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1.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 69(12): 497-506, 16 dic., 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-4194

RESUMO

Introducción: La terapia con realidad virtual (TRV) constituye una herramienta poderosa que motiva a los pacientes con ictus a participar activamente en su neurorrehabilitación, y proporciona retroalimentación aumentada del rendimiento, con objeto de obtener mejores resultados terapéuticos gracias a la potenciación de los mecanismos de neuroplasticidad. Objetivo: Exponer los datos más relevantes sobre las aplicaciones de la TRV en la neurorrehabilitación postictus. Desarrollo: Búsqueda de artículos en PubMed, últimos libros y principales guías de práctica clínica y sociedades científicas publicados con respecto a dichas aplicaciones. Conclusiones: Los diferentes ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) realizados demuestran que la TRV facilita, de forma segura y estadísticamente significativa, la recuperación motora y funcional del miembro superior, la marcha, el equilibrio, la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y las actividades de la vida diaria, junto con la terapia convencional, sin ser globalmente superior a la terapia convencional. Aún no se conocen los mecanismos específicos subyacentes. Los ECA futuros deberán definir el perfil de paciente respondedor según la TRV empleada, permitiendo generar enfoques de neurorrehabilitación que conjuguen una TRV personalizada inmersiva y la experiencia clínica de los terapeutas para maximizar los resultados. Son precisos ECA bien diseñados, incluyendo muestras amplias de pacientes adecuadamente seleccionados, para redactar un documento de consenso que permita recomendar, con un mayor nivel de evidencia y de forma generalizada, la implementación de la TRV como terapia complementaria en la neurorrehabilitación postictus, determinar si los efectos beneficiosos se mantienen a largo plazo y clarificar qué esquema de tratamiento es el más apropiado


Introduction: Virtual reality therapy (VRT) constitutes a powerful and motivating tool for stroke patients to actively participate in the process of neurorehabilitation, providing augmented performance feedback, with the aim of achieving better therapeutic results owing to the enhancing of neuroplasticity mechanisms. Aim: To report the most relevant data about the applications of VRT in the post-stroke neurorehabilitation. DEVELOPMENT. We conducted a PubMed search for articles, latest books, leading clinical practice guidelines, and scientific societies, regarding such applications. Conclusions: Different performed randomized clinical trials (RCT) show that VRT safely facilitates in a statistically significant way motor and functional recovery of upper limb, gait, balance, quality of life related to health, and activities of daily living, together with conventional therapy, but have no clearly demonstrated overall superiority to conventional therapy. In this regard, underlying specific mechanisms remain elusive at this stage. Future RCT should define the good responder stroke patient profile based on the VRT used in conjunction with conventional therapy, allowing the generation of neurorehabilitation approaches that combine a customized immersive VRT with the clinical experience of the therapists, to maximize the results. It is necessary to carry out well-designed RCT, including larger samples of appropriately selected stroke subjects, to draft a consensus document that allows recommending, with a greater level of evidence and on a widespread basis, the implementation of VRT as add-on therapy in post-stroke neurorehabilitation. As well as to determine if the beneficial effects are maintained in the long term and to clarify the most suitable treatment Schedule

2.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767343

RESUMO

In addition to redefining essential tremor (ET), the 2018 consensus statement of the Movement Disorder Society on tremor coined a new term: essential tremor-plus (ET-plus). This term is uncertainly defined as tremor with the characteristics of ET, with additional neurological signs of uncertain clinical significance. If ET-plus had been defined on the basis of a difference in underlying pathology or an appreciable difference in prognosis, it would have a valid, scientific rationale, as does the term Parkinson-plus. However, there is no such evidence, so the basis for the term is questionable. In fact, ET-plus might only represent a state condition (ie, patients with ET might develop these additional clinical features when the disease is at a more advanced stage). We caution against coining new terms that are not supported by a firm scientific basis and encourage research into the creation of essential tremor subsets that are defined with respect to differences in underlying causes or pathophysiology.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(12): 2531-2543, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Orthostatic tremor (OT) is an extremely rare, misdiagnosed, and underdiagnosed disorder affecting adults in midlife. There is debate as to whether it is a different condition or a variant of essential tremor (ET), or even, if both conditions coexist. Our objective was to use data mining classification methods, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain volume and cortical thickness data, to identify morphometric measures that help to discriminate OT patients from those with ET. METHODS: MRI-derived brain volume and cortical thickness were obtained from 14 OT patients and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched ET patients. Feature selection and machine learning methods were subsequently applied. RESULTS: Four MRI features alone distinguished the two, OT from ET, with 100% diagnostic accuracy. More specifically, left thalamus proper volume (normalized by the total intracranial volume), right superior parietal volume, right superior parietal thickness, and right inferior parietal roughness (i.e., the standard deviation of cortical thickness) were shown to play a key role in OT and ET characterization. Finally, the left caudal anterior cingulate thickness and the left caudal middle frontal roughness allowed us to separate with 100% diagnostic accuracy subgroups of OT patients (primary and those with mild parkinsonian signs). CONCLUSIONS: A data mining approach applied to MRI-derived brain volume and cortical thickness data may differentiate between these two types of tremor with an accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that OT and ET are distinct conditions.

