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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 215: 105315, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801737

RESUMO

Recent empirical evidence shows heterogeneity in the expression of shyness in children. Some children tend to express their shyness displaying positive affect along with gaze aversions (positive shyness), whereas others display more negative emotional reactions accompanied by gaze aversions (negative shyness). Temperamental differences in approach-avoidance tendencies are likely to explain these differences in shyness expression in children and influence their visual attention to social stimuli, yet little empirical attention has been devoted to these associations. Our study examined the temperamental profile (approach, fear, and inhibitory control) associated with positive and negative shyness and the relation between expression of shyness and attention to social stimuli in 47 children aged 3-6 years. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were assessed using a performance task. Visual attention to facial emotional expressions was measured with the dot - probe task, and temperament was measured with maternal reports. Positive shyness was found to be positively associated with temperamental dimensions of approach, inhibitory control, and fear. Positive shyness was significantly associated with attentional orientation to positive facial expressions and with less attentional avoidance of threatening facial expressions. Negative shyness was positively associated only with temperamental fear, and no associations were found with attention to social stimuli. Our study provides empirical support for the association between temperament and the multidimensional character of the expression of positive shyness and adds relevant evidence regarding the connection between the expression of shyness and attention to social stimuli.


Assuntos
Emoções , Timidez , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Expressão Facial , Medo , Humanos , Temperamento
2.
Infant Behav Dev ; 63: 101557, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878597

RESUMO

Television exposure in early childhood has increased, with concerns raised regarding adverse effects on social-emotional development, and emerging self-regulation in particular. The present study addressed television exposure (i.e., amount of time watching TV) and its associations with toddler behavioral/emotional dysregulation, examining potential differences across 14 cultures. The sample consisted of an average of 60 toddlers from each of the 14 countries from the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC; Gartstein & Putnam, 2018). Analyses were conducted relying on the multi-level modeling framework (MLM), accounting for between- and within-culture variability, and examining the extent to which TV exposure contributions were universal vs. variable across sites. Effects of time watching TV were evaluated in relation to temperament reactivity and regulation, as well as measures of emotional reactivity, attention difficulties, and aggression. Results indicated that more time spent watching TV was associated with higher ratings on Negative Emotionality, emotional reactivity, aggression, and attention problems, as well as lower levels of soothability. However, links between TV exposure and both attention problems and soothability varied significantly between cultures. Taken together, results demonstrate that increased time spent watching television was generally associated with dysregulation, although effects were not consistently uniform, but rather varied as a function of culturally-dependent contextual factors.


Assuntos
Televisão , Temperamento , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
3.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 619-629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease associated with various degrees of impairment across different cognitive domains. We aimed to provide a detailed computerized investigation of verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory (dys)functions in RA patients, assessing both accuracy and response speed, while relating them to age, disease-related activity, affective problems, psychomotor speed and other clinical parameters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 29 RA patients (mean age 50.6 ± 12.3 years, 79% female) and 30 controls (matched according to age, gender and education), assessed with short-term and working memory tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA). RESULTS: RA patients were significantly slower on the basic processing speed test (Motor Screening Test, p =0.003). Their short-term information storage (verbal and visuospatial) was comparable to controls, yet this similar accuracy came at the expense of a longer response time to retain information correctly (on spatial span, p = 0.04). On tasks with higher executive demands, both visuospatial and verbal working memory were compromised, as RA patients took longer (p = 0.004) and had a higher number of total errors (p = 0.02) when conducting a strategic memory-guided search (Spatial Working Memory), and had a significantly lower verbal working memory span on the backwards digit recall test (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study emphasize the usefulness of performing computerized tests to detect subtle signs of cognitive impairment and of intact performance, which can inform memory training protocols for this vulnerable population.

