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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031624

RESUMO

Consensus paper of the German Society of Cardiovascular Engineering, the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, the German Society of Cardiology, the German Society of Pediatric Cardiology, the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, the German Interdisciplinary Association of Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine and the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

2.
Resuscitation ; 146: 149-154, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811881

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Initiation of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) in patients with refractory cardiac arrest may improve otherwise deleterious outcome. In general, the duration of mechanical resuscitation from collapse to ECMO ranges from 40 to 70 min. CPR-related injuries are reported frequently in non-eCPR patients. We wanted to quantify CPR-related injuries in eCPR patients. METHODS: All eCPR patients cannulated at a tertiary referral medical center between October 2010 and October 2017 were included in a retrospective registry study. A full-body CT scan was performed within the first 24 h after eCPR. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (mean age 58.8 ±â€¯16.7 years, CPR duration 61.7 ±â€¯31.9 min, and hospital survival 13.6 %) underwent eCPR and immediate full-body computed tomography (CT). Full-body CT detected the cause for collapse in 16.5% of patients. Average number of pathologies detected per CT scan was 6.5 ±â€¯3.3 findings per patient, of which 2.6 ±â€¯1.5 findings were retrospectively considered of clinical relevance for subsequent treatment. Most frequent findings were multiple rib or sternal fractures (65.5%), pneumo- or hemothorax (32.3%) and pulmonary infiltrates (91.3%). Intracranial bleedings and cerebral edema were frequent (10.7% and 26.2%). A total of 20 patients (19.4%) had findings in whole-body CT that were considered to be so severe that further treatment was considered futile and therapy was subsequently discontinued. Most findings were associated with poor outcome with the exception of rib fractures, bleedings and abdominal trauma, which might have been caused by vigorous resuscitation efforts and were associated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: A full-body CT scan performed after eCPR revealed substantial clinically significant findings. Therefore, it might be reasonable to routinely perform a full-body CT in all eCPR patients.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(1): 158-170, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873524

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart disease of different aetiology remains the leading cause of cardiac arrest (CA). Despite efforts to improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), subsequent myocardial and systemic damage after CA still present a major long-term burden. Low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) is known to exert protective effects in cardiovascular pathophysiology but clinical applications are challenged by unfavourable delivery modes. We tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal resuscitation (E-CPR) in combination with controlled fast onset CO delivery results in improved cardiac physiology and haemodynamics. Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signalling may be part of the molecular mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an established porcine model, E-CPR was performed. While E-CPR leads to similar results as compared to a conventional CPR strategy, CO delivery in combination with E-CPR demonstrated significant cardioprotection. Cardiac performance analysis using echocardiography and thermodilution techniques showed a CO-dependent improved cardiac function compared to severe myocardial dysfunction in CPR and E-CPR (left ventricular ejection fraction: Sham 49 ± 5; CPR 26 ± 2; E-CPR 25 ± 2; CO-E-CPR 31 ± 4; P < 0.05). While sublingual microcirculation was significantly compromised in CPR and E-CPR, CO delivery demonstrated a significant improvement in microvascular function (microvascular flow index: Sham 2.9 ± 0.1; CPR 2.2 ± 0.1; E-CPR 1.8 ± 0.1; CO-E-CPR 2.7 ± 0.1; P < 0.01). Histological and serological myocardial damage markers were significantly reduced (hsTroponin-T Sham 0.01 ± 0.001; CPR 1.9 ± 0.2; E-CPR 3.5 ± 1.2; CO-E-CPR 0.5 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P < 0.05). DAMP signalling was decreased ipse facto leading to influence of cardioprotective heat shock and cyclooxygenase response. CONCLUSIONS: CO treatment restores myocardial function and improves systemic macro- and microhaemodynamics in E-CPR through a reduction in DAMPs.