4.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(11): 2212-2222, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of orthostatic tremor (OT) is unknown. We investigated OT-related white matter changes and their correlations with scores from a neuropsychological testing battery. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging measures were compared between 14 OT patients and 14 age- and education-matched healthy controls, using whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis. Correlations between altered diffusion metrics and cognitive performance in OT group were assessed. RESULTS: In all cognitive domains (attention, executive function, visuospatial ability, verbal memory, visual memory, and language), OT patients' cognitive performance was significantly worse than that of healthy controls. OT patients demonstrated altered diffusivity metrics not only in the posterior lobe of the cerebellum (left cerebellar lobule VI) and in its efferent cerebellar fibers (left superior cerebellar peduncle), but also in medial lemniscus bilaterally (pontine tegmentum), anterior limb of the internal capsule bilaterally, right posterior limb of the internal capsule, left anterior corona radiata, right insula, and the splenium of corpus callosum. No relationship was found between diffusion measures and disease duration in OT patients. Diffusion white matter changes, mainly those located in right anterior limb of the internal capsule, were correlated with poor performance on tests of executive function, visuospatial ability, verbal memory, and visual memory in OT patients. INTERPRETATION: White matter changes were preferentially located in the cerebellum, its efferent pathways, as well as in the pontine tegmentum and key components of the frontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit. Further work needs to be done to understand the evolution of these white matter changes and their functional consequences.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222505, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527913

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD) mortality risk in a large cohort of subjects treated or not with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether NSAIDs use is associated with decreased risk of AD mortality. In this prospective, population-based study (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain [NEDICES]) of 5,072 people without AD (aged 65 years and older), sociodemographic, comorbidity factors, and current medications were recorded at baseline. Community-dwelling older adults were followed for a median of 12.7 years, after which the death certificates of deceased participants were examined. 2,672 (52.7%) of 5,072 participants died, including 504 (18.9%) NSAIDs users and 2,168 (81.1%) non-users. Of the 2,672 deceased participants, 113 (4.2%) had AD as a cause of death (8 [1.6%] among NSAIDs users and 105 [4.8%] among non-users, chi-square = 10.70, p = 0.001). In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of AD mortality was decreased in NSAIDs users (hazard ratio [HR] for AD mortality = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.72, p = 0.004) when compared to non-users. After adjusting for numerous demographic factors and co-morbidities, the HR for AD mortality in NSAIDs users was 0.29, 95% CI 0.12-0.73, p = 0.009. Stratified analyses showed a significantly decreased risk of AD mortality with aspirin, whereas non-aspirin NSAIDs only showed a statistical trend toward significance in the adjusted Cox regression models. NSAIDs use was associated with 71% decreased risk of AD mortality in older adults. Our results support the hypothesis that NSAIDs use is a protective factor of developing AD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413901