4.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2680, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687157

RESUMO

Over the recent years, there is growing recognition of the social and cultural regulatory processes that act upon individual emotions. The adult-to-child social regulation of emotion is even more relevant, given the development of child self-regulatory abilities during early years. Although it is acknowledged that parental regulatory attempts to their children's emotional expressions are influenced by cultural models, relatively little is known about the specific relationship between parental cultural models and socialization practices that foster emotion self-regulation, particularly in the case of toddlers. Therefore, in the present study, our first aim was to examine, in a Romanian sample of mother-toddler dyads, the relationships between maternal cultural model of self and maternal regulatory attempts targeting toddlers' emotions during a delay of gratification task, while controlling for maternal perceptions of child individual characteristics, namely temperament. The second aim was to analyze, within the delay of gratification task, the relations between maternal regulatory attempts, child regulatory strategies and child affect expression, as the outcome of emotion regulation. Results showed that mothers scored higher for Independence as compared to Interdependence dimensions of self-construal. Also, the multidimensional analysis of self-construal revealed that Autonomy/Assertiveness scores were significantly higher than Relational Interdependent scores. Moreover, different dimensions of Independence predicted different maternal regulatory strategies employed during the delay of gratification task. This pattern of results suggests that maternal representations of an independent self, evidenced in our sample, are reflected in regulatory practices, aimed to develop primary control in the toddler. Moreover, our data revealed several significant associations between maternal regulatory strategies and child regulatory strategies expressed during the delay of gratification task. Finally, we demonstrated that child self-regulation mediated the relation between maternal regulatory attempts and child expression of affect during this task.

5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 40: e244, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122054

RESUMO

The integration of the folk affect concept of "contempt" into the analysis of the complex institution known generally as charivari is mutually beneficial for both ethno-anthropology (which may thus access inner causes for disputed social and collective behaviors) and evolutionary psychology (which may thus study the length of tradition together with the width of the institution spread, serving the same social functions).


Assuntos
Asco , Emoções , Atitude , Relações Interpessoais
6.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1928, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163303

RESUMO

The present study examined the independent contributions and the interaction effects of oppositional defiant problems (ODD), callous unemotional traits (CU) and anxiety symptoms on attentional orienting to emotional faces, in a community sample of preschoolers. Additionally, based on Rothbart's (2007) model of temperament, we analyzed whether fine-grained dimensions of reactivity (fear, anger, discomfort, sadness, activity level, approach, high intensity pleasure, impulsivity) and self-regulation (attentional shifting, attentional focusing, inhibitory control), as well as the higher order temperamental factors of negative affectivity, surgency and effortful control are associated with CU traits and ODD-related problems. Attentional orienting to emotional faces was assessed with pictorial Dot-probe task, while teachers rated CU traits and ODD-related problems. Also, parents reported on ODD-related problems, anxiety and temperament. Results indicated significant interaction effects between ODD-related problems and CU, as well as between CU and anxiety, in predicting attentional orientation patterns for angry, fearful and happy faces. Moreover, temperamental reactivity was positively associated with CU traits and ODD-related problems, whereas temperamental self-regulation was negatively related to CU traits and ODD-related problems. Results of this study have implications for early intervention and prevention approaches targeting preschool oppositional defiant problems.

7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 38: e3, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26050694

RESUMO

As cultural anthropologists, we noticed an unexpected and interesting convergence of the therapeutic practices suggested in the target article and the rites of passage occurring across multiple societies, as individuals make the transition from one significant age or status to another.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Etnologia , Humanos , Semântica
8.
Front Psychol ; 5: 922, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25202291

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of individual differences in temperamental reactivity (fear) and self-regulation (attentional control) on attentional biases toward threat in a sample of school-aged children (age range was between 9 years 1 month and 13 years 10 months). Attentional biases were assessed with pictorial Dot-probe task, comparing attention allocation toward angry (threat-related) vs. neutral and happy faces. Children also completed self-report temperamental measures of fear and attentional control. We compared attentional bias scores in 4 groups of children: high/low fear and high/low attentional control. Results indicated that, in the case of children with high fear and low attentional control, attention was significantly biased toward angry faces compared with children who had low fear and low attentional control. Findings are discussed in terms of the moderating role of individual differences in attentional control in the context of threat, anxiety-related attentional biases in children.

