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1.
Health Place ; : 102706, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801405

RESUMO

Time-weighted spatial averaging approaches (TWSA) are an increasingly utilized method for calculating exposure using global positioning system (GPS) mobility data for health-related research. They can provide a time-weighted measure of exposure, or dose, to various environments or health hazards. However, little work has been done to compare existing methodologies, nor to assess how sensitive these methods are to mobility data inputs (e.g., walking vs driving), the type of environmental data being assessed as the exposure (e.g., continuous surfaces vs points of interest), and underlying point-pattern clustering of participants (e.g., if a person is highly mobile vs predominantly stationary). Here we contrast three TWSA approaches that have been previously used or recently introduced in the literature: Kernel Density Estimation (KDE), Density Ranking (DR), and Point Overlay (PO). We feed GPS and accelerometer data from 602 participants through each method to derive time-weighted activity spaces, comparing four mobility behaviors: all movement, stationary time, walking time, and in-vehicle time. We then calculate exposure values derived from the various TWSA activity spaces with four environmental layer data types (point, line, area, surface). Similarities and differences across TWSA derived exposures for the sample and between individuals are explored, and we discuss interpretation of TWSA outputs providing recommendations for researchers seeking to apply these methods to health-related studies.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128810, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665239

RESUMO

Importance: Although e-cigarettes are not approved as a cessation device, many who smoke believe that e-cigarettes will help them quit cigarette smoking successfully. Objective: To assess whether people who recently quit smoking and who had switched to e-cigarettes or another tobacco product were less likely to relapse to cigarette smoking compared with those who remained tobacco free. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed a nationally representative sample of US households that participated in 4 waves of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (conducted 2013 through 2017), combining 2 independent cohorts each with 3 annual surveys. Eligible participants were individuals who smoked at baseline, had recently quit at the first follow-up, and completed the second follow-up survey. Exposures: Use of e-cigarettes or alternate tobacco products at follow-up 1 after recently quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weighted percentage of participants with over 12 months abstinence by follow-up 2. Results: Of a total of 13 604 participants who smoked cigarettes at baseline, 9.4% (95% CI, 8.7%-10.0%) recently had quit smoking (mean age, 41.9; 95% CI, 39.7-46.6 years; 641 [43.2%] women) Of these, 22.8% (95% CI, 19.7%-26.0%) had switched to e-cigarettes, with 17.6% (95% CI, 14.8%-20.5%) using them daily. A total of 37.1% (95% CI, 33.7%-40.4%) used a noncigarette tobacco product and 62.9% (95% CI, 59.6%-66.3%) were tobacco free. Rates of switching to e-cigarettes were highest for those who were in the top tertile of tobacco dependence (31.3%; 95% CI, 25.0%-37.7%), were non-Hispanic White (26.4%; 95% CI, 22.3%-30.4%), and had higher incomes (annual income ≥$35 000, 27.5%; 95% CI, 22.5%-32.4% vs <$35 000, 19.3%; 95% CI, 16.3%-22.3%). At follow-up 2, unadjusted relapse rates were similar among those who switched to different tobacco products (for any tobacco product: successfully quit, 41.5%; 95% CI, 36.2%-46.9%; relapsed with significant requit, 17.0%; 95% CI, 12.4%-21.6%; currently smoking, 36.2%; 95% CI, 30.9%-41.4%). Controlled for potential confounders, switching to any tobacco product was associated with higher relapse rate than being tobacco free (adjusted risk difference, 8.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-16.6%). Estimates for those who switched to e-cigarettes, whether daily or not, were not significant. While individuals who switched from cigarettes to e-cigarettes were more likely to relapse, they appeared more likely to requit and be abstinent for 3 months at follow-up 2 (17.0%; 95% CI, 12.4%-21.6% vs 10.4%; 95% CI, 8.0%-12.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: This large US nationally representative study does not support the hypothesis that switching to e-cigarettes will prevent relapse to cigarette smoking.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 721515, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660633