RESUMO

Background: Article-level citation count is a hallmark indicating scientific impact. We aimed to pinpoint and evaluate the top 50 most-cited articles in orthostatic tremor (OT). Methods: The ISI Web of Knowledge database and 2017 Journal Citation Report Science Edition were used to retrieve the 50 top-cited OT articles published from 1984 to April 2019. Information was collected by the Analyze Tool on the Web of Science, including number of citations, publication title, journal name, publication year, and country and institution of origin. Supplementary analyses were undertaken to clarify authorship, study design, level of evidence, and category. Results: Up to 66% of manuscripts were recovered from five journals: Movement Disorders (n = 18), Brain (n = 4), Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology (n = 4), Neurology (n = 4), and Clinical Neurophysiology (n = 3). Articles were published between 1984 and 2018, with expert opinion as the predominant design (n = 22) and review as category (n = 17). Most articles had level 5 evidence (n = 26). According to their countries of origin, 34% of articles belonged to the United States (n = 17) leading the list, followed by United Kingdom (n = 15). University College London yielded the greater number of articles (n = 12), followed by the University of Kiel (n = 9). Most popular authors were G. Deuschl (n = 10), C.D. Marsden (n = 6), J. Jankovic (n = 5), P.D. Thompson (n = 5), J.C. Rothwell (n = 5), L.J. Findley (n = 4), and P. Brown (n = 4), who together accounted for 48% of them. All papers were in English. Discussion: Publishing high-cited OT articles could be facilitated by source journal, study design, category, publication language, and country and institution of origin.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Tremor , Autoria , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/terapia
7.
Front Neurol ; 10: 758, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396143

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common debilitating neurodegenerative disease caused by a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra within the central nervous system (CNS). The process leading to this neuronal loss is poorly understood. Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common benign inflammatory condition of the skin which mainly affects lipid-rich regions of the head and trunk. SD is caused by over proliferation of the lipophilic fungus Malassezia. PD and SD are strongly associated. The increased PD risk following an SD diagnosis (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.36, 2.1; p < 0.001) reported by Tanner and colleagues remains unexplained. Malassezia were historically considered commensals confined to the skin. However, many recent studies report finding Malassezia in internal organs, including the CNS. This raises the possibility that Malassezia might be directly contributing to PD. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis. AIDS is causally associated with both parkinsonism and SD, suggesting that weak T cell-mediated control of commensal microbes such as Malassezia might contribute to both. Genetic polymorphisms associated with PD (LRRK2, GBA, PINK1, SPG11, SNCA) increase availability of lipids within human cells, providing a suitable environment for Malassezia. Four LRRK2 polymorphisms which increase PD risk also increase Crohn's disease risk; Crohn's disease is strongly associated with an immune response against fungi, particularly Malassezia. Finally, Malassezia hypha formation and melanin synthesis are stimulated by L-DOPA, which could promote Malassezia invasiveness of dopamine neurons, and contribute to the accumulation of melanin in these neurons. Although Malassezia's presence in the substantia nigra remains to be confirmed, if Malassezia play a role in PD etiology, antifungal drugs should be tested as a possible therapeutic intervention.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(16): 4686-4702, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332912

RESUMO

Essential tremor (ET) is a neurological disease with both motor and nonmotor manifestations; however, little is known about its underlying brain basis. Furthermore, the overall organization of the brain network in ET remains largely unexplored. We investigated the topological properties of brain functional network, derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, in 23 ET patients versus 23 healthy controls. Graph theory analysis was used to assess the functional network organization. At the global level, the functional network of ET patients was characterized by lower small-worldness values than healthy controls-less clustered functionality of the brain. At the regional level, compared with the healthy controls, ET patients showed significantly higher values of global efficiency, cost and degree, and a shorter average path length in the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), right inferior temporal gyrus (posterior division and temporo-occipital part), right inferior lateral occipital cortex, left paracingulate, bilateral precuneus bilaterally, left lingual gyrus, right hippocampus, left amygdala, nucleus accumbens bilaterally, and left middle temporal gyrus (posterior part). In addition, ET patients showed significant higher local efficiency and clustering coefficient values in frontal medial cortex bilaterally, subcallosal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (posterior division), right lingual gyrus, right cerebellar flocculus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior semilunar lobule of cerebellum and culmen of vermis. Finally, the right intracalcarine cortex and the left orbitofrontal cortex showed a shorter average path length in ET patients, while the left frontal operculum and the right planum polare showed a higher betweenness centrality in ET patients. In conclusion, the efficiency of the overall brain functional network in ET is disrupted. Further, our results support the concept that ET is a disorder that disrupts widespread brain regions, including those outside of the brain regions responsible for tremor.