4.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 320, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) can be a rescue therapy for patients in cardiogenic shock or in refractory cardiac arrest. After cannulation, vasoplegia and cardiac depression are frequent. In literature, there are conflicting data on inotropic therapy in these patients. METHODS: Analysis of a retrospective registry of all patients treated with VA-ECMO in a university hospital center between October 2010 and December 2018 for cardiogenic shock or extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) with a focus on individual early inotropic therapy. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients (age 58.6 ± 14.3, 29.9% female, 58% eCPR, in-house survival 43.7%) were analyzed. Of these, 41.6% received no inotrope therapy within the first 24 h (survival 47.9%), 29.0% received an inodilator (survival 52.2%), and 29.0% received epinephrine (survival 25.0%). Survival of patients with epinephrine was significantly worse compared to other patient groups when evaluating 30-day survival (p = 0.034/p = 0.005) and cumulative incidence of in-hospital death (p = 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, treatment with epinephrine was associated with mortality in the whole cohort (OR 0.38, p = 0.011) as well as after propensity score matching (OR 0.24, p = 0.037). We found no significant differences between patients with inodilator treatment and those without. CONCLUSION: Early epinephrine therapy within the first 24 h after cannulation for VA-ECMO was associated with poor survival compared to patients with or without any inodilator therapy. Until randomized data are available, epinephrine should be avoided in patients on VA-ECMO.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030562, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) is increasingly applied in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients. Treatment results are promising, but the efficacy and safety of the procedure are still unclear. Currently, there are no recommended target perfusion parameters during eCPR, the lack of which could result in inadequate (re)perfusion. We aim to perform a scoping review to explore the current literature addressing target perfusion parameters, target values, corresponding survival rates and neurologic outcomes in OHCA and IHCA patients treated with eCPR. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To identify relevant research, we will conduct searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Social Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane library. We will also check references of relevant articles and perform a cited reference research (forward citation tracking).Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, check full texts for eligibility and perform data extraction. We will resolve dissent by consensus, moderated by a third reviewer. We will include observational and controlled studies addressing target perfusion parameters and outcomes such as survival rates and neurologic findings in OHCA and IHCA patients treated with eCPR. Data extraction tables will be set up, including study and patients' characteristics, aim of study, details on eCPR including target perfusion parameters and reported outcomes. We will summarise the data using tables and figures (ie, bubble plot) to present the research landscape and to describe potential clusters and/or gaps. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: An ethical approval is not needed. We intend to publish the scoping review in a peer-reviewed journal and present results on a scientific meeting.

7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 61: 170-177, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the outcome of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-guided selective shunting during carotid endarterectomy and the procedural outcome. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy in general anesthesia and receiving bihemispheric NIRS as single neuromonitoring tool between January 2009 and January 2014 were included. Shunting was applied if the reduction in the NIRS values after cross-clamping on the ipsilateral side exceeded 15%. Patients with contralateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were excluded, as were patients operated on by surgeons performing routine shunting. All patients underwent intraoperative angiography after vessel recanalization. RESULTS: NIRS trend was available in 441 patients. Twenty-eight were excluded from this study (14 due to preference for general shunting, 13 due to contralateral ICA occlusion, and 1 due to intraoperative ICA occlusion), resulting in a final sample of 413 patients. We observed a >15% drop in NIRS values on the ipsilateral side in 29 (7%) patients. Accordingly, an intraluminal shunt was placed into the ICA. Shunting was not performed in 384 patients (<15% drop in NIRS values). Interestingly, the NIRS values on the contralateral side were significantly elevated after cross-clamping compared with baseline in the group without shunt (P < 0.0001). On the contrary, patients requiring an ICA shunt revealed a statistically significant reduction in the rSO2 on the contralateral side compared with the baseline (after ipsilateral clamping) (P = 0.047). Three patients overall suffered a stroke, all of whom were in the no-shunt group (combined stroke rate of 0.8% [3/384] with no significant intergroup difference). There was no difference in morbidity factors between the two groups. However, surgical revision after intraoperative angiography was significantly more frequent in the shunt group (17.2%, 5/29) versus the no-shunt group (6%, 23/384), (P < 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: An NIRS-guided selective shunting strategy was associated with excellent clinical outcomes and has the potential to identify patients at risk for hypoperfusion during the clamping period. However, a potentially shunt-associated higher rate of requiring local revisions (due to flaps, twisting, stenosis, and kinking) in ICA was observed. Additional studies are needed to further refine cut-off values for NIRS, indicating the need for shunting.

