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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e012875, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510873

RESUMO

Background Mutations in the POT1 gene explain abnormally long telomeres and multiple tumors including cardiac angiosarcomas (CAS). However, the link between long telomeres and tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Methods and Results Here, we have studied the somatic landscape of 3 different angiosarcoma patients with mutations in the POT1 gene to further investigate this tumorigenesis process. In addition, the genetic landscape of 7 CAS patients without mutations in the POT1 gene has been studied. Patients with CAS and nonfunctional POT1 did not repress ATR (ataxia telangiectasia RAD3-related)-dependent DNA damage signaling and showed a constitutive increase of cell cycle arrest and somatic activating mutations in the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)/angiogenesis pathway (KDR gene). The same observation was made in POT1 mutation carriers with tumors different from CAS and also in CAS patients without mutations in the POT1 gene but with mutations in other genes involved in DNA damage signaling. Conclusions Inhibition of POT1 function and damage-response malfunction activated DNA damage signaling and increased cell cycle arrest as well as interfered with apoptosis, which would permit acquisition of somatic mutations in the VEGF/angiogenesis pathway that drives tumor formation. Therapies based on the inhibition of damage signaling in asymptomatic carriers may diminish defects on cell cycle arrest and thus prevent the apoptosis deregulation that leads to the acquisition of driver mutations.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

4.
Gastric Cancer ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) arise from hypergastrinemia in patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis. According to the classical model, the gastric H+/K+ ATPase was the causative autoantigen recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic autoimmune scenario that secretes IL-17 and correlates with parietal cell (PC) atrophy, which drives to gastric achlorhydria and increases the risk for gastric neoplasms. However, the mechanism by which the inflammatory response correlates with PC atrophy is not clearly defined. METHODS: Recently, we found that the ATP4Ap.R703C mutation impaired PC function and gastric acidification, which drove familial gNET. Our group constructed a knock-in mouse model for the ATP4A mutation, which has served us to better understand the relation between impaired capability to export protons across the plasma membrane of PCs and tumor progression. RESULTS: The ATP4Ap.R703C mutation drives gastric achlorhydria, but also deregulates the acid-base balance within PCs, affecting mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial malfunction activates ROS signaling, which triggers caspase-3-mediated apoptosis of parietal cells. In addition, when gastric euchlorhydria was restored, mitochondrial function is recovered. Infection by H. pylori promotes destabilization of the mitochondria of the PCs by a mechanism similar to that described for APT4Ap.R703C carriers. CONCLUSIONS: A genetic origin that drives mitochondria alteration would initiate the gastric chronic inflammation instead of the classical IL-17 secretion-mediated mechanism explanation. Gastric euchlorhydria restoration is suggested to be indicated for mitochondrial recover. Our results open a new window to understand gastric neoplasms formation but also the inflammatory mechanisms and autoimmune disorders conducted by genetic origin that composes a premalignant scenario.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 566-577, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817846

RESUMO

There is still around 50% of the familial breast cancer (BC) cases with an undefined genetic cause, here we have used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to identify new BC susceptibility genes. This approach has led to the identification of RECQL5, a member of RECQL-helicases family, as a new BC susceptibility candidate, which deserves further study. We have used a combination of whole exome sequencing in a family negative for mutations in BRCA1/2 throughout (BRCAX), in which we found a probably deleterious variant in RECQL5, and targeted NGS of the complete coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of the candidate gene in 699 BC Spanish BRCAX families and 665 controls. Functional characterization and in silico inference of pathogenicity were performed to evaluate the deleterious effect of detected variants. We found at least seven deleterious or likely deleterious variants among the cases and only one in controls. These results prompt us to propose RECQL5 as a gene that would be worth to analyze in larger studies to explore its possible implication in BC susceptibility.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

8.
Mol Oncol ; 13(5): 1110-1120, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747491

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA glycosylase genes involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway can modify breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We previously found that SNP rs34259 in the uracil-DNA glycosylase gene (UNG) might decrease ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In the present study, we validated this finding in a larger series of familial breast and ovarian cancer patients to gain insights into how this UNG variant exerts its protective effect. We found that rs34259 is associated with significant UNG downregulation and with lower levels of DNA damage at telomeres. In addition, we found that this SNP is associated with significantly lower oxidative stress susceptibility and lower uracil accumulation at telomeres in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Our findings help to explain the association of this variant with a lower cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers and highlight the importance of genetic changes in BER pathway genes as modifiers of cancer susceptibility for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
10.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.