9.
Mov Disord ; 34(7): 950-958, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is one of the most prevalent movement disorders. Many treatments for essential tremor have been reported in clinical practice, but it is uncertain which options have the most robust evidence. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force on tremor to review clinical studies of treatments for essential tremor. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an evidence-based review of current pharmacological and surgical treatments for essential tremor, using standardized criteria defined a priori by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. METHODS: We followed the recommendations of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Evidence Based Medicine Committee. RESULTS: Sixty-four studies of pharmacological and surgical interventions were included in the review. Propranolol and primidone were classified as clinically useful, similar to Topiramate, but only for doses higher than 200 mg/day. Alprazolam and botulinum toxin type A were classified as possibly useful. Unilateral Ventralis intermedius thalamic DBS, radiofrequency thalamotomy, and MRI-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy were considered possibly useful. All the above recommendations were made for limb tremor in essential tremor. There was insufficient evidence for voice and head tremor as well as for the remaining interventions. CONCLUSION: Propranolol, primidone, and topiramate (>200 mg/day) are the pharmacological interventions in which the data reviewed robustly supported efficacy. Their safety profile and patient preference may guide the prioritization of these interventions in clinical practice. MRI-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy was, for the first time, assessed and was considered to be possibly useful. There is a need to improve study design in essential tremor and overcome the limitation of small sample sizes, cross-over studies, short-term follow-up studies, and use of nonvalidated clinical scales. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

10.
J Neurol Sci ; 401: 37-42, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005763

RESUMO

Wearable technology used in Parkinson's disease (PD) research has become an increasing focus of interest in this field. Our group assessed the feasibility, clinical correlation, reliability, and acceptance of smartwatches in order to quantify arm resting tremors in PD patients. An Android application on a smartwatch was used to obtain raw data from the smartwatch's gyroscopes. Twenty-two PD patients were consecutively recruited and followed for 1 year. Arm rest tremors were video filmed and scored by two independent raters using the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). The tremor intensity parameter was defined by the root mean square of the angular speed measured by the smartwatch at the wrist. Sixty-four smartwatch evaluations were completed. The Spearman coefficient among the mean of the resting tremor (UPDRS-III) scores and smartwatch measurements for tremor intensity was 0.81 (p < .001); smartwatch reliability to quantify tremors was checked by intraclass reliability coefficient with a resting tremor = 0.89, minimum detectable change = 59.03%. Good acceptance of the system was shown. Smartwatch use for PD tremor analysis is possible, reliable, well-correlated with clinical scores, and well-accepted by patients for clinical follow-up. The results from these experiments suggest that this commodity hardware has the potential to quantify PD patients' tremors objectively in a consulting-room.

11.
J Neural Eng ; 16(2): 026035, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We propose, design and test a novel thin-film multichannel electrode that can be used for both recording from and stimulating a muscle in acute implants. APPROACH: The system is built on a substrate of polyimide and contains 12 recording and three stimulation sites made of platinum. The structure is 420 µm wide, 20 µm thick and embeds the recording and stimulation contacts on the two sides of the polyimide over an approximate length of 2 cm. We show representative applications in healthy individuals as well as tremor patients. The designed system was tested by a psychometric characterization of the stimulation contacts in six tremor patients and three healthy individuals determining the perception threshold and current limit as well as the success rate in discriminating elicited sensations (electrotactile feedback). Also, we investigated the possibility of using the intramuscular electrode for reducing tremor in one patient by electrical stimulation delivered with timing based on the electromyographic activity recorded with the same electrode. MAIN RESULTS: In the tremor patients, the current corresponding to the perception threshold and the current limit were 0.7 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.7 mA for the wrist flexor muscles and 0.4 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.7 mA for the extensors. In one patient, closed-loop stimulation resulted in a decrease of the tremor power >50%. In healthy individuals the perception threshold and current limits were 0.9 ± 0.6 and 2.1 ± 0.6 mA for the extensor carpi radialis muscle. The subjects could distinguish four or six stimulation patterns (two or three stimulation sites × two stimulation current amplitudes) with true positive rate >80% (two subjects) and >60% (one subject), respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed electrode provides a compact multichannel interface for recording electromyogram and delivering electrical stimulation in applications such as neuroprostheses for tremor suppression and closed-loop myoelectric prostheses.