RESUMO

Successful malaria control interventions, mostly based on the training of health workers, distribution of insecticide-treated nets, and spraying, decrease malaria incidence; however, when these interventions are interrupted, a resurgence may occur. In the Peruvian Amazon, after discontinuing the control activities implemented by the PAMAFRO project (2006-2010)-a Global Fund-sponsored project for the strengthening of malaria control and surveillance in multiple countries in Latin America- malaria cases re-emerged dramatically. In parallel, meteorological factors determine the conditions suitable for the development, reproduction, and survival of mosquito vectors and parasites. This study hypothesized that interruption of malaria interventions may have modified the meteorological-malaria relationships over time (i.e., temporal changes in the dose-response between meteorological variables and malaria incidence). In this panel data analysis, we assessed the extent that relationships between meteorological variables and malaria changed temporally using data of monthly malaria incidence due to Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum in Loreto, Peru (2000-2017). Generalized additive models were used to explore how the effects of meteorological variables changed in magnitude before, during, and after the PAMAFRO intervention. We found that once the PAMAFRO intervention had been interrupted, the estimated effects (dose-response) of meteorological variables on incidence rates decreased for both malaria parasite species. However, these fitted effect estimates did not reach their baseline levels (before the PAMAFRO period); variations of time-varying slopes between 0.45 and 2.07 times were observed after the PAMAFRO intervention. We also reported significant heterogeneity in the geographical distributions of malaria, parasite species, and meteorological variables. High malaria transmission occurred consistently in the northwestern provinces of Loreto Department. Since the end of the PAMAFRO period, a higher effect of precipitation and actual evapotranspiration was described on P. falciparum compared to P. vivax. The effect of temperature on malaria was greater over a shorter time (1-month lag or less), compared with precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (12-month lag). These findings demonstrate the importance of sustained malaria control efforts since interruption may enhance the links between meteorological factors and malaria. Our results also emphasize the importance of considering the time-varying effect of meteorological factors on malaria incidence to tailor control interventions, especially to better manage the current and future climate change crisis.

