insecticidal effect of eight EOs obtained from plants from different parts of the world, namely Mentha longifolia, Dysphania ambrosioides, Carlina acaulis, Trachyspermum ammi, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum syriacum, Cannabis sativa and Hazomalania voyronii, were evaluated against two stored-product insect species of economic importance, Prostephanus truncatus and Trogoderma granarium. Simulating a small-scale stored-product conservation environment, an AG-4 airbrush was used to spray maize and wheat with 500 and 1000 ppm of EOs, then T. granarium and P. truncatus were exposed to the stored products and mortality was evaluated over selected time intervals (4, 8, and 16 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days). The EO of C. acaulis exhibited high efficacy against P. truncatus adults at both tested concentrations by killing > 97% of the individuals exposed to treated maize within 3 days at 500 ppm. The EO of D. ambrosioides eliminated all T. granarium adults exposed to 1000 ppm-treated wheat 2 days post-exposure. At this exposure interval, 91.1% of the exposed T. granarium adults died on wheat treated with 1000 ppm of C. acaulis EO. The EO of M. longifolia at both tested concentrations was the most effective against T. granarium larvae, leading to 97.8% mortality at 500 ppm after 3 days of exposure, and 100% mortality at 1000 pm 2 days post-exposure. At 1000 ppm, the EOs of D. ambrosioides and P. anisum led to 95.6 and 90% mortality, respectively, to larvae exposed to treated wheat for 7 days. Overall, our research shed light on the potential of selected EOs, with special reference to M. longifolia, D. ambrosioides, C. acaulis and P. anisum, which could be considered further to develop effective and alternative grain protectants to manage P. truncatus and T. granarium infestations.

6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111184, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061727

RESUMO

Marsh rosemary (Ledum palustre, Ericaceae) has been widely used in the traditional medicine of various regions worldwide, and as insect repellent. Little is known on its essential oil insecticidal potential. This study explored the insecticidal effects of the essential oil obtained from L. palustre growing in Poland on selected insect pests and vectors. GC-MS analysis evidenced an uncommon chemotype characterized by ascaridole (35.3% as sum of cis-ascaridole and isoascaridole) and p-cymene (25.5%). The essential oil was effective against Culex quinquefasciatus, Spodoptera littoralis and Musca domestica, showing LC50/LD50 of 66.6 mg L-1, 117.2 µg larva-1 and 61.4 µg adult-1, respectively. It was not toxic to non-target Eisenia fetida earthworms and moderately toxic to Daphnia magna microcrustaceans, over the positive control α-cypermethrin. The essential oil cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed high IC50 values (71.3 and 84.4 µg mL-1, respectively). Comet assay data highlighted no DNA damages. Based on our findings, this essential oil, characterized by the ascaridole/p-cymene chemotype, could be a candidate for the formulation of botanical insecticides; large-scale production of green insecticides by this rare species may be assured by ex situ cultivation and biotechnological techniques.

7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111203, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074491

RESUMO

Thymus alternans and Teucrium montanum subsp. jailae are medicinal and aromatic plants, typical of Slovakian flora, producing bioactive essential oils. In the present study, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation from the plant aerial parts and analysed by GC-MS, as insecticidal agents. For the purpose, they were assayed against three insect species acting as agricultural pests or vectors of medical relevance, such as the common housefly, Musca domestica L., the lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis; α-cypermethrin was tested as positive control. The two essential oils exhibited a different chemical profile, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes being the main fractions in the essential oils from Th. alternans and T. montanum subsp. jailae, respectively. Insecticidal tests showed that the T. montanum essential oil was effective against S. littoralis (LD50(90) = 56.7 (170.0) µg larva-1) and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (LC50(90) = 180.5 (268.7) mg L-1), whereas T. alternans essential oil displayed good toxicity against M. domestica adults (LD50(90) = 103.7 (223.9) µg adult-1). Overall, our results add useful knowledge about the potential of Slovakian flora as a source of botanicals for the eco-friendly management of insect pests and vectors.