12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(1): e10941, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Neurological Disorders in Central Spain, second survey (NEDICES-2) is a population-based, closed-cohort study that will include over 8000 subjects aged ≥55 years. It will also include a biobank. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate all major aspects of the NEDICES-2 (methods, database, screening instruments, and questionnaires, as well as interexpert rating of the neurological diagnoses) in each one of the planned areas (all of them in central Spain) and to test the possibility of obtaining biological samples from each participant. METHODS: A selection of patients and participants of the planned NEDICES-2 underwent face-to-face interviews including a comprehensive questionnaire on demographics, current medications, medical conditions, and lifestyle habits. Biological samples (blood, saliva, urine, and hair) were also obtained. Furthermore, every participant was examined by a neurologist. RESULTS: In this pilot study, 567 study participants were enrolled (196 from hospitals and 371 from primary care physician lists). Of these 567, 310 completed all study procedures (questionnaires and the neurological evaluation). The study was time-consuming for several primary care physicians. Hence, a few primary care physicians from some areas refused to participate, which led to a reconfiguration of study areas. In addition, the central biobank needed to be supplemented by the biobanks of local Spanish National Health System hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based epidemiological surveys, such as the NEDICES-2, require a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of all aspects of a future field study (population selection, methods and instruments to be used, neurological diagnosis agreement, and data collection).

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(1): 83-97, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656186

RESUMO

Objective: Although the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network has often been suggested to be of importance in the pathogenesis of essential tremor (ET), the origins of tremorgenic activity in this disease are not fully understood. We used a combination of cortical thickness imaging and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether the severity of tremor was associated with anatomical changes in the brain in ET patients. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented ET patients. High field structural brain MRI images acquired in a 3T scanner and analyses of cortical thickness and surface were carried out. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with the FreeSurfer image analysis software. We used high-density surface electromyography (hdEMG) and inertial measurement units (IMUs) to quantify the tremor severity in upper extrimities of patients. In particular, advanced computer tool was used to reliably identify discharge patterns of individual motor units from surface hdEMG and quantify motor unit synchronization. Results: We found significant association between increased motor unit synchronization (i.e., more severe tremor) and cortical changes (i.e., atrophy) in widespread cerebral cortical areas, including the left medial orbitofrontal cortex, left isthmus of the cingulate gyrus, right paracentral lobule, right lingual gyrus, as well as reduced left supramarginal gyrus (inferior parietal cortex), right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus, left thalamus, and left amygdala volumes. Interpretation: Given that most of these brain areas are involved in controlling movement sequencing, ET tremor could be the result of an involuntary activation of a program of motor behavior used in the genesis of voluntary repetitive movements.

15.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(11): 441-452, 1 dic., 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175310

RESUMO

Introducción. Los cánceres nefrourológicos constituyen un conjunto heterogéneo y cada vez más frecuente de tumores malignos que poseen el potencial de derivar directamente, e indirectamente por el tratamiento aplicado, en una serie de complicaciones neurológicas que impactan negativamente sobre la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Objetivo. Exponer los datos más relevantes sobre las principales complicaciones neurológicas de los cánceres nefrourológicos. Desarrollo. Búsqueda de artículos en PubMed, últimos libros y principales guías de práctica clínica y sociedades científicas publicados referentes al diagnóstico y tratamiento de dichas complicaciones. Conclusiones. Las complicaciones neurológicas de los cánceres nefrourológicos generan una carga importante de morbimortalidad en los pacientes oncológicos. Paradójicamente, gracias al aumento de su supervivencia, también se incrementa la probabilidad de producirse metástasis en el sistema nervioso o efectos adversos por el tratamiento, en especial la quimioterapia. Actualmente, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de las complicaciones neurológicas asociadas a los cánceres nefrourológicos suponen un área muy importante de interés creciente para el desarrollo de trabajos de investigación que permitan mejorar el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de estos pacientes y de sus familiares o cuidadores. Para ello, es preciso conocer mejor la etiopatogenia y la fisiopatología que llevan a la aparición de este tipo de complicaciones, particularmente los síndromes paraneoplásicos, y, por otro lado, la realización de ensayos clínicos controlados, aleatorizados, bien diseñados, que amplíen el arsenal terapéutico con nuevos fármacos quimioterápicos con mayor efectividad antineoplásica y mejor seguridad relativa a los efectos secundarios neurotóxicos