9.
Front Psychol ; 5: 443, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24904462

RESUMO

It has been conjectured that basic individual differences in attentional control influence higher-level executive functioning and subsequent academic performance in children. The current study sets out to complement the limited body of research on early precursors of executive functions (EFs). It provides both a cross-sectional, as well as a longitudinal exploration of the relationship between EF and more basic attentional control mechanisms, assessed via children's performance on memory storage tasks, and influenced by individual differences in anxiety. Multiple measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) were administered to children between 3 and 6 years old, alongside a non-verbal measure of intelligence, and a parental report of anxiety symptoms. After 9 months, children were re-tested on the same STM measures, at which time we also administered multiple measures of executive functioning: verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM), inhibition, and shifting. A cross-sectional view of STM development indicated that between 3 and 6 years the trajectory of visuospatial STM and EF underwent a gradual linear improvement. However, between 5 and 6 years progress in verbal STM performance stagnated. Hierarchical regression models revealed that trait anxiety was negatively associated with WM and shifting, while non-verbal intelligence was positively related to WM span. When age, gender, non-verbal intelligence, and anxiety were controlled for, STM (measured at the first assessment) was a very good predictor of overall executive performance. The models were most successful in predicting WM, followed by shifting, yet poorly predicted inhibition measures. Further longitudinal research is needed to directly address the contribution of attentional control mechanisms to emerging executive functioning and to the development of problematic behavior during early development.

10.
Mol Aspects Med ; 33(5-6): 562-78, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22504060

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to describe the roles of water channel proteins (WCPs) in brain functionality. The fluid compartments of the brain, which include the brain parenchyma (with intracellular and extracellular spaces), the intravascular and the cerebrospinal fluid compartments are presented. Then the localization and functional roles of WCPs found in the brain are described: AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7, AQP8, AQP9 and AQP11. In subsequent chapters the involvement of brain WCPs in pathologies are discussed: brain edema, brain trauma, brain tumors, stroke, dementia (Alzheimer's disease, human immunodeficiency virus--HIV-dementia), autism, pain signal transduction and migraine, hydrocephalus and other pathologies with neurological implications: eclampsia, uremia. New WCP ligands for brain imaging are also discussed.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/química , Aquaporinas/classificação , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Demência/metabolismo , Demência/patologia , Eclampsia/metabolismo , Eclampsia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Dor/metabolismo , Dor/patologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/patologia
11.
Mol Aspects Med ; 33(5-6): 590-604, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22484281

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to describe the roles of water channel proteins (WCPs) in some neurological diseases in which the implications of these proteins became obvious in the decades after the discovery of WCPs of their presence in the CNS. The diseases which were selected for this review include: epilepsies, muscular dystrophies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, and spongiform encephalopathies. The priorities of Benga group from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, are mentioned, such as the idea of a generalized membrane defect affecting water permeability in epilepsy and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Some of these neurological disorders discussed in this article appeared to be water channelopathies. A typical example is neuromyelitis optica (NMO), in which the identification of the specific marker autoantibody against aquaporin 4 in the sera of patients was a milestone in the diagnosis. This has aided understanding of the pathogenesis of NMO and led to better control of its treatment. However, further studies are needed to characterize the function and regulation of WCPs in other neurological diseases, in particular to determine if modulation of WCP function may provide a novel approach to therapy in such diseases.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Neuromielite Óptica/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Aquaporinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Neuromielite Óptica/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
12.
Cogn Emot ; 26(6): 1069-83, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22404477

RESUMO

The present study examined the associations between attentional biases to threat, attentional control and anxiety in a sample of children aged 9 to 14. It was hypothesised that the association between attentional biases toward threat and anxiety might be stronger when the ability to control attention is reduced. The study employed pictures of neutral, happy and angry facial expressions as they have greater ecological value compared to words. Children completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional biases toward such stimuli. They also completed the Spence child anxiety scale for anxiety symptoms and, for attentional control, the child version of the attention control scale measuring the ability to focus and shift attention. Results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that attentional control significantly explained anxiety. Furthermore, the interaction between attentional control and attentional biases significantly explained anxiety level. These results indicate that attentional control moderates the relation between attentional biases toward threatening facial expressions and anxiety in children. Additionally, a discussion about a possible protective role of attentional control is provided.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção , Medo/psicologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adolescente , Criança , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Análise de Regressão , Autorrelato , Percepção Visual
13.
Infant Behav Dev ; 33(3): 279-88, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20362341

RESUMO

Newborns cry in response to another newborn cry and researchers agree that these are the very early signs of empathy development. Yet, little is known about the development of these affect sharing reactions in infancy, beyond the very first few days after birth. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of contagious cry phenomenon in infancy. Infants aged 1-, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old were presented with the sound of another infant cry vocalizations. Their emotional reactions were recorded in terms of vocal (presence of vocal distress, latency, and intensity) and facial (anger and sadness) expressions of emotions. Results show that during the presentation of a pain cry sound, 1, 3, 6, and 9 months old infants manifest increased vocal and facial expressions of distress. These affect sharing reactions do not decrease with age. Both boys and girls manifest similar levels of contagious crying reactions. The results are discussed in terms of early empathy development.


