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1.
J Crit Care ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our survey aimed to evaluate adherence to Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines 2016 among intensive care practitioners and to identify issues that remain controversial or lack clarity. METHODS: Members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) were surveyed using an anonymous web-based survey written by an international group of experts. The primary outcome measure was the rate of adherence to specific recommendations. Secondary outcomes were to describe areas of controversy and lack of data and to associate specific practices with clinician characteristics. RESULTS: Overall 820 questionnaires were completed. The SCC recommendations 2016 most adhered to were the choice of norepinephrine as first-line vasoactive drug (96.5%), vasopressor prescription based on therapeutic goal rather than dose (83.4%), targeting a specific mean arterial blood pressure during vasopressor use (77.9%), monitoring of blood pressure invasively (62.8%) and adding vasopressin or epinephrine as a second vasoactive agent (83.4%). We identified an internal conflict with regards to parallel versus sequential administration of fluids and vasoactive drugs and regional differences in practice that may be related to drug availabilities. CONCLUSION: The use of vasopressors and fluid use in septic shock is largely compliant with current guidelines but several controversies should be addressed in future guideline iterations.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0249956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Receiving the diagnosis of kidney failure has a major impact on patients. Yet, the way in which this diagnosis should be delivered is not formally taught within our medical curriculum. To fill this gap we set up a training course of kidney failure diagnosis delivery for nephrology trainees since 2016. This study assessed the effectiveness of this educational intervention. METHODS: The primary outcome was change in the empathy score immediately after the training session and several months afterward, based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE). Self-reported change in clinical practice was also evaluated. As control groups, we assessed empathy levels in untrained nephrology trainees (n = 26) and senior nephrologists (n = 71). Later on (>6 months) we evaluated participants' perception of changes in their clinical practice due to the training. RESULTS: Six training sessions permitted to train 46 trainees. Most respondents (76%) considered the training to have a durable effect on their clinical practice. Average empathy scores were not significantly different in pre-trained trainees (average JSPE: 103.7 ± 11.4), untrained trainees (102.8 ± 16.4; P = 0.81) and senior nephrologists (107.2 ± 13.6; P = 0.15). Participants' empathy score significantly improved after the training session (112.8 ± 13.9; P = 0.003). This improvement was sustained several months afterwards (average JSPE 110.5 ± 10.8; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: A single 4-hour training session can have long lasting impact on empathy and clinical practice of participants. Willingness to listen, empathy and kindness are thought to be innate and instinctive skills, but they can be acquired and should be taught.


