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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compliance with college emergency notifications can minimize injury; however, time is often wasted in alert verification. Building on prior research, this study assesses using health-behavior theory to predict rapid compliance to emergency notifications across a range of scenarios and within a diverse college population. METHODS: Cross-sectional, student data were collected in 2017-2018 (n = 1529). The Theory of Planned Behavior and Protection Motivation Theory were used to explain intention to comply with emergency notifications in scenarios: robbery, shooter, fire, chemical spill, protest, health emergency, and air quality. Regression models assessed associations between constructs and intention to rapidly comply with each notification. RESULTS: The most consistent predictors of rapid compliance were attitudes and subjective norms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.057-1.118; 95% CI: 1.009-1.168). Scenarios prone to rapid developments such as robbery, shooter, and fire were associated with increased perceived threat and response efficacy (AOR: 1.024-1.082; 95% CI: 1.003-1.132) Slower developing situations such as air quality and health hazards were associated with increased perceived control (AOR: 1.027-1.073; 95% CI: 1.031-1.117). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified attitude and subjective norms as consistent predictors of rapid compliance and improves understanding of additional constructs across scenarios. Campuses may benefit from leveraging concepts from health-behavior theory to provide targeted intervention focusing on factors associated with rapid compliance.

2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(14): 2368-2379, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407958

RESUMO

Objectives: Despite college students reporting high rates of substance use and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), few studies have examined ACE-related substance use patterns with diverse student samples. We estimated the prevalence of ACE and substance use and investigated ethnic differences in the relationship between ACE and substance use among college students from two states. Design: Data are responses (N = 7,148) on the National College Health Assessment (in California) and the College Student Health Survey (in Minnesota). Multivariable regression models assessed the associations between individual and accumulated ACE and alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit substance use and binge drinking (adjusting for age, gender, depression, and state) among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, African American/Black, Asian Pacific Islanders, multiracial, and other students. Interaction terms were calculated to test for ethnic differences. Results: In the month preceding the survey, 22% of students used marijuana, 28% used tobacco, 75% drank alcohol; 6% used an illicit drug in the past year and 30% acknowledged past 2-week binge drinking. Although ACE were associated with all substance use behaviors (AORs ranged from 1.19 to 1.54, p < .001), there was significant ethnic variation in ACE exposure (40-52%) and the dose-response relationship between ACE and marijuana and tobacco use and binge drinking. Conclusions: The variability in ACE-related substance use patterns across ethnic groups highlights the need for research that advances our understanding of sociocultural influences in trauma response and the role that campus communities could have in the development of culturally sensitive services that address this issue.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1131, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although research has explored influenza vaccination uptake among medical and college students, there is a dearth of research in understanding influenza vaccination uptake and attitudes toward the vaccine among future public health practitioners. Undergraduate public health students represent future public health practitioners who may be a significant educational resource for health information, including the importance of vaccinations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data from 158 undergraduate public health students attending a large public university in Southern California. The survey assessed public health students' attitudes and beliefs towards the seasonal influenza vaccine and seasonal vaccination rates among this population. RESULTS: Over 88% of respondents reported having been encouraged to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, while only 43.0% reported receipt. Of the students who reported not receiving the vaccine, 49.4% believed it may give them the flu, 30.4% believed there may be dangerous side effects, and 28.9% believed they were not at risk for contracting the flu. Access to health care practitioners (OR: 3.947, 95% CI [1.308-11.906]) and social encouragement (OR: 3.139, 95% CI [1.447-6.811]) were significantly associated with receipt of the seasonal influenza vaccine. CONCLUSION: As public health program curriculum includes information about seasonal influenza vaccination and 68% of the sample were seniors soon to be exiting the program with an undergraduate degree in public health education, this low seasonal influenza vaccination rate is disturbing. This study may add to the body of data demonstrating how knowledge of the vaccine does not always guarantee vaccine uptake. Results of the current study suggest that it may be beneficial to provide additional information targeted to public health students, aimed at mediating safety concerns and increasing social pressure to assist in improving vaccine acceptance and rates in this population. Maximizing seasonal influenza vaccination uptake by addressing attitudes, barriers and misperceptions may not only improve vaccination rates among public health students, but also in communities served by these future public health practitioners.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Saúde Pública/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estudantes de Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Addict Behav ; 76: 298-304, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that college students are an especially vulnerable subset of the population for substance use and misuse. However, despite evidence of the high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) among students and the link between family-based ACE and substance use among older adults, this relationship remains understudied in college populations. Moreover, whether ACE represents a shared risk across substance use behaviors and ethnic groups is unknown. METHODS: Data are student responses (n=2953) on the 2015 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) administered at one of the largest, most diverse public universities in California. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models tested the association between individual and accumulated ACE and past 30-day alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drug use, past 12-month prescription medication misuse and polysubstance use. RESULTS: Between 50% and 75% of students involved in substance use were ACE exposed. There was a significant dose-response relationship between ACE and substance use and polysubstance use. Although accumulated ACE increased risk for substance use, there was considerable ethnic variability in these associations. CONCLUSIONS: The graded effects of ACE for substance use underscore the link between family-based stressors and these behaviors in emergent adult college students. Our findings make a compelling case for investing in health initiatives that prioritize ACE screening and access to trauma-informed care in campus communities. Continued research with college populations is needed to replicate findings and clarify the role of ethnicity and culture in trauma response and help seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Influenza Res Treat ; 2016: 4248071, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110397