12.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 28(11): 245-250, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Taxanes and anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, although the benefit is limited to a proportion of patients and predictive biomarkers for clinical outcome remain elusive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a pharmacogenetic study in 181 patients with locally advanced breast cancer enrolled in a phase 2 randomized clinical trial (NCT00123929), where patients were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant single-agent docetaxel 100 mg/m (n=84) or doxorubicin 75 mg/m (n=97). We studied the association of 226 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 key drug biotransformation genes with neoadjuvant pathological tumor response residual cancer burden index to docetaxel and to doxorubicin. RESULTS: We identified a significant association for rs162561, an intronic SNP located in the cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B member 1 (CYP1B1) gene, with tumor response in patients treated with single-agent docetaxel (dominant model: ß=1.02, 95% confidence interval=0.49-1.55; P=1.77×10), and for rs717620, an SNP located in the promoter of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) gene, in patients treated with neoadjuvant doxorubicin (recessive model: ß=1.67; 95% confidence interval=0.26-3.11; P=0.02). CONCLUSION: We identified two polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and ABCC2 associated with tumor pathological response following docetaxel or doxorubicin neoadjuvant monotherapy, respectively. Although further validation is required, these variants could be potential predictive genetic markers for treatment outcome in breast cancer patients.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

15.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 4(4): 250-261, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062862

RESUMO

We aimed to validate the prognostic association of p16 expression in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) and to explore it in other ovarian carcinoma histotypes. p16 protein expression was assessed by clinical-grade immunohistochemistry in 6525 ovarian carcinomas including 4334 HGSC using tissue microarrays from 24 studies participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. p16 expression patterns were interpreted as abnormal (either overexpression referred to as block expression or absence) or normal (heterogeneous). CDKN2A (which encodes p16) mRNA expression was also analyzed in a subset (n = 2280) mostly representing HGSC (n = 2010). Association of p16 expression with overall survival (OS) was determined within histotypes as was CDKN2A expression for HGSC only. p16 block expression was most frequent in HGSC (56%) but neither protein nor mRNA expression was associated with OS. However, relative to heterogeneous expression, block expression was associated with shorter OS in endometriosis-associated carcinomas, clear cell [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02, 95% confidence (CI) 1.47-2.77, p < 0.001] and endometrioid (HR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.30-2.75, p = 0.004), while absence was associated with shorter OS in low-grade serous carcinomas (HR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.61-5.38, p = 0.001). Absence was most frequent in mucinous carcinoma (50%), and was not associated with OS in this histotype. The prognostic value of p16 expression is histotype-specific and pattern dependent. We provide definitive evidence against an association of p16 expression with survival in ovarian HGSC as previously suggested. Block expression of p16 in clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma should be further validated as a prognostic marker, and absence in low-grade serous carcinoma justifies CDK4 inhibition.

16.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 143(8): 1954-1962, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761480

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disease, and little is known of its genetic basis. Only low susceptibility risk loci have been identified for both sporadic and familial cases. Therefore, we tried to identify new susceptibility genes responsible for familial testicular cancer that may contribute to increasing our knowledge about the genetic basis of the disease. Nineteen Spanish families with at least two affected individuals with TGCT were selected. WES was performed on those individuals using an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencing platform. Data were analyzed under a monogenic and polygenic model of inheritance, and candidate variants were evaluated in a case-control association study performed on 391 Spanish sporadic cases and 1,170 healthy Spanish controls. Results were replicated in a second series consisting of 101 TGCTs from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TGCA) and 27,000 controls from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. Logistic regression was carried out to analyze the association strength (risk) of candidate variants obtained among cases and controls in different populations. Despite the sample size, we detected a significant earlier age of onset in familial TGCT (28y) than sporadic cases (33y), using a Mann-Whitney U test. We identified significant variants in the comparative study of TGCT cases (391) versus controls (almost 1,170), and three of them [PLEC (OR = 6.28, p = 6.42 × 10-23 ) (p.Arg2016Trp), EXO5 (OR = 3.37, p = 4.82 × 10-09 ) (p.Arg344AlafsTer10) and DNAH7 (OR = 1.64, p = 0.048)] were replicated as potential candidates that may contribute to explaining the genetic basis of TGCT.

19.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766673

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may modulate individual susceptibility to carcinogens. We designed a genome-wide association study to characterize individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and we validated our results. We hypothesized that this strategy would enrich the frequencies of the alleles that contribute to the observed traits. We genotyped 2.37 million SNPs in 95 extreme phenotype individuals, that is: heavy smokers that either developed NSCLC at an early age (extreme cases); or did not present NSCLC at an advanced age (extreme controls), selected from a discovery set (n = 3631). We validated significant SNPs in 133 additional subjects with extreme phenotypes selected from databases including >39,000 individuals. Two SNPs were validated: rs12660420 (pcombined  = 5.66 × 10-5 ; ORcombined  = 2.80), mapping to a noncoding transcript exon of PDE10A; and rs6835978 (pcombined  = 1.02 × 10-4 ; ORcombined  = 2.57), an intronic variant in ATP10D. We assessed the relevance of both proteins in early-stage NSCLC. PDE10A and ATP10DmRNA expressions correlated with survival in 821 stage I-II NSCLC patients (p = 0.01 and p < 0.0001). PDE10A protein expression correlated with survival in 149 patients with stage I-II NSCLC (p = 0.002). In conclusion, we validated two variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk of developing tobacco-induced NSCLC. Our findings may allow to identify individuals presenting high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced NSCLC and to characterize molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and resistance to develop NSCLC.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6574, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700408

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.

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