Assuntos
Empatia , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Educação Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Médicos
5.
Anesth Analg ; 133(5): 1311-1320, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral and parietal peritoneum layers have different sensory innervations. Most visceral peritoneum sensory information is conveyed via the vagus nerve to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We already showed in animal models that intramuscular (i.m.) injection of local anesthetics decreases acute somatic and visceral pain and general inflammation induced by aseptic peritonitis. The goal of the study was to compare the effects of parietal block, i.m. bupivacaine, and vagotomy on spinal cord and NTS stimulation induced by a chemical peritonitis. METHODS: We induced peritonitis in rats using carrageenan and measured cellular activation in spinal cord and NTS under the following conditions, that is, a parietal nerve block with bupivacaine, a chemical right vagotomy, and i.m. microspheres loaded with bupivacaine. Proto-oncogene c-Fos (c-Fos), cluster of differentiation protein 11b (CD11b), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in cord and NTS were studied. RESULTS: c-Fos activation in the cord was inhibited by nerve block 2 hours after peritoneal insult. Vagotomy and i.m. bupivacaine similarly inhibited c-Fos activation in NTS. Forty-eight hours after peritoneal insult, the number of cells expressing CD11b significantly increased in the cord (P = .010). The median difference in the effect of peritonitis compared to control was 30 cells (CI95, 13.5-55). TNF-α colocalized with CD11b. Vagotomy inhibited this microglial activation in the NTS, but not in the cord. This activation was inhibited by i.m. bupivacaine both in cord and in NTS. The median difference in the effect of i.m. bupivacaine added to peritonitis was 29 cells (80% increase) in the cord and 18 cells (75% increase) in the NTS. Our study underlines the role of the vagus nerve in the transmission of an acute visceral pain message and confirmed that systemic bupivacaine prevents noxious stimuli by inhibiting c-Fos and microglia activation. CONCLUSIONS: In rats receiving intraperitoneal carrageenan, i.m. bupivacaine similarly inhibited c-Fos and microglial activation both in cord and in the NTS. Vagal block inhibited activation only in the NTS. Our study underlines the role of the vagus nerve in the transmission of an acute visceral pain message and confirmed that systemic bupivacaine prevents noxious stimuli. This emphasizes the effects of systemic local anesthetics on inflammation and visceral pain.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Núcleo Solitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagotomia , Nervo Vago/cirurgia , Dor Visceral/prevenção & controle , Dor Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Dor Aguda/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Carragenina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Dor Visceral/induzido quimicamente , Dor Visceral/metabolismo , Dor Visceral/fisiopatologia
6.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 40(5): 100937, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical outcomes and critical care utilisation associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in obstetric patients remain limited particularly in relation to severe cases. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre cohort study was conducted during the first wave of COVID-19 in France in 18 tertiary referral maternity units. Consecutive women with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 during pregnancy or the delivery hospitalisation were included between March and July 2020 (17-week period). We report clinical, obstetrical and anaesthetic outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 and report the prevalence of severe forms and risk factors for respiratory support in this cohort. RESULTS: There were 126 included cases; RT-PCR testing occurred in 82 cases, of which 64 (78%) had a positive test. The caesarean section rate was 52%, and preterm delivery (< 37 weeks) rate was 40%. Neuraxial anaesthesia was performed in 108 (86%) cases with an increasing proportion compared to general anaesthesia over time (p < 0.0002). Twenty-eight cases received oxygen supplementation (nasal oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation); the SOFAresp score was associated with gestational age at the time of COVID-19 presentation (p = 0.0036) and at delivery (p < 0.0001). Postpartum intensive care unit (ICU) admission occurred in 21 cases (17%) with 17 (13%) receiving invasive or non-invasive ventilation. Pre-delivery factors associated with postpartum ventilation were oxygen support, oxygen saturation and haemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, COVID-19 was associated with significant maternal morbidity resulting in high ICU admission rates (17%) and invasive or non-invasive ventilation utilisation (10%).


Assuntos
Anestesia , COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 40(5): 100934, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400388

RESUMO

The incidence of acute pain during caesarean section varies between studies, with a reported rate ranging between 0.5%-17% for spinal anaesthesia and 1.7%-20% for epidural anaesthesia. Leaders from the French Club anesthésie-réanimation en obstétrique (CARO) convened to provide a clinical framework and practice bulletin to prevent, recognise and treat acute pain during caesarean section. First, a steering group agreed on 5 themes guiding quality of anaesthesia care for caesarean section: (1) appropriate neuraxial anaesthesia and testing of the surgical block prior to incision (PREVENTION); (2) appropriate organisation around decision to delivery time (COMMUNICATION); 3) appropriate management of pain before and/or after skin incision (RECOGNITION & RESPONSE); (4) appropriate prevention, identification and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (SCREENING, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF COMPLICATIONS); (5) management of medico-legal issues (MITIGATION). Then, an interdisciplinary multi-professional taskforce composed of obstetric anaesthesiologists, obstetricians, neonatologists, psychiatrists, midwifes, nurse anaesthetists, lawyers and patients, developed 23 statements that contribute to optimise care for caesarean section under neuraxial anaesthesia, of which 10 were deemed key recommendations. A decision-tree was built to optimise prevention, communication, recognition, response and management. The aim of this practice bulletin, which was endorsed by 6 societies, is to raise awareness on the risks associated with severe acute pain during caesarean section and to provide best clinical practices; pain during caesarean is not acceptable and should be prevented and managed by all stakeholders.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Anestesia Epidural , Anestesia Obstétrica , Raquianestesia , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/prevenção & controle , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
Simul Healthc ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The growing number of learners implies that all of them cannot play an active role during high-fidelity scenarios. Studies suggest a positive educational value when learners are observers only, but it remains uncertain whether learning outcomes might be improved by using an observer tool (OT). METHODS: Eighty-nine anesthesia residents were randomized to use an OT (n = 44, OT+; based on a cognitive aid) or not (n = 45, OT-) when not role-playing. The main outcome parameter was the learning outcomes assessed by comparing the change (before-after) in the response score to a questionnaire dedicated to medical knowledge obtained in the OT+ and OT- groups. The impact of using the OT was also assessed by measuring the perceived stress level and the change of the Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skill items values. RESULTS: At the end of the session, the mean medical knowledge score (mean ± SD) was higher in the OT+ group than in the OT- group (11.4 ± 2.7 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4, respectively, P = 0.0008). The mean Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skill score and level of stress perceived did not differ between groups. Trainees rated similarly the learning value and satisfaction related to the simulation course. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that observing high-fidelity simulation scenarios using an OT based on a cognitive aid increases the medical knowledge gain when compared with that seen in passive observers. This study suggests that the use of an OT improves the educational value of simulation.

12.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(7): 102062, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disclosure of damage related to care is a difficult area of communication due to the physician's feeling of guilt or the fear of liability. The aim of this study was to develop, and to evaluate the impact of an inter-disciplinary simulation program on communication of damage related to care. METHODS: Residents in gynecology/obstetrics and anesthesiology participated in role-playing scenarios of communication of damage related to care. We assessed verbal, non-verbal communication skills and inter-disciplinary relations with a modified SPIKES protocol and with a video analysis with predefined indicators. We evaluated long-term impact of the training at 3-6 months with combining self-assessment and a video analysis on retained knowledge. RESULTS: We included 80 residents in 15 sessions of simulation. Satisfaction regarding the simulation training was high (9.1/10 [8.9-9.3]). The part of the SPIKES protocol "setting up the interview" was the more difficult to apply. Empathic attitude was adopted 80 % of the time in the two scenarios with a life-threatening complication but was less common in the anesthetic one (broken tooth). The residents found interdisciplinary disclosure helpful due to support from the other resident. Immediately after the session, residents reported an important improvement in communication skills and that the session would significantly change their practice. At 3-6 months, reports were still largely positive but less than on immediate evaluation. CONCLUSION: Residents did not master the most important communication skills. The interdisciplinary method to breaking bad news was felt useful.

13.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(3): 101970, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although a recurrent question in clinical practice, the management of Chiari malformation type I (CMI) and/or syringomyelia during pregnancy and delivery is still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate the modalities of delivery and anesthesia in women presenting with CMI and/or syringomyelia at a national reference center, and to question their potential role in the natural history of these conditions. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a standardized questionnaire, a customized clinical severity score and data from medical records. RESULTS: 83 patients were included in the final analysis: 32 had CMI without syringomyelia, 27 had CMI with syringomyelia and 24 had non-foraminal syringomyelia. Most patients (55/83) were not diagnosed at the time of their pregnancy, 12 had surgery before being pregnant and 16 were diagnosed but not operated. Most women underwent vaginal delivery (62 %) and neuraxial (i.e. epidural or spinal) anesthesia (69 %). However, the proportion of cesarean procedures increased to 53.6 % and even 83.3 % when considering only patients already diagnosed or operated on, respectively. Nonetheless, neither vaginal compared to cesarean delivery (change in clinically severity score: -1.5 ± 0.4 versus -0.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.4) nor neuraxial compared to general anesthesia (-1.2 ± 0.3 versus -1.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.7) were associated with increased clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Although individual evaluation is mandatory, this study supports that neither delivery nor anesthesia modalities affect the natural history for the vast majority of patients with CMI and/or syringomyelia.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/complicações , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Siringomielia/complicações , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/fisiopatologia , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/terapia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Siringomielia/fisiopatologia , Siringomielia/terapia
16.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(6): 876-882, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039656