RESUMO

Influenza can spread rapidly on college campuses because of high-density living conditions and frequent social interactions. However, seasonal influenza vaccination rates on college campuses are low. The purpose of this study is to identify barriers associated with receipt of the seasonal influenza vaccination. Questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of 383 undergraduate students in January 2014. Data were analyzed to identify barriers associated with receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine. Only 20.6% of students reported receiving the vaccine within the last 6 months. Among students who did not receive the vaccine, 47.8% believed they would get influenza from the vaccine, 41.6% believed the vaccination may have dangerous side effects, and 39.6% believed they were not at risk for contracting influenza. The majority of nonvaccinated students did not believe cost of the vaccine or access to the vaccine were barriers. Many college students are not receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine, representing an important area for improvement. Understanding potential barriers associated with receipt of this vaccine is important for identifying and creating effective public health education programs and campaigns. There is a need for enhanced vaccination education efforts among college students, particularly with respect to the safety and importance of this vaccine.

6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E200, 2015 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26583572

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hospitalization data typically cannot be used to estimate the number of individuals hospitalized annually because individuals are not tracked over time and may be hospitalized multiple times annually. We examined the impact of repeat hospitalizations on hospitalization rates for various conditions and on comparison of rates by diabetes status. METHODS: We analyzed hospitalization data for which repeat hospitalizations could be distinguished among adults aged 18 or older from 12 states using the 2011 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's State Inpatient Databases. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to estimate the number of adults with and without diagnosed diabetes in each state (denominator). We calculated percentage increases due to repeat hospitalizations in rates and compared the ratio of diabetes with non-diabetes rates while excluding and including repeat hospitalizations. RESULTS: Regardless of diabetes status, hospitalization rates were considerably higher when repeat hospitalizations within a calendar year were included. The magnitude of the differences varied by condition. Among adults with diabetes, rates ranged from 13.0% higher for stroke to 41.6% higher for heart failure; for adults without diabetes, these rates ranged from 9.5% higher for stroke to 25.2% higher for heart failure. Ratios of diabetes versus non-diabetes rates were similar with and without repeat hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: Hospitalization rates that include repeat hospitalizations overestimate rates in individuals, and this overestimation is especially pronounced for some causes. However, the inclusion of repeat hospitalizations for common diabetes-related causes had little impact on rates by diabetes status.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Prev Med ; 30(5): 371-7, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16627124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes may be increasing because of recent changes in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, enhanced case detection, and a true increase in disease incidence. These factors may also be changing the characteristics of newly diagnosed cases. Therefore, we examined recent trends in the incidence of diagnosed diabetes, changes to the characteristics of incident cases, and factors associated with incidence. METHODS: First, National Health Interview Survey data for 1997 to 2003 were used to examine 7-year trends in the incidence of diagnosed diabetes among U.S. adults aged 18 to 79 years. Second, among 1997-1998 and 2002-2003 incident cases, differences in sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and indicators of health status were examined. Lastly, multivariate-adjusted incidence from multiple logistic regression of 2001-2003 survey data were derived. RESULTS: From 1997 to 2003, the incidence of diagnosed diabetes increased 41% from 4.9 to 6.9 per 1,000 population (p <0.01). Incidence increased among men and women, non-Hispanic whites, persons with at least a high school education, nonsmokers, active and inactive persons, and among obese persons (p <0.05). Obesity was more prevalent (p <0.01) and physical limitation was less prevalent (p =0.03) in 2002-2003 versus 1997-1998 incident cases. Multivariate-adjusted incidence increased with age and BMI category, and decreased with education level (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was a major factor in the recent increase of newly diagnosed diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that reduce or prevent the prevalence of obesity among persons at risk for diabetes are needed to halt the increasing incidence of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Diabetes Complications ; 19(4): 201-6, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15993353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. RESULTS: Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; P<.001), obesity (58.9% vs. 43.3%; P<.001), hypercholesterolemia (52.6% vs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; P<.001). They were also more likely to have one or more, two or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; P< or =.005). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic persons with disability are more likely than those without disability to have clusters of risk factors for heart disease and stroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.