10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 136: 111037, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816346

RESUMO

Carlina acaulis (Compositae) is traditionally used for food and medicinal purposes in central and southern Europe. Its root essential oil (EO), mainly composed by carlina oxide, is included in the BELFRIT botanical list of food supplements. It is also recognized as a potent mosquito larvicide. It is matter of concern whether this EO could be endowed with intrinsic toxicity to limit its use on a food level. Focusing on the insecticidal activity of this EO, we investigated the acute toxicity and sublethal effects on Musca domestica. In topical assays, the EO was extremely effective (LD50 = 2.74 and 5.96 µg fly-1, on males and females, respectively). The exposure to a sublethal dose (LD30) led to significant reductions of female longevity (LT50 = 6.7-9.0 days vs. control LT50 = 12.9-13.7 days). Treated females laid 2.5 times fewer eggs over control ones. F1 vitality decreased: F1 larvae and pupae showed high mortality, 2-4-fold higher over the control. The EO also showed high cytotoxicity on normal human fibroblasts (NHF-A12, IC50 = 9.4-14.2 µg mL-1 after 6-48 h). Overall, our findings support the employ of this EO for developing botanical insecticides. At the same time, they encourage food safety authorities to perform a full toxicological assessment for possible restrictions at food level.

11.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101917, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004804

RESUMO

In the present study, the larvicidal activity of ageing aqueous suspensions of spinosad against larvae of Culex pipiens biotype molestus, as well as their effect on the oviposition preferences of adult gravid females were evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Spinosad was applied at its label dose and the aqueous stock suspensions were stored for various ageing intervals up to 38 days. Untreated distilled water and diflubenzuron served as negative and positive control, respectively. Stock suspensions were taken after 0, 2, 6, 8, 16, 30 and 38 days of storage for diflubenzuron and after 0, 2, 6, 8, 20 and 27 days for spinosad, and were used for the bioassays. Furthermore, the effect of spinosad on the oviposition response of Cx. p. biotype molestus gravid females was investigated in two-choice oviposition preference bioassays. Spinosad was evaluated at half of its label dose and at its label dose, whereas diflubenzuron and distilled water served as positive and negative control, respectively. Results showed that both insecticides were found highly effective for the control of Cx. p. biotype molestus larvae, for ageing intervals up to 27 and 38 days for spinosad and diflubenzuron, respectively. Spinosad acted immediately after the preparation of the insecticidal solution (LT50 = 1.5 h), whereas for aged samples, LT50 values increased with the increase of the ageing interval (LT50 = 5 days for the 27 days old sample). For diflubenzuron, ageing time increased its insecticidal activity, as for aged diflubenzuron-treated solutions, lower LT50 values were achieved. In the oviposition preference bioassays, significantly fewer egg rafts were laid in water treated with spinosad at its label dose compared to control. However, this was not the case for water treated with spinosad at half of its label dose. Oviposition Activity Index (OAI) values were always comprised between -0.3 and 0.3, showing no relevant oviposition deterrence or attraction. The results of the present study contribute to our understanding of the effect of ageing on insecticidal solutions widely used in urban areas to control Cx. p. biotype molestus. Although an important vector of high public health importance, Cx. p. biotype molestus has been scarcely studied as target of environmentally and toxicologically reduced risk insecticides, such as spinosad.


Assuntos
Quitina/antagonistas & inibidores , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , Quitina/biossíntese , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
12.
Acta Trop. ; 208: 105515, 2020.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib17678

RESUMO

This study focuses on the parasitic associations of mites and ticks infesting reptiles and amphibians through a multifocal approach. Herein, reptiles (n= 3,596) and amphibians (n= 919) were examined to ensure representativeness of the Brazilian herpetofauna megadiversity. The overall prevalence was calculated to better understand which were the preferred hosts for each order of Acari (Trombidiformes, Mesostigmata and Ixodida), as well as to determine which orders frequently parasitize reptiles and amphibians in Brazil, and their host specificity. Infestation rates were calculated [prevalence, mean intensity (MI) and mean abundance (MA)] for each order and species, determining which mites and ticks are more likely to be found parasitizing the ectothermic tetrapod fauna. Parasitic niches and preferred locations were recorded to help identify specific places exploited by different Acari, and to determine the host-parasite adaptations, specificity, and relationships in terms of co-evolution. In total 4,515 reptiles and amphibians were examined, of which 170 specimens were infested by mites and ticks (overall prevalence of 3.8%). Trombidiformes mites were prevalent in lizards (55.3%), followed by Ixodida on snakes (24.7%). Mesostigmata mites were the less prevalent, being identified only on Squamata reptiles (4.3% on snakes, 2.4% on lizards). In amphibians, Ixodida ticks were the most prevalent (63.2%), followed by Trombidiformes (34.6%), and lastly Oribatida (2%). From the 13 species of Trombidiformes identified, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (19.9 %) was the most abundant in terms of number of host species and infested individuals. Specimens of Ixodida, yet more common, showed low preferred locations and different values of infestation rates. Co-infestations were recorded only on snakes. Lizard mites generally adhered to the ventral celomatic area (Pterygosomatidae), and some species to the pocket-like structures (Trombiculidae). Lizards, at variance from snakes, have adapted to endure high parasitic loads with minimum effects on their health. The high number of mites recorded in the digits of toads (Cycloramphus boraceiensis, Corythomantis greening, Cycloramphus dubius, Leptodactylus latrans, Melanophryniscus admirabilis) could lead to avascular necrosis. Frogs were often infested by Hannemania larvae, while Rhinella toads were likely to be infested by Amblyomma ticks. Of note, Rhinella major toad was found infested by an oribatid mite, implying first a new parasitic relationship. The effect of high parasitic loads on critically endangered species of anurans deserves further investigation. Our results add basic knowledge to host association of mites and ticks to Brazilian reptiles and amphibians, highlighting that routine ectoparasite examination is needed in cases of quarantine as well as when for managing reptiles and amphibians in captivity given the wide diversity of Acari on the Brazilian ectothermic tetrapod fauna.