Assuntos
Choro/psicologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Acústica , Envelhecimento , Análise de Variância , Emoções , Empatia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 103(1): 30-48, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19000624

RESUMO

In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response timing (efficiency) measures from word and digit span performance in a preschool sample (N=76, mean age=57 months, SD=11). Children were reassessed 8 months later using the same two tasks plus a test of nonword memory span and a measure of articulation rate. The results at the second time point (T2) confirmed the effects of age on both processing effectiveness and efficiency. Trait anxiety was an additional negative predictor of span effectiveness (especially for digit span) and efficiency (in the case of word and nonword span). The findings are discussed in the context of factors contributing to early short-term memory development and attentional control theory.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Ansiedade/psicologia , Individualidade , Memória , Tempo de Reação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Child Neuropsychol ; 15(1): 73-84, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18720101

RESUMO

This study investigated developmental and sex-related differences in affective decision making, using a two-deck version of Children's Gambling Task administered to 3- and 4-year-old children. The main findings were that 4-year-old children displayed better decision-making performance than 3-year-olds. This effect was independent of developmental changes in inductive reasoning, language, and working memory. There were also sex differences in decision-making performance, which were apparent only in 3-year-old children and favored girls. Moreover, age predicted awareness of task and the correlation between the latter and decision-making performance was significant, but only in 4-year-old children. This study thus indicates that there is a remarkable developmental leap in affective decision making, whose effects are apparent around the age of 4, which according to our results, also marks the age when the correlation of declarative knowledge and decision-making performance becomes significant.


Assuntos
Afeto , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Fatores Etários , Conscientização , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 10(2-3): 179-201, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17119287

RESUMO

Despite the circumstantial and sometimes equivocal support, the hypothetic involvement of aluminum (Al) in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has subsisted in neuroscience. There are very few other examples of scientific hypotheses on the pathogenesis of a disease that have been revisited so many times, once a new method that would allow a test of Al's accumulations in the brain of AD patients or a comparison between Al-induced and AD neuropathological signs has become available. Although objects of methodological controversies for scientists and oversimplification for lay spectators, several lines of evidence have strongly supported the involvement of Al as a secondary aggravating factor or risk factor in the pathogenesis of AD. We review evidence on the similarities and dissimilarities between Al-induced neurofibrillary degeneration and paired helical filaments from AD, the accumulation of Al in neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques from AD, the neuropathological dissociation between AD and dialysis associated encephalopathy, and the epidemiological relations between Al in drinking water and the prevalence of AD. We also critically analyze the prospects of Al-amyloid cascade studies and other evolving lines of evidence that might shed insights into the link between Al and AD. The message between the lines of the following article is that the involvement of Al in the pathogenesis of AD should not be discarded, especially in these times when the amyloid dogma of AD etiology shows its myopia.


Assuntos
Alumínio/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/história , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Soluções para Diálise/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Neurologia/história , Ratos , Diálise Renal
17.
BMC Neurosci ; 4: 33, 2003 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14693040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined in 4-month-old infants. They were divided into high and low imitators, based on an index of imitation. The status of attention was assessed by studying inhibition of return (IOR). Nine-month-old infants were also tested to confirm the hypothesis. RESULTS: The IOR latency data replicate previous results that infants get faster to produce a covert shift of attention with increasing age. However, those 4-month-olds who showed less imitation had more rapid saccades to the cue before target presentation. CONCLUSION: The cortical control of saccade planning appears to be related to an apparent drop in early imitation. We interpret the results as suggesting a relationship between the status of imitation and the neural development of attention-related eye movement.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Lactente , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
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