RESUMO

We report in this review our clinical strategy to perform ultrasound-guided scalp nerve blocks for cranial and neurosurgical cases.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso , Neurocirurgia , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 331, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roughly 10% of newborns need help to complete the transition of birth. For these infants, international guidelines recommend supporting them using a 4-step procedure (A to D). Step A is an assessment time, which includes eight tasks and finishes by starting the positive pressure ventilation (PPV), if necessary (step B). The guidelines changed in 2015 and the allotted time was raised from 30 to 60 seconds for step A completion. This study aimed to assess if the reduced time constraint in step A could have an impact on 1st-year pediatric residents' performance to complete step A and if could lead to later initiation of step A. METHODS: Using video recordings of standardized neonatal scenarios over 6 years (3 before the change and 3 after), we assessed the ability of 1st-year pediatric residents of the Paris region to complete step A and initiate PPV in the allotted time in each period. Among the sessions, including at least five scenarios we evaluated all the PPV required scenarios executed for the first time by a dyad of 1st-year pediatric residents. RESULTS: Among 52 sessions, we included 104 scenarios (25 sessions and 50 scenarios before the change and 27 sessions and 54 scenarios after). PPV started roughly at 1-minute resuscitation in both periods, but completion of the tasks before PPV-start was significant. Only 12% of the dyad of residents executed the eight tasks before PPV initiation in the first period versus 54% in the second period (p < 0.0001). Additionally, the completion of the eight tasks of step A was significantly better during the second period (6 [6-7] vs. 8 [7-8] p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results could suggest that a reduced time constraint for step A imposed by the new Guidelines was associated with better performance.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Ressuscitação , Criança , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Paris , Fatores de Tempo , Gravação em Vídeo
19.
Adv Simul (Lond) ; 5: 4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514382

RESUMO

Background: A serious game (SG) is a useful tool for nurse training. The objectives of this study were to assess validity evidence of a new SG designed to improve nurses' ability to detect patient clinical deterioration. Methods: The SG (LabForGames Warning) was developed through interaction between clinical and pedagogical experts and one developer. For the game study, consenting nurses were divided into three groups: nursing students (pre-graduate) (group S), recently graduated nurses (graduated < 2 years before the study) (group R) and expert nurses (graduated > 4 years before the study and working in an ICU) (group E). Each volunteer played three cases of the game (haemorrhage, brain trauma and obstructed intestinal tract). The validity evidence was assessed following Messick's framework: content, response process (questionnaire, observational analysis), internal structure, relations to other variables (by scoring each case and measuring playing time) and consequences (a posteriori analysis). Results: The content validity was supported by the game design produced by clinical, pedagogical and interprofessional experts in accordance with the French nurse training curriculum, literature review and pilot testing. Seventy-one nurses participated in the study: S (n = 25), R (n = 25) and E (n = 21). The content validity in all three cases was highly valued by group E. The response process evidence was supported by good security control. There was no significant difference in the three groups' high rating of the game's realism, satisfaction and educational value. All participants stated that their knowledge of the different steps of the clinical reasoning process had improved. Regarding the internal structure, the factor analysis showed a common source of variance between the steps of the clinical reasoning process and communication or the situational awareness errors made predominantly by students. No statistical difference was observed between groups regarding scores and playing time. A posteriori analysis of the results of final examinations assessing study-related topics found no significant difference between group S participants and students who did not participate in the study. Conclusion: While it appears that this SG cannot be used for summative assessment (score validity undemonstrated), it is positively valued as an educational tool. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03092440.

20.
J Emerg Med ; 59(2): 270-277, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most recent recommendations support learning of external cardiac massage (ECM) through feedback devices. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to compare the effects on immediate and 3-month retention of ECM technical skills when using feedback devices compared with training without feedback as part of a half-day training session in medical students. METHODS: This randomized study was performed using the Resusci Anne QCPR manikin in 64 medical students. We compared the quality of ECM with nonfeedback training in the control group (group 1) vs. 2 feedback learning methods (group 2, PocketCPR and group 3, Skill Reporter each used with visual display available to the trainee). At the end of the training session and 3 months later, students performed chest compressions blindly during a 2-min assessment session. The median compression score was the primary outcome for assessing immediate and long-term retention. RESULTS: Regarding immediate retention, the median compression score was significantly lower in group 1 (23%) than in groups 2 (81%) and 3 (72%) (p < 0.05) with no difference between the 2 feedback methods. At 3 months, mean compression scores remained high but not significantly different between the 2 feedback groups. CONCLUSION: The use of a feedback device used for ECM training improves the quality of immediate retention of technical ECM skills compared with traditional teaching in medical students. At 3 months, the 2 groups with feedback retained a high level of performance. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 feedback methods.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Estudantes de Medicina , Retroalimentação , Massagem Cardíaca , Humanos , Manequins
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