8.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(Suppl 10): S1464-S1470, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293795

RESUMO

Background: Sudden circulatory arrest (CA) requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has for decades been associated with high mortality and frequent neurological sequelae in the rarer survivors. The high mortality and morbidity are potentially related to a severe and global ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the whole body, especially the brain. Consequently, strategies to counteract this severe IRI may improve survival and neurological recovery of affected patients. Methods: Based on the target to limit IRI in single organs, suitable parameters and methods were composed to form a global treatment concept, the CARL method (controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body). The concept centers on extracorporeal circulation, enhanced with readily available online monitoring. It allows for targeted adaption of different parameters (i.e., blood pressure and flow, temperature, oxygen content, electrolytes) during the reperfusion process, in the sense of a controlled reperfusion. Parameters and elements of the CARL method were extensively tested in a chronic animal model. An appropriate medical device, the system configuration "CIRD 1.0" (Controlled Integrated Resuscitation Device) is approved to be applied to patients. Results: A set of parameters that support a limitation of a global IRI have been identified in over 250 animal experiments. Their specific targets and surveillance using adequate monitoring features are described. Using the CIRD in a single center, 14 patients with witnessed, but extremely prolonged CPR (51-120 minutes) have been treated with CARL. The outcome of these patients was favorable, with 7 of 14 patients regaining full consciousness and 6 of 7 allocated to Cerebral Performance Class (CPC) "1". Conclusions: CA followed by CPR is associated with a very high mortality and frequent neurological sequelae. Limiting the occurring severe and global IRI may be a key to an improved survival and neurological recovery. Therefore, the therapeutic approach of CARL, which stands for a personalized, comprehensive therapy based on a readily available set of monitoring data and diagnostic findings, has been developed. First experience in patients indicates beneficial effects that call for further studies in the field of CARL.

9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 6: 71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275944