5.
Environ Int ; 158: 106902, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627013

RESUMO

Stillbirths and complications from preterm birth are two of the leading causes of neonatal deaths across the globe. Lower- to middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing some of the highest rates of these adverse birth outcomes. Research has suggested that environmental determinants, such as extreme heat, can increase the risk of preterm birth and stillbirth. Under climate change, extreme heat events have become more severe and frequent and are occurring in differential seasonal patterns. Little is known about how extreme heat affects the risk of preterm birth and stillbirth in LMICs. Thus, it is imperative to examine how exposure to extreme heat affects adverse birth outcomes in regions with some of the highest rates of preterm and stillbirths. Most of the evidence linking extreme heat and adverse birth outcomes has been generated from high-income countries (HICs) notably because measuring temperature in LMICs has proven challenging due to the scarcity of ground monitors. The paucity of health data has been an additional obstacle to study this relationship in LMICs. In this study, globally gridded meteorological data was linked with spatially and temporally resolved Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data on adverse birth outcomes. A global analysis of 14 LMICs was conducted per a pooled time-stratified case-crossover design with distributed-lag nonlinear models to ascertain the relationship between acute exposure to extreme heat and PTB and stillbirths. We notably found that experiencing higher maximum temperatures and smaller diurnal temperature range during the last week before birth increased the risk of preterm birth and stillbirth. This study is the first global assessment of extreme heat events and adverse birth outcomes and builds the evidence base for LMICs.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: California Proposition 56 increased cigarette excise tax by $2 per pack with equivalent increases on non-cigarette tobacco products. We estimated the changes in cigarette price, cigarette use, and non-cigarette use following the implementation of Proposition 56 in California in 2017. METHODS: Seven waves of Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2011-2019 data were used to obtain state-level aggregate self-reported outcomes, including cigarette price per pack, current and daily cigarette use, cigarette consumption per day, and current and daily use of non-cigarette tobacco products (hookah, pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco). A modified version of a synthetic control method was used to create a "synthetic" California that best resembled pre-policy sociodemographic characteristics and outcome trends in California while correcting time-invariant pre-policy differences. Various sensitivity analyses were also conducted. RESULTS: The implementation of Proposition 56 was associated with an increase in self-reported cigarette price per pack in California ($1.844, 95%CI: $0.153, $3.534; p = 0.032). No evidence suggested that Proposition 56 was associated with the changes in the prevalence of current or daily cigarette use, cigarette consumption per day, or the prevalence of current or daily use of non-cigarette tobacco products. CONCLUSION: Most of the cigarette tax increase following Proposition 56 in California was passed on to consumers. There is a lack of evidence that the implementation of Proposition 56 was associated with the changes in the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products such as hookah, pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Impostos/economia , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/economia
7.
BMJ ; 375: n2368, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between changes in long term residential exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and premature mortality in Canada. DESIGN: Population based quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 663 100 respondents to the 1996, 2001, and 2006 Canadian censuses aged 25-89 years who had consistently lived in areas with either high or low PM2.5 levels over five years preceding census day and moved during the ensuing five years. INTERVENTIONS: Changes in long term exposure to PM2.5 arising from residential mobility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was deaths from natural causes. Secondary outcomes were deaths from any cardiometabolic cause, any respiratory cause, and any cancer cause. All outcomes were obtained from the national vital statistics database. RESULTS: Using a propensity score matching technique with numerous personal, socioeconomic, health, and environment related covariates, each participant who moved to a different PM2.5 area was matched with up to three participants who moved within the same PM2.5 area. In the matched groups that moved from high to intermediate or low PM2.5 areas, residential mobility was associated with a decline in annual PM2.5 exposure from 10.6 µg/m3 to 7.4 and 5.0 µg/m3, respectively. Conversely, in the matched groups that moved from low to intermediate or high PM2.5 areas, annual PM2.5 increased from 4.6 µg/m3 to 6.7 and 9.2 µg/m3. Five years after moving, individuals who experienced a reduction in exposure to PM2.5 from high to intermediate levels showed a 6.8% (95% confidence interval 1.7% to 11.7%) reduction in mortality (2510 deaths in 56 025 v 4925 deaths in 101 960). A greater decline in mortality occurred among those exposed to a larger reduction in PM2.5. Increased mortality was found with exposure to PM2.5 from low to high levels, and to a lesser degree from low to intermediate levels. Furthermore, the decreases in PM2.5 exposure were most strongly associated with reductions in cardiometabolic deaths, whereas the increases in PM2.5 exposure were mostly related to respiratory deaths. No strong evidence was found for the changes in PM2.5 exposure with cancer related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In Canada, decreases in PM2.5 were associated with lower mortality, whereas increases in PM2.5 were associated with higher mortality. These results were observed at PM2.5 levels considerably lower than many other countries, providing support for continuously improving air quality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003678, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme weather events, including droughts, are expected to increase in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and are associated with a number of poor health outcomes; however, to the best of our knowledge, the link between drought and childhood vaccination remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drought and vaccination coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the association between drought and vaccination coverage using a retrospective analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys data in 22 sub-Saharan African countries among 137,379 children (50.4% male) born from 2011 to 2019. Drought was defined as an established binary variable of annual rainfall less than or equal to the 15th percentile relative to the 29 previous years, using data from Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data. We evaluated the association between drought at the date of birth and receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), and polio vaccinations, and the association between drought at 12 months of age and receipt of measles vaccination. We specified logistic regression models with survey fixed effects and standard errors clustered at the enumeration area level, adjusting for child-, mother-, and household-level covariates and estimated marginal risk differences (RDs). The prevalence of drought at date of birth in the sample was 11.8%. Vaccination rates for each vaccination ranged from 70.6% (for 3 doses of the polio vaccine) to 86.0% (for BCG vaccination); however, only 57.6% of children 12 months and older received all recommended doses of BCG, DPT, polio, and measles vaccinations. In adjusted models, drought at date of birth was negatively associated with BCG vaccination (marginal RD = -1.5; 95% CI -2.2, -0.9), DPT vaccination (marginal RD = -1.4; 95% CI -2.2, -0.5), and polio vaccination (marginal RD = -1.3; 95% CI -2.3, -0.3). Drought at 12 months was negatively associated with measles vaccination (marginal RD = -1.9; 95% CI -2.8, -0.9). We found a dose-response relationship between drought and DPT and polio vaccinations, with the strongest associations closest to the timing of drought. Limitations include some heterogeneity in findings across countries. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that drought was associated with lower odds of completion of childhood BCG, DPT, and polio vaccinations. These findings indicate that drought may hinder vaccination coverage, one of the most important interventions to prevent infections among children. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that health programs should consider impacts of severe weather in their programming.