Assuntos
Angiopatias Diabéticas/complicações , Pessoas com Deficiência , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Diabetes Care ; 28(6): 1321-5, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15920046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Opportunistic screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes (either impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose) is recommended by the American Diabetes Association. The aim of this study was to determine efficient cutoff points for three screening tests for detecting undiagnosed diabetes alone or both undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We estimated the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes alone or with both undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes that could be detected by using different cutoff points for each screening test as the product of the prevalence of each condition, the sensitivity of the tests at each cutoff point for identifying each condition, and the number of individuals who would be eligible for screening in the U.S. We estimated the total cost of opportunistic screening by multiplying the cost for screening one person by the number of individuals screened. RESULTS: The most efficient cutoff points for both detecting pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (100 mg/dl for the fasting plasma glucose test, 5.0% for the HbA(1c) test, and 100 mg/dl for the random capillary blood glucose test) were less than those for detecting undiagnosed diabetes alone (110 mg/dl for the fasting plasma glucose test, 5.7% for the HbA(1c) test, and 120 mg/dl for the random capillary blood glucose test). CONCLUSIONS: A lower cutoff value should be used when screening for pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes together than when screening for undiagnosed diabetes alone.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Capilares , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/economia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 39(2): 256-63, 2004 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15307036

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes and survival probabilities among persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-I/II). A nonconcurrent cohort study of 1033 HIV-infected individuals was also conducted. Sixty-two patients were coinfected with HTLV-I, and 141 patients were coinfected with HTLV-II. HTLV-I/II coinfection was highly associated with African-American race/ethnicity, age of >36 years, higher CD4(+) T cell count at baseline and over time, and history of injection drug use. Coinfected patients were more likely to have neurologic complications, thrombocytopenia, respiratory and urinary tract infections, and hepatitis C. Despite having higher CD4(+) T cell counts over time, there was no difference in the incidence of opportunistic infections. Progression to both acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.98) and death (aHR, 0.57, 95% CI, 0.37-0.89) were slower among HTLV-II-coinfected patients, compared with time-entry- and CD4(+) T cell count-matched control subjects. In conclusion, HIV-HTLV-I/II coinfection may result in improved survival and delayed progression to AIDS, but this happens at the expense of an increased frequency of other of clinical complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-II/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/mortalidade , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/imunologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino
12.
Ann Epidemiol ; 14(7): 507-16, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15301787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ability to identify prevalent cases of diagnosed diabetes is crucial to monitoring preventative care practices and health outcomes among persons with diagnosed diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess and summarize the validity of various strategies for identifying individuals with diagnosed diabetes and to examine the factors influencing the validity of these strategies. RESULTS: We found that studies using either administrative data or survey data were both adequately sensitive (i.e., identified the majority of cases of diagnosed diabetes) and highly specific (i.e., did not identify the individuals as having diabetes if they did not). In contrast, studies based on cause-of-death data from death certificates were not sensitive, failing to identify about 60% of decedents with diabetes and in most of these studies, researchers did not report specificity or positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance is critical for tracking trends in diabetes and targeting diabetes prevention efforts. Several approaches can provide valuable data, although each has limitations. By understanding the limitations of the data, investigators will be able to estimate diabetes prevalence and improve surveillance of diabetes in the population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Informática em Saúde Pública/normas , Estatísticas Vitais , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 140(11): 945-50, 2004 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15172919