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is a key characteristic of sepsis but also also in non-infectious conditions such as post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Cytokine adsorption and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are emerging therapies applied in these critically ill patients, but the experience with their concurrent use is limited. We evaluated cytokine adsorption in critically ill patients requiring support with either veno-venous (vv) or veno-arterial (va) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and hypothesized that adsorber incorporation into the ECMO circuit was technically feasible and not associated with imminent risk. We analyzed data from the first six cases of a prospective single-center registry of patients undergoing veno-venous (vv) or veno-arterial (va) ECMO therapy. While in most published cases cytokine adsorbers were inserted into a hemofiltration circuit, we directly incorporated the adsorber into the ECMO circuit without interruption of continuous ECMO support. We observed no relevant side effects attributable to cytokine adsorption. Thirty-day mortality was 83% (predicted mortality 87%), indicating that the decision for adding cytokine adsorption may have been considered as an ultima ratio decision in severe cases with poor prognosis. Vasopressor or inotrope use, lactate level, and fluid balance did not change significantly when comparing pre- vs. post-cytokine adsorption values. Interestingly, the real-time course of the mentioned three surrogate parameters remained unaltered in all but two cases, regardless of cytokine removal. Beneficial effects of cytokine adsorption are plausible in two va-ECMO-treated patient, where increasing lactate began to drop after initiation of cytokine adsorption. Taken together, these data suggest that incorporation of cytokine adsorption into the management of critically ill patients requiring continued ECMO support is feasible and easy to handle. Whether cytokine removal improves clinical outcome in ECMO-treated patients should now be investigated in randomized controlled trials.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Separation from extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is often based on individual decisions rather than evaluated standard operating procedures (SOPs). Therefore, we strived to evaluate a SOP, summarizing specific treatment paths for this group of patients. METHODS: A total of 107 cardiovascular patients were supported with ECLS within a 4-year period. Fifty-three patients were treated before the SOP was introduced (group A) and 54 patients were treated afterward (group B). Patient characteristics and outcomes were analyzed and compared between the two time periods regarding baseline characteristics, compliance with SOP criteria, and the end points successful weaning and 30-day survival. RESULTS: Successful weaning rose significantly from 56.6 to 74.1% (p = 0.045) and 30-day survival rate increased from 34.0 to 50.0% (p = 0.069) after implementation of the SOP. Successful weaning was significantly associated with daily echocardiography (p = 0.012) and circulatory support with dobutamine (p = 0.026). The investigated other criteria used in the weaning process did not show a significant correlation with better outcome. CONCLUSION: The SOP for ECLS weaning showed higher weaning rates compared with a weaning based on individual decisions. Although only parts of the SOP were associated with higher weaning and survival rates, the SOP was experienced as a useful guideline for standardized ECLS management.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring transcranial motor evoked potentials (EPs) and somatosensory EPs is a well-established method to assess spinal cord function during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Functional occlusion of one or both internal iliac arteries by large bore sheaths during TEVAR can cause unilateral intermittently EP loss. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2016, 194 patients underwent TEVAR entailing EP monitoring. The ISIS IOM System (Inomed Medizintechnik GmbH, Emmendingen, Germany) was employed in all patients. EPs were recorded after inducing anesthesia, during the procedure, and before discontinuing anesthesia. RESULTS: We observed a unilateral intermittently EP decrease or loss in 12 (6.2%) patients. Most events were ipsilateral (9 of 12). The underlying pathologies were descending aortic aneurysm in six patients and type B dissection in six patients. An evoked-potential decrease or loss was always associated with the insertion of large bore stent-graft-introducing sheaths. The median duration of the unilaterally EP decrease or loss was 16 (10; 31) minutes (range, 2-77 minutes) with baseline values re-established at the end of the procedure after sheath removal in all cases. No patient developed irreversible symptomatic spinal cord ischemia. CONCLUSION: A functional occlusion of internal iliac arteries via large bore TEVAR-introducing sheaths is associated with a unilateral intermittent decrease in or loss of EPs returning to baseline after sheath removal. This observation highlights the importance of the internal iliac arteries as one of the major spinal cord's blood supply territories, and may serve as a stimulus to reduce the duration of sheath indwelling to a minimum.

13.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 67(5): 379-384, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess risks and benefits of a standardized strategy to prevent symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (SSCI) after thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) using routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) catheter placement and evoked potential (EP) monitoring. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-five patients underwent 223 SSCI low-risk TEVAR procedures between 1998 and 2014. CSF catheter was used to measure CSF pressure and drain CSF if necessary throughout the procedure and up to 24 hours thereafter. EPs were used to monitor spinal cord integrity throughout the procedure. RESULTS: Underlying pathologies included descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in 115 (52%), type B aortic dissection in 85 (38%), traumatic aortic rupture in 16 (7%), and others in 7 (3%) patients. CSF catheter was inserted before TEVAR in 116 procedures (52%). Active CSF draining was required in 29 patients (25%). The CSF catheter caused no major and 11 (10%) minor complications. EP were monitored during 88 (40%) procedures. We observed a reduction in the amplitude, prolonged latencies, or complete signal loss in nine procedures. There were no EP monitoring-related complications. SSCI incidence was higher in patients without CSF drainage (0.8% vs 4.7%, p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Use of CSF drainage is associated with a significant lower incidence of SSCI after SSCI low-risk TEVAR than nonuse, whereas the complication rate associated with CSF drainage insertion or removal is very low. Routine EP monitoring is a useful tool to detect immediate arterial inflow obstruction to the spinal cord. The combination of these two methods serves as a safe and reliable standardized strategy in reducing the incidence of SSCI to a minimum.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Cateterismo , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Potencial Evocado Motor , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Cateteres , Drenagem/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/diagnóstico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/etiologia , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 67(3): 176-182, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The extracorporeal life support system (ECLS) system is a lifesaving option for patients in pulmonary and/or cardiac failure. We reviewed our data on local complications in the leg and groin during and after ECLS explantation. METHODS: Patients were included when an ECLS was cannulated in the groin and the ECLS was successfully weaned and explanted. Data were collected retrospectively in patients from January 2013 to January 2016. RESULTS: In this study, 90 patients were included; 39 (43%) ECLS were implanted with surgical cut down and 51 (57%) ECLS were implanted percutaneously. Most patients needed ECLS support following cardiac surgery: cut down: 25 (64%) versus percutaneous: 28 (55%) (p = 0.40). A distal leg perfusion cannula was implanted simultaneously in 61 (68%) patients (cut down: 25 [64%] vs. percutaneous: 36 [71%], p = 0.36). Distal leg ischemia was diagnosed in a total of 10 (11%) patients (cut down: 2 [5%] vs. percutaneous: 8 [16%], p = 0.18). Of those 10 patients, 5 patients had leg ischemia despite a distal leg perfusion cannula in place (cut down: 1 [3%] vs. percutaneous: 4 [8%], p = 0.38). Revascularization was successfully achieved in all patients and no amputations had to be performed. Similar rates of wound healing disorders were observed in both groups: cut down: 11 (28%) versus percutaneous: 10 (20%) patients (p = 0.45). CONCLUSION: Surgical and percutaneous implantation and explantation of ECLS are safe and feasible with comparable complication rates, including wound healing disorders. We recommend that a lower limb perfusion cannula should be placed to prevent leg ischemia. Surgical cut-down placement of the distal leg perfusion cannula may reduce the incidence of distal leg ischemia compared with percutaneous distal leg cannula implantation. Correct placement of the cannula should be controlled.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Veia Femoral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
15.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(4): 350-359, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003795