9.
Environ Int ; 158: 106888, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological findings are inconsistent regarding the associations between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Several limitations exist in previous studies, including potential outcome and exposure misclassification, unassessed confounding, and lack of simultaneous consideration of air pollution mixtures and particulate matter (PM) constituents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between GDM and maternal residential exposure to air pollution, and the joint effect of the mixture of air pollutants and PM constituents. METHODS: Detailed clinical data were obtained for 395,927 pregnancies in southern California (2008-2018) from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) electronic health records. GDM diagnosis was based on KPSC laboratory tests. Monthly average concentrations of fine particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated using kriging interpolation of Environmental Protection Agency's routine monitoring station data, while PM2.5 constituents (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic matter and black carbon) were estimated using a fine-resolution geoscience-derived model. A multilevel logistic regression was used to fit single-pollutant models; quantile g-computation approach was applied to estimate the joint effect of air pollution and PM component mixtures. Main analyses adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, median family household income, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, insurance type, season of conception and year of delivery. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM was 10.9% in the study population. In single-pollutant models, we observed an increased odds for GDM associated with exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and PM2.5 constituents. The association was strongest for NO2 [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range: 1.176, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.147-1.205)]. In multi-pollutant models, increased ORs for GDM in association with one quartile increase in air pollution mixtures were found for both kriging-based regional air pollutants (NO2, PM2.5, and PM10, OR = 1.095, 95% CI: 1.082-1.108) and PM2.5 constituents (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic matter and black carbon, OR = 1.258, 95% CI: 1.206-1.314); NO2 (78%) and black carbon (48%) contributed the most to the overall mixture effects among all krigged air pollutants and all PM2.5 constituents, respectively. The risk of GDM associated with air pollution exposure were significantly higher among Hispanic mothers, and overweight/obese mothers. CONCLUSION: This study found that exposure to a mixture of ambient PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and PM2.5 chemical constituents was associated with an increased risk of GDM. NO2 and black carbon PM2.5 contributed most to GDM risk.

10.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effect of menthol use and transitions in use (switching to or from menthol) on short-term and long-term cessation from cigarette smoking and whether this differed across demographic groups (age, sex, race). METHODS: We compared the probability of 30+ day and 12-month abstinence from cigarette smoking by menthol use status using two cohorts of US adult cigarette smokers who attempted to quit smoking in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (wave 1 to wave 3 and wave 2 to wave 4; n=5759), inverse probability of treatment weighting and adjusted risk ratios (aRRs). RESULTS: Using menthol (vs non-menthol) prior to a quit attempt decreased the probability of 30+ day abstinence by 28% (aRR=0.78; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) and the probability of 12-month abstinence by 53% (aRR=0.65; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88). Additionally, switching from menthol (vs maintaining menthol use) increased the probability of 30+ day abstinence by 58% (aRR=1.58; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.50) and the probability of 12-month abstinence by 97% (aRR=1.86; 95% CI 0.92 to 3.74). Switching to menthol (vs maintaining non-menthol use) was associated with a lower probability of 30+ day (aRR=0.70; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.16) and 12-month abstinence (aRR=0.64; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.36), but these associations were imprecise. The effects of menthol use on impaired quitting were slightly larger for non-Hispanic Black smokers, but not different for other demographic groups. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that menthol impaired menthol smokers' attempts to quit smoking but switching from menthol improved success. This suggests that removing menthol may improve menthol smokers' success during quit attempts.

11.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 139, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women's involvement in contraceptive decision-making increases contraceptive use and reduces unmet need, but study of this has been limited to women's self-reports. Less research is available examining couple concordance and women's involvement in contraceptive decision-making as reported by both men and women. STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional study using data from rural India (N = 961 young married couples). Using multivariable regression we examined the association between concordance or discordance in spousal reports of wife's involvement in contraceptive decision-making and modern contraceptive use, adjusting for demographics, intimate partner violence, and contraceptive use discussion. RESULTS: More than one third (38.3%) of women reported current modern contraceptive use. Report of women's involvement in contraceptive decision-making showed 70.3% of couples agreed that women were involved, jointly or alone (categorized as Concordant 1), 4.2% agreed women were not involved (categorized at Concordant 2), 13.2% had women report involvement but men report women were uninvolved (categorized as Discordant 1), and 12.2% had women report uninvolvement but men report that women were involved (categorized as Discordant 2). Discordant 2 couples had lower odds of modern contraceptive use relative to Concordant 1 couples (adjusted RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.83). No other significant differences between Concordant 1 couples and other categories were observed. CONCLUSION: One in four couples indicated discordance on women's involvement in contraceptive decision making, with Discordant 2 category having lower odds of contraceptive use. Couples' concordance in women's involvement in contraceptive decision-making offers a target for family planning research and interventions to better meet their needs. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT03514914. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03514914.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Tomada de Decisões , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Gravidez , População Rural
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206501

RESUMO

Vaping products containing cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis-derived compound used in wellness products and available in all 50 US states, were recently implicated in outbreaks of poisