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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3490, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568707

RESUMO

The most common oxidative DNA lesion is 8-oxoguanine which is mainly recognized and excised by the 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Telomeres are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress (OS) which disrupts telomere homeostasis triggering genome instability. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of inactivating BER in OS conditions, by using a specific inhibitor of OGG1 (TH5487). We have found that in OS conditions, TH5487 blocks BER initiation at telomeres causing an accumulation of oxidized bases, that is correlated with telomere losses, micronuclei formation and mild proliferation defects. Moreover, the antimetabolite methotrexate synergizes with TH5487 through induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which potentiates TH5487-mediated telomere and genome instability. Our findings demonstrate that OGG1 is required to protect telomeres from OS and present OGG1 inhibitors as a tool to induce oxidative DNA damage at telomeres, with the potential for developing new combination therapies for cancer treatment.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449624

RESUMO

The quest for new transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with outstanding electronic properties operating under ambient conditions draws us to investigate the 1T-HfSe2 polytype under hydrostatic pressure. Diamond anvil cell (DAC) devices coupled to in situ synchrotron X-ray, Raman, and optical (VIS-NIR) absorption experiments along with density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations prove that (i) bulk 1T-HfSe2 exhibits strong structural and vibrational anisotropies, being the interlayer direction especially sensitive to pressure changes, (ii) the indirect gap of 1T-HfSe2 tends to vanish by a -0.1 eV/GPa pressure rate, slightly faster than MoS2 or WS2, (iii) the onset of the metallic behavior appears at Pmet ∼10 GPa, which is to date the lowest pressure among common TMDs, and finally, (iv) the electronic transition is explained by the bulk modulus B0-Pmet correlation, along with the pressure coefficient of the band gap, in terms of the electronic overlap between chalcogenide p-type and metal d-type orbitals. Overall, our findings identify 1T-HfSe2 as a new efficient TMD material with potential multipurpose technological applications.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270902

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting a high percentage of the population at an unprecedented rate. Cancer patients comprise a subgroup especially vulnerable to this infection. Herein, we present a prospective analysis of epidemiological, clinical, radiological and laboratory data of consecutive adult cancer patients seen in the Clínico San Carlos University Hospital (Madrid, Spain), and admitted to hospital and tested for COVID-19 between February 21 and May 8, 2020 due to clinical suspicion of infection. Data from 73 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and active solid tumors or diagnosed within the previous 5 years were analyzed. The most frequent malignancy was lung cancer (19%) and 54 patients (74%) were on active cancer treatment. Most common findings on presentation included cough (55%), fever (52%), and dyspnea (45%), and 32 (44%) patients showed oxygen saturation levels below 95%. Radiologically, 54 (73%) patients presented an abnormal pattern, the most frequent being infiltrates (64%). 18 (24.7%) patients died in hospital and 55 (75.3%) were discharged with clinical resolution of the event. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and tumor stage showed higher odds of in-hospital death associated with a history of cardiovascular disease, hospitalization in the previous 30 days, and several features on admission including dyspnea, higher qSOFA score, higher C-reactive protein levels, and an abnormal neutrophil count. We present prospective, real-world evidence that can help articulate cancer care protocols for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, with special focus on features on admission that can stratify patients with a higher risk of death from COVID-19.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(21): 12234-12251, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211885

RESUMO

Altered oncogene expression in cancer cells causes loss of redox homeostasis resulting in oxidative DNA damage, e.g. 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), repaired by base excision repair (BER). PARP1 coordinates BER and relies on the upstream 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) to recognise and excise 8-oxoG. Here we hypothesize that OGG1 may represent an attractive target to exploit reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation in cancer. Although OGG1 depletion is well tolerated in non-transformed cells, we report here that OGG1 depletion obstructs A3 T-cell lymphoblastic acute leukemia growth in vitro and in vivo, validating OGG1 as a potential anti-cancer target. In line with this hypothesis, we show that OGG1 inhibitors (OGG1i) target a wide range of cancer cells, with a favourable therapeutic index compared to non-transformed cells. Mechanistically, OGG1i and shRNA depletion cause S-phase DNA damage, replication stress and proliferation arrest or cell death, representing a novel mechanistic approach to target cancer. This study adds OGG1 to the list of BER factors, e.g. PARP1, as potential targets for cancer treatment.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757270

RESUMO

Capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome (CiHFS) is a common dermatological adverse reaction affecting around 30% of patients with capecitabine-treated cancer, and the main cause of dose reductions and chemotherapy delays. To identify novel genetic factors associated with CiHFS in patients with cancer, we carried out an extreme-phenotype genomewide association study in 166 patients with breast and colorectal capecitabine-treated cancer with replication in a second cohort of 85 patients. We discovered and replicated a cluster of four highly correlated single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with susceptibility to CiHFS at 20q13.33 locus (top hit = rs6129058, hazard ratio = 2.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.78-3.20; P = 1.2 × 10-8 ). Using circular chromosome conformation capture sequencing, we identified a chromatin contact between the locus containing the risk alleles and the promoter of CDH4, located 90 kilobases away. The risk haplotype was associated with decreased levels of CDH4 mRNA and the protein it encodes, R-cadherin (RCAD), which mainly localizes in the granular layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocytes, CDH4 downregulation resulted in reduced expression of involucrin, a protein of the cornified envelope, an essential structure for skin barrier function. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that skin from patients with severe CiHFS exhibited low levels of RCAD and involucrin before capecitabine treatment. Our results uncover a novel mechanism underlying individual genetic susceptibility to CiHFS with implications for clinically relevant risk prediction.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 59(14): 9900-9918, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640163

RESUMO

High pressure X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and electrical measurements, together with theoretical calculations, which include the analysis of the topological electron density and electronic localization function, evidence the presence of an isostructural phase transition around 2 GPa, a Fermi resonance around 3.5 GPa, and a pressure-induced decomposition of SnSb2Te4 into the high-pressure phases of its parent binary compounds (α-Sb2Te3 and SnTe) above 7 GPa. The internal polyhedral compressibility, the behavior of the Raman-active modes, the electrical behavior, and the nature of its different bonds under compression have been discussed and compared with their parent binary compounds and with related ternary materials. In this context, the Raman spectrum of SnSb2Te4 exhibits vibrational modes that are associated but forbidden in rocksalt-type SnTe; thus showing a novel way to experimentally observe the forbidden vibrational modes of some compounds. Here, some of the bonds are identified with metavalent bonding, which were already observed in their parent binary compounds. The behavior of SnSb2Te4 is framed within the extended orbital radii map of BA2Te4 compounds, so our results pave the way to understand the pressure behavior and stability ranges of other "natural van der Waals" compounds with similar stoichiometry.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 123(5): 793-802, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTEN loss is a putative driver in histotypes of ovarian cancer (high-grade serous (HGSOC), endometrioid (ENOC), clear cell (CCOC), mucinous (MOC), low-grade serous (LGSOC)). We aimed to characterise PTEN expression as a biomarker in epithelial ovarian cancer in a large population-based study. METHODS: Tumours from 5400 patients from a multicentre observational, prospective cohort study of the Ovarian Tumour Tissue Analysis Consortium were used to evaluate associations between immunohistochemical PTEN patterns and overall survival time, age, stage, grade, residual tumour, CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) counts, expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR) by means of Cox proportional hazard models and generalised Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. RESULTS: Downregulation of cytoplasmic PTEN expression was most frequent in ENOC (most frequently in younger patients; p value = 0.0001) and CCOC and was associated with longer overall survival in HGSOC (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.94, p value = 0.022). PTEN expression was associated with ER, PR and AR expression (p values: 0.0008, 0.062 and 0.0002, respectively) in HGSOC and with lower CD8 counts in CCOC (p value < 0.0001). Heterogeneous expression of PTEN was more prevalent in advanced HGSOC (p value = 0.019) and associated with higher CD8 counts (p value = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: PTEN loss is a frequent driver in ovarian carcinoma associating distinctly with expression of hormonal receptors and CD8+ TIL counts in HGSOC and CCOC histotypes.

12.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

14.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 312, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949161

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Apoptose , Relógios Circadianos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

19.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
20.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 52-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) arise from hypergastrinemia in patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis. According to the classical model, the gastric H+/K+ ATPase was the causative autoantigen recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic autoimmune scenario that secretes IL-17 and correlates with parietal cell (PC) atrophy, which drives to gastric achlorhydria and increases the risk for gastric neoplasms. However, the mechanism by which the inflammatory response correlates with PC atrophy is not clearly defined. METHODS: Recently, we found that the ATP4Ap.R703C mutation impaired PC function and gastric acidification, which drove familial gNET. Our group constructed a knock-in mouse model for the ATP4A mutation, which has served us to better understand the relation between impaired capability to export protons across the plasma membrane of PCs and tumor progression. RESULTS: The ATP4Ap.R703C mutation drives gastric achlorhydria, but also deregulates the acid-base balance within PCs, affecting mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial malfunction activates ROS signaling, which triggers caspase-3-mediated apoptosis of parietal cells. In addition, when gastric euchlorhydria was restored, mitochondrial function is recovered. Infection by H. pylori promotes destabilization of the mitochondria of the PCs by a mechanism similar to that described for APT4Ap.R703C carriers. CONCLUSIONS: A genetic origin that drives mitochondria alteration would initiate the gastric chronic inflammation instead of the classical IL-17 secretion-mediated mechanism explanation. Gastric euchlorhydria restoration is suggested to be indicated for mitochondrial recover. Our results open a new window to understand gastric neoplasms formation but also the inflammatory mechanisms and autoimmune disorders conducted by genetic origin that composes a premalignant scenario.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Hidrogênio-Potássio/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Acloridria/genética , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos Mutantes , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Células Parietais Gástricas/imunologia , Células Parietais Gástricas/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
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