RESUMO

AIMS: Several scoring systems have been introduced for prognostication after initiating venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) therapy. However, static scores offer limited guidance once VA-ECMO is implanted, although continued allocation of healthcare resources is critical. Patients requiring continued VA-ECMO support are extremely unstable, with minimal heart function and multi-organ failure in most cases. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a dynamic prognostic model for patients treated with VA-ECMO. METHODS AND RESULTS: A derivation cohort included 205 all-comers undergoing VA-ECMO implantation at a tertiary referral hospital (51% received VA-ECMO during resuscitation and 43% had severe shock). Two prediction models based on point-of-care biomarkers were developed using penalised logistic regression in an elastic net approach. A validation cohort was recruited from an independent tertiary referral hospital. Comparators for the prediction of hospital survival were the SAVE score (area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.686), the SAPS score (AUC 0.679), the APACHE score (AUC 0.662) and the SOFA score (AUC 0.732) in 6-hour survivors. The 6-hour PREDICT VA-ECMO score (based on lactate, pH and standard bicarbonate concentration) outperformed the comparator scores with an AUC of 0.823. The 12-hour PREDICT VA-ECMO integrated lactate, pH and standard bicarbonate concentration at 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after ECMO insertion allowed even better prognostication (AUC 0.839). Performance of the scores in the external validation cohort was good (AUCs 0.718 for the 6-hour score and 0.735 for the 12-hour score, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients requiring VA-ECMO therapy, a dynamic score using three point-of-care biomarkers predicts hospital mortality with high reliability. Furthermore, the PREDICT scores are the first scores for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 55(6): 1194-1201, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bleeding signs can become life-threatening complications in patients on mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Clinical phenotyping and comprehensive analyses of the cause of bleeding are, therefore, essential, especially when risk-stratifying patients during MCS workup. We conducted coagulation analyses and determined von Willebrand factor (VWF) parameters in a paediatric cohort on temporary extracorporeal life support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or long-term ventricular assist device support. METHODS: We carried out an observational single-centre study including 30 children with MCS (extracorporeal life support, n = 13; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, n = 5; and ventricular assist device, n = 12). We also assessed the acquired von Willebrand parameters of each study participant: collagen binding capacity (VWF:CB), the ratio of collagen-binding capacity to VWF antigen (VWF:CB/VWF:Ag) and high-molecular-weight VWF multimers. We also documented bleeding events, transfusion requirement, haemolysis parameters and surgical interventions. RESULTS: All children developed AVWS (acquired von Willebrand syndrome) during MCS, usually during the early postoperative course. They presented no AVWS after device explantation. We detected a loss of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers, decreased VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios and reduced VWF:CB levels. Twenty of the 30 patients experienced bleeding complications; approximately 53% of them required surgical revision. There were no deaths due to bleeding during support. CONCLUSIONS: The AVWS prevalence in paediatric patients on MCS is 100% regardless of the types of devices tested in this study. The bleeding propensity of AVWS patients widely varies.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205410, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296297