RESUMO

A diabetes epidemic emerged during the 20th century and continues unchecked into the 21st century. It has already taken an extraordinary toll on the U.S. population through its acute and chronic complications, disability, and premature death. Trend data suggest that the burden will continue to increase. Efforts to pre- vent or delay the complications of diabetes or, better yet, to prevent or delay the development of diabetes itself are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Diabetes Mellitus/classificação , Previsões , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
14.
Diabetes Care ; 26(9): 2536-42, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12941715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated various strategies to identify individuals aged 45-74 years with pre-diabetes (either impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cost analysis to evaluate the effectiveness (proportion of cases identified), total costs, and efficiency (cost per case identified) of five detection strategies: an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, an HbA(1c) test, a capillary blood glucose (CBG) test, and a risk assessment questionnaire. For the first strategy, all individuals received an OGTT. For the last four strategies, only those with a positive screening test received an OGTT. Data were from the Third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2000 census, Medicare, and published literature. One-time screening costs were estimated from both a single-payer perspective and a societal perspective. RESULTS: The proportion of pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes identified ranged from 69% to 100% (12.1-17.5 million). The cost per case identified ranged from US dollars 176 to US dollars 236 from a single-payer perspective and from US dollars 247 to US dollars 332 from a societal perspective. Testing all with OGTT was the most effective strategy, but the CBG test and risk assessment questionnaire were the most efficient. If people are substantially less willing to take an OGTT than a FPG test, then the FPG testing strategy was the most effective strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There is a tradeoff between effectiveness and efficiency in choosing a strategy. The most favorable strategy depends on if the goal of the screening program is to identify more cases or to pursue the lowest cost per case. The expected percentage of the population willing to take an OGTT is also a consideration.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/economia , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
15.
Diabetes Care ; 26(3): 645-9, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12610015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percent and number of overweight adults in the U.S. with prediabetes who would be potential candidates for diabetes prevention as per the American Diabetes Association Position Statement (12). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994) and projected our estimates to the year 2000. We defined impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 2-h glucose 140-199 mg/dl), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; fasting glucose 110-125 mg/dl), and prediabetes (IGT or IFG) per American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. The ADA recently recommended that all overweight people (BMI >or=25 kg/m(2)) who are >or=45 years of age with prediabetes could be potential candidates for diabetes prevention, as could prediabetic people aged >25 years with risk factors. In NHANES III, 2-h postload glucose concentrations were done only among subjects aged 40-74 years. Because we were interested in overweight people who had both the 2-h glucose and fasting glucose tests, we limited our estimates of IGT, IFG, and prediabetes to those aged 45-74 years. RESULTS-Overall, 17.1% of overweight adults aged 45-74 years had IGT, 11.9% had IFG, 22.6% had prediabetes, and 5.6% had both IGT and IFG. Based on those data, we estimated that in the year 2000, 9.1 million overweight adults aged 45-74 had IGT, 5.8 million had IFG, 11.9 million had prediabetes, and 3.0 million had IGT and IFG. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 12 million overweight individuals aged 45-74 years in the U.S. may benefit from diabetes prevention interventions. The number will be substantially higher if estimation is extended to individuals aged >75 and 25-44 years.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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