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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore candidate prognostic and predictive biomarkers identified in retrospective observational studies (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, D-dimer, and platelets) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia after treatment with tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, using data from the COVACTA trial in patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. DESIGN: Exploratory analysis from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. SETTING: Hospitals in North America and Europe. PATIENTS: Adults hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia receiving standard care. INTERVENTION: Randomly assigned 2:1 to IV tocilizumab 8 mg/kg or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Candidate biomarkers were measured in 295 patients in the tocilizumab arm and 142 patients in the placebo arm. Efficacy outcomes assessed were clinical status on a seven-category ordinal scale (1, discharge; 7, death), mortality, time to hospital discharge, and mechanical ventilation (if not receiving it at randomization) through day 28. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers were evaluated continuously with proportional odds, binomial or Fine-Gray models, and additional sensitivity analyses. Modeling in the placebo arm showed all candidate biomarkers except lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer were strongly prognostic for day 28 clinical outcomes of mortality, mechanical ventilation, clinical status, and time to hospital discharge. Modeling in the tocilizumab arm showed a predictive value of ferritin for day 28 clinical outcomes of mortality (predictive interaction, p = 0.03), mechanical ventilation (predictive interaction, p = 0.01), and clinical status (predictive interaction, p = 0.02) compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple biomarkers prognostic for clinical outcomes were confirmed in COVACTA. Ferritin was identified as a predictive biomarker for the effects of tocilizumab in the COVACTA patient population; high ferritin levels were associated with better clinical outcomes for tocilizumab compared with placebo at day 28.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622276

RESUMO

People with HIV are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease. We investigate oral and anal carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae by molecular methods among 82 men with HIV who have sex with men (MSM). A questionnaire, oral wash and anal swab samples were obtained at baseline and 12 months. Oral carriage rates were 32.9% (27/82) at baseline and 41.7% (30/72) at follow-up. Anal carriage rates were 2.4% (2/82) at baseline and 2.9% (2/70) at follow-up. Genogroup 24 was predominant. Results suggest high oral carriage rates of S. pneumoniae among MSM living with HIV. A minority were anal carriers.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20750, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675281

RESUMO

Persons living with HIV (PLWH) may have increased incidence of cardiovascular events and longer QTc intervals than uninfected persons. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of de novo major electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities and QTc prolongation in well-treated PLWH. We included virologically suppressed PLWH without major ECG abnormalities, who attended the 2-year follow-up in the Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study. ECGs were categorized according to Minnesota Code Manual. We defined de novo major ECG abnormalities as new major Minnesota Code Manual abnormalities. Prolonged QTc was defined as QTc > 460 ms in females and QTc > 450 ms in males. Of 667 PLWH without major ECG abnormalities at baseline, 34 (5%) developed de novo major ECG abnormalities after a median of 2.3 years. After adjustment, age (RR: 1.57 [1.08-2.28] per decade older), being underweight (RR: 5.79 [1.70-19.71]), current smoking (RR: 2.34 [1.06-5.16]), diabetes (RR: 3.89 [1.72-8.80]) and protease inhibitor use (RR: 2.45 [1.27-4.74) were associated with higher risk of getting de novo major ECG abnormalities. Of PLWH without prolonged QTc at baseline, only 11 (1.6%) participants developed de novo prolonged QTc. Five percent of well-treated PLWH acquired de novo major ECG abnormalities and protease inhibitor use was associated with more than twice the risk of de novo major ECG abnormalities. De novo prolonged QTc was rare and did not seem to constitute a problem in well-treated PLWH.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a key factor in protecting against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined longitudinal changes in seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Copenhagen and the protective effect of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this prospective study, screening for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (ELISA) was offered to HCWs three times over 6 months. HCW characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. RESULTS: From April to October 2020 we screened 44 698 HCWs, of whom 2811 were seropositive at least once. The seroprevalence increased from 4.0% (1501/37 452) to 7.4% (2022/27 457) during the period (p < 0.001) and was significantly higher than in non-HCWs. Frontline HCWs had a significantly increased risk of seropositivity compared to non-frontline HCWs, with risk ratios (RRs) at the three rounds of 1.49 (95%CI 1.34-1.65, p < 0.001), 1.52 (1.39-1.68, p < 0.001) and 1.50 (1.38-1.64, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence was 1.42- to 2.25-fold higher (p < 0.001) in HCWs from dedicated COVID-19 wards than in other frontline HCWs. Seropositive HCWs had an RR of 0.35 (0.15-0.85, p 0.012) of reinfection during the following 6 months, and 2115 out of 2248 (95%) of those who were seropositive during rounds one or two remained seropositive after 4-6 months. The 133 of 2248 participants (5.0%) who seroreverted were slightly older and reported fewer symptoms than other seropositive participants. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs remained at increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-month period. Seropositivity against SARS-CoV-2 persisted for at least 6 months in the vast majority of HCWs and was associated with a significantly lower risk of reinfection.

13.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 270-272, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483096

RESUMO

The UN General Assembly in September 2021 will bring countries together at a critical time for marshalling collective action to tackle the global environmental crisis. They will meet again at the biodiversity summit in Kunming, China, and the climate conference (COP26) in Glasgow, UK. Ahead of these pivotal meetings, we-the editors of health journals worldwide-call for urgent action to keep average global temperature increases below 1.5°C, halt the destruction of nature, and protect health.

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