Introduction. Genitourinary cancers constitute a heterogeneous and increasingly frequent group of malignant tumors that have the potential to derive directly, or indirectly from the treatment applied, in a series of neurological complications that negatively impact on the quality of life of the patients who suff er them. Aims. To report the most relevant data on the main neurological complications of genitourinary cancers. Development. We conducted a PubMed search for articles, latest books, leading clinical practice guidelines, and scientific societies, regarding the appearance of such complications. Conclusions. Neurological complications of genitourinary cancers generate a signifi cant burden of morbidity and ortality in cancer patients. In a paradoxical manner, owing to the raised survival of these patients, the likelihood of metastatization at the nervous system level and/or adverse eff ects related to the treatment received, especially due to chemotherapy, is also increased. Currently, diagnosis and management of neurological complications associated with genitourinary cancers represent a very important area of growing interest for the development of research projects that allow to improve the prognosis and quality of life genitourinary cancers subjects and their relatives and/or caregivers. For this purpose, it is necessary to know more about the etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology that lead to the occurrence of these type of complications in genitourinary cancers individuals, in particular paraneoplastic syndromes. Moreover, on the other hand, to carry out further well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials that expand the therapeutic arsenal with new chemotherapeutic drugs that possess a better antineoplastic eff ectiveness and improve the safety related to the neurotoxic side effects


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/complicações , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Rim/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Cérebro/patologia
16.
Front Neurol ; 9: 879, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420827

RESUMO

Background: Traditional studies on the neural mechanisms of tremor use coherence analysis to investigate the relationship between cortical and muscle activity, measured by electroencephalograms (EEG) and electromyograms (EMG). This methodology is limited by the need of relatively long signal recordings, and it is sensitive to EEG artifacts. Here, we analytically derive and experimentally validate a new method for automatic extraction of the tremor-related EEG component in pathological tremor patients that aims to overcome these limitations. Methods: We exploit the coupling between the tremor-related cortical activity and motor unit population firings to build a linear minimum mean square error estimator of the tremor component in EEG. We estimated the motor unit population activity by decomposing surface EMG signals into constituent motor unit spike trains, which we summed up into a cumulative spike train (CST). We used this CST to initialize our tremor-related EEG component estimate, which we optimized using a novel approach proposed here. Results: Tests on simulated signals demonstrate that our new method is robust to both noise and motor unit firing variability, and that it performs well across a wide range of spectral characteristics of the tremor. Results on 9 essential (ET) and 9 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show a ~2-fold increase in amplitude of the coherence between the estimated EEG component and the CST, compared to the classical EEG-EMG coherence analysis. Conclusions: We have developed a novel method that allows for more precise and robust estimation of the tremor-related EEG component. This method does not require artifact removal, provides reliable results in relatively short datasets, and tracks changes in the tremor-related cortical activity over time.

17.
J Neurosci Res ; 96(8): 1341-1352, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660812

RESUMO

There remains much to learn about the changes in cortical anatomy that are associated with tremor severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, we used a combination of structural neuroimaging to measure cortical thickness and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether PD tremor was associated with cortex integrity. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented PD patients (9 women, 69.2%) with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis software. Assessment of tremor was performed by means of high-density surface electromyography (hdEMG) and inertial measurement units (IMUs). Individual motor unit discharge patterns were identified from surface hdEMG and tremor metrics quantifying motor unit synchronization from IMUs. Increased motor unit synchronization (i.e., more severe tremor) was associated with cortical changes (i.e., atrophy) in wide-spread cortical areas, including caudal middle frontal regions bilaterally (dorsal premotor cortices), left inferior parietal lobe (posterior parietal cortex), left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex bilaterally, left posterior and transverse temporal cortex, and left occipital lobe, as well as reduced left middle temporal volume. Given that the majority of these areas are involved in controlling movement sequencing, our results support Albert's classic hypothesis that PD tremor may be the result of an involuntary activation of a program of motor behavior used in the genesis of rapid voluntary alternating movements.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Tremor/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tremor/patologia , Tremor/fisiopatologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4301, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511279