13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112333, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654797

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of Hazomalania voyronii, popularly known as hazomalana, to repel mosquitoes and resist against insect attacks is handed down from generation to generation in Madagascar. In the present study, we investigated the ability of the essential oils (EOs) obtained from the stem wood, fresh and dry bark of H. voyronii to keep important mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) away, as well as their toxicity on three insect species of agricultural and public health importance (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Musca domestica and Spodoptera littoralis). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hydrodistillation was used to obtain EOs from stem wood, fresh and dry bark. The chemical compositions were achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Toxicity assays using stem wood and bark EOs were performed on larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis, and adults of M. domestica by WHO and topical application methods, respectively. Mosquito repellent activity of the most effective EO, i.e. the bark one, was determined on human volunteers by arm-in-cage tests, and results were compared with that of the commercial repellent N,N-ddiethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). RESULTS: The H. voyronii EOs were characterized by oxygenated monoterpenes with perilla aldehyde (30.9-47.9%) and 1,8-cineole (19.7-33.2%) as the main constituents. The fresh and dry bark EOs were the most active on Cx. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis larvae, respectively, with LC50/LD50 of 65.5  mg L-1, and 50.5  µg larva-1; the EOs from wood and fresh bark displayed the highest toxicity on M. domestica (LD50 values 60.8 and 65.8 µg adult-1, respectively). Repellence assay revealed an almost complete protection (>80%) from both mosquito species for 30 min when pure fresh bark EO was applied on the volunteers' arm, while DEET 10% repelled >80% of the mosquitoes up to 120 min from application. CONCLUSION: The traditional use of the bark EO to repel insects has been demonstrated although an extended-release formulation based on H. voyronii EOs is needed to increase the repellent effect over time. A wide spectrum of insecticidal activity has been provided as well, suggesting a possible use of H. voyronii EOs in the fabrication of green repellents and insecticides useful to control mosquito vectors and agricultural pests.

14.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789469

RESUMO

Campoplex capitator is an ichneumonid parasitoid with a narrow host range, comprising grapevine moth pests. Despite being considered one of the possible candidates for biocontrol of Lobesia botrana, knowledge about its biology is limited and mass-rearing for commercial purposes is still lacking. This research provides a quantitative analysis of the C. capitator courtship and mating behavior. C. capitator mating sequence was analyzed by high-speed video recordings. Main behavioral parameters, with special reference to male wing fanning and antennal tapping, were quantified and linked with mating success. Furthermore, we analyzed the occurrence of population-level behavioral asymmetries during C. capitator sexual interactions and their impact on male success. Results showed that male wing fanning was crucial to successfully approach the female. Males achieving higher mating success performed wing-fanning at higher frequencies over unsuccessful ones. After wing fanning, most of males palpated the female's body with their antennae, before attempting copulation. The overall mating success was >70%, with a rather long copula duration (254.76 ± 14.21 s). Male wing-fanning was lateralized on the left at population level, while antennal tapping displays were right-biased. Side-biased male displays do not differ in terms of frequency and duration of their main features. This research adds basic knowledge to the C. capitator behavioral ecology. Since rearing protocols for C. capitator are being developed, male wing fanning frequency may represent a useful benchmark for monitoring mate quality over time, tackling mating success reductions due to prolonged mass-rearing.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817032

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne diseases represent a major risk for humans, livestock, pets and wildlife worldwide [...].