RESUMO

Evoked potential monitoring has evolved as an essential tool not only for elaborate neurological diagnostics, but also for general clinical practice. Moreover, it is increasingly used to guide surgical procedures and prognosticate neurological outcome in the critical care unit, e.g. after cardiac arrest. Experimental animal models aim to simulate a human-like scenario to deduct relevant clinical information for patient treatment and to test novel therapeutic opportunities. Porcine models are particularly ideal due to a comparable cardiovascular system and size. However, certain anatomic disparities have to be taken into consideration when evoked potential monitoring is used in animal models. We describe a non-invasive and reproducible set-up useful for different modalities in porcine models. We further illustrate hints to overcome multi-faceted problems commonly occurring while using this sophisticated technique. Our descriptions can be used to answer a plethora of experimental questions, and help to further facilitate experimental therapeutic innovation.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado Motor , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Monitoração Neuromuscular/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
19.
Artif Organs ; 42(10): 992-1000, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015357

RESUMO

The reperfusion period after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been recognized as a key player in improving the outcome after cardiac arrest (CA). Our aim was to evaluate the effects of high mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulsatile flow during controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body. Following 20 min of normothermic CA, high MAP, and pulsatile blood flow (pulsatile group, n = 10) or low MAP and nonpulsatile flow (nonpulsatile group, n = 6) controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body was commenced through the femoral vessels of German landrace pigs for 60 min. Afterwards, animals were observed for eight days. Blood samples were analyzed throughout the experiment and a species-specific neurologic disability score (NDS) was used for neurologic evaluation. In the pulsatile group, nine animals finished the study protocol, while no animal survived postoperative day four in the nonpulsatile group. NDS were significantly better at any given time in the pulsatile group and reached overall satisfactory outcome values. In addition, blood analyses revealed lower levels of lactate in the pulsatile group compared to the nonpulsatile group. This study demonstrates superior survival and neurologic outcome when using pulsatile high pressure automated reperfusion following 20 min of normothermic CA compared to nonpulsatile flow and low MAP. This study strongly supports regulating the reperfusion period after prolonged periods of CA.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Fluxo Pulsátil , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Reperfusão/métodos , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artif Organs ; 42(4): 394-400, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423912

RESUMO

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) weaning is a complex interdisciplinary process with no clear guidelines. To assess ventricular and pulmonary function as well as hemodynamics including end-organ recovery during ECLS weaning, we developed a standardized weaning protocol. We reviewed our experience 2 years later to assess its feasibility and efficacy. In 2015 we established an inter-professional, standardized, stepwise protocol for weaning from ECLS. If the patient did not require further surgery, weaning was conducted bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU). Most of the weaning procedures are guided via echocardiography. Data acquisition began at baseline level, followed by four-step course (each step lasting 10 min), entailing flow-reduction and ending 30 min after decannulation. Moreover, data from the preprotocol era are presented. Between May 2015 and 2017, 26 consecutive patients (18 male), median age 177 days (2 days-20 years) required ECLS with median support of 4 (2-11) days. Excluding eight not weanable patients, 21 standardized weaning procedures were protocolled in the remaining 18 children. Our generally successful protocol-guided weaning rate (with at least 24-h survival) was 89%, with a discharge home rate of 58%. Practical application of the novel standard protocol seems to facilitate ECLS weaning and to improve its success rate. The protocol can be administered as part of standard bedside ICU assessment.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/normas , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/normas , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Ecocardiografia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/instrumentação , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico por imagem , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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