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

19.
J Neurosci Methods ; 303: 95-102, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of wearable technology is an emerging field of research in movement disorders. This paper introduces a clinical study to evaluate the feasibility, clinical correlation and reliability of using a system based in smartwatches to quantify tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients and check its acceptance as clinical monitoring tool. NEW METHOD: The system is based on a commercial smartwatch and an Android smartphone. An investigational Android application controls the process of recording raw data from the smartwatch three-dimensional gyroscopes. Thirty-four ET patients were consecutively enrolled in the experiments and assessed along one year. Arm tremor was videofilmed and scored using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (FTM-TRS). Tremor intensity was quantified with the root mean square of angular velocity measured in the patients' wrists. RESULTS: Eighty-two assessments with smartwatches were performed. Spearman's correlation coefficients (ρ) between clinical tremor (FTM-TRS) scores and smartwatch measures for tremor intensity were 0.590 at rest; ρ = 0.738 in steady posture; ρ = 0.189 in finger-to-nose maneuvers; and ρ = 0.652 in pouring water task. Smartwatch reliability was checked by intraclass realiability coefficients: 0.85, 0.95, 0.91, 0.95 respectively. Most of patients showed good acceptance of the system. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): This commodity hardware contributes to quantify tremor objectively in a consulting-room by customized Android smart devices as clinical monitoring tool. CONCLUSIONS: The NetMD system for tremor analysis is feasible, well-correlated with clinical scores, reliable and well-accepted by patients to tremor follow-up. Therefore, it could be an option to objectively quantify tremor in ET patients during their regular follow-up.


Assuntos
Tremor Essencial/diagnóstico , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(4): 125-134, 16 feb., 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172121

RESUMO

Introducción. El estudio de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) es esencial, porque constituye un problema de salud pública y porque las diferencias en la prevalencia y la incidencia pueden ofrecer pistas acerca de la existencia de factores ambientales o biológicos de importancia etiológica. Objetivo. Exponer los datos más relevantes sobre la epidemiología descriptiva (prevalencia, incidencia y mortalidad) de la EP, provenientes de los estudios llevados a cabo en distintos países, con especial énfasis en los realizados en España y Latinoamérica. Asimismo, se comentarán algunos de los principales factores de riesgo o protectores de esta enfermedad (epidemiología analítica) que se han sugerido gracias a los datos obtenidos de las grandes cohortes de la bibliografía. Desarrollo. Análisis de los estudios poblacionales más significativos, en especial los realizados con metodología ‘puerta a puerta’. Conclusiones. La prevalencia y la incidencia de la EP varían ampliamente a lo largo del mundo. En general, en Europa y Estados Unidos, la prevalencia es más alta que en el resto de países y es relativamente uniforme, y oscila en un rango no muy llamativo. En los países asiáticos, Latinoamérica y África es inferior, especialmente en este último continente. Estas diferencias podrían deberse en parte a factores propios de la población estudiada (es decir, mayor mortalidad por menores recursos económicos). Los factores de riesgo más establecidos son el envejecimiento y el sexo masculino (AU)


Introduction. The study of the epidemiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essential because it is a public health problem and because the differences in its prevalence and incidence offer clues as to the existence of aetiologically important environmental or biological factors. Aims. To report the most relevant data about the descriptive epidemiology (prevalence, incidence and mortality) of PD from studies conducted in different countries, with special emphasis on those carried out in Spain and Latin America. Likewise, the study also includes a discussion of some of the main risk factors or protectors of this disease (analyticalepidemiology) that have emerged thanks to the data obtained from large cohorts in the literature. Development. We conduct an analysis of the most significant population-based studies, focusing especially on those conducted using the 'door-to-door' methodology. Conclusions. Its prevalence and incidence vary greatly around the world. In general, prevalence is higher in Europe and the United States than in other countries and is relatively uniform, fluctuating over a range that is not very noteworthy. In Asian, Latin American and African countries it is lower, especially in this last continent. These differences could be partly due to the specific factors of the population studied (that is to say, higher mortality rate due to lower economic resources). The most firmly established risk factors are ageing and being male (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Prevalência , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
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