16.
Insects ; 10(10)2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547095

RESUMO

Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) represents an important tool to manage insect pests in agriculture and forestry. MD relies on the release of synthetic sex pheromones from dispensers in crops, interfering with mate finding and reproduction of a pest through both competitive and non-competitive mechanisms. MD programs primarily rely upon "passive" dispensers, used at high densities per hectare (200-3000 units∙ha-1). In addition to the labor required for their application, another disadvantage of "passive" dispensers is the continuous release of pheromones, regardless of the time of day or the pest flight activity. Aerosol delivery systems can overcome the drawbacks of passive dispensers as they are applied at far lower density (2-5 units∙ha-1) and they can be programmed to release pheromones at selected time intervals when the target pest is active. However, the mode of action of aerosol dispensers is still not well understood and there are concerns of whether they are as effective as passive dispensers. This review focuses on the history of aerosol dispensers, mode of action, and effectiveness on various crops; deployment strategies; and the movement of pheromone once released. Limitations of aerosols and challenges for future research and commercial use are discussed.

17.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 26(2): 252-255, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485162

RESUMO

Honeybee-collected pollen is gaining attention as functional food for human consumption, due to antiproliferative, antiallergic, antibiotic, antidiarrheic and antioxidant activities. Among the different bioactive compounds, flavonoids from bee-collected pollen are currently recognised as powerful antioxidant and antiradical molecules. Traditional conservation methods influence pollen organoleptic properties as well as the contents of nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. Here, freeze-drying (FD) was proposed as a novel conservation method, estimating its adequacy as drying process by the evaluation of changes in free and total amino acids and proline as well as in their ratios. Honeybee-collected chestnut pollen was taken into consideration and the level of rutin, as main flavonoid, was considered as marker compound highlighting the maintenance of pollen nutraceutical properties. Results showed that FD influenced rutin level, depending on the FD duration. However, the free proline to free amino acid ratio was always below 80%, and the free amino acid to total amino acid ratio remained unaltered indicating the adequacy of the FD treatment, which did not affect the nutritional value of chestnut pollen. Overall, this study shed light on the nutraceutical profile of honeybee-collected chestnut pollen, highlighting the promising potential of FD as a novel method to treat pollen for human consumption.

18.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505756

RESUMO

The management of parasites, insect pests and vectors requests development of novel, effective and eco-friendly tools. The development of resistance towards many drugs and pesticides pushed scientists to look for novel bioactive compounds endowed with multiple modes of action, and with no risk to human health and environment. Several natural products are used as alternative/complementary approaches to manage parasites, insect pests and vectors due to their high efficacy and often limited non-target toxicity. Their encapsulation into nanosystems helps overcome some hurdles related to their physicochemical properties, for instance limited stability and handling, enhancing the overall efficacy. Among different nanosystems, micro- and nanoemulsions are easy-to-use systems in terms of preparation and industrial scale-up. Different reports support their efficacy against parasites of medical importance, including Leishmania, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma as well as agricultural and stored product insect pests and vectors of human diseases, such as Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. Overall, micro- and nanoemulsions are valid options for developing promising eco-friendly tools in pest and vector management, pending proper field validation. Future research on the improvement of technical aspects as well as chronic toxicity experiments on non-target species is needed.

19.
Insects ; 10(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491887

RESUMO

The citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) is a primary pest of various crops, including grapevines. The use of insecticides against this species is difficult in most cases because its life cycle includes an extended duration of eggs, juveniles, and adults under the bark and on the roots. Pheromone-based control strategies can present new eco-friendly opportunities to manage this species, as in the case of Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso). With this aim it is critical to understand behavioral aspects that may influence pheromone-based control strategies. Herein, the capability of males to fertilize multiple females was investigated, trying to understand whether this behavior could negatively impact the efficacy of mass trapping, mating disruption, or the lure and kill technique. Results showed that a P. calceolariae male can successfully mate and fertilize up to 13 females. The copulation time in subsequent mating events and the time between copulations did not change over time but the number of matings per day significantly decreased. In a further experiment, we investigated the mate location strategy of P. calceolariae males, testing the attractiveness of different loadings of sex pheromone on males in a flight tunnel. Males constantly exposed to 16 rubber septa loaded with the sex pheromone showed a significant decrease in female detection at 1 and 30 µg loadings (0.18 and 0.74 visits per female for each visit per septum, respectively), whereas in the control about 9.2-fold more of the released males successfully detected the female in the center of the array of 16 septa without pheromone. Male location of females in the control (45%) was significantly higher than in the arrays with surrounding pheromone (5% and 20% at 1 and 30 µg loadings, respectively). Mating only occurred in the control arrays (45%). This study represents a useful first step to developing pheromone-based strategies for the control of citrophilous mealybugs.

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500230

RESUMO

Nanomaterials possess stunning physical and chemical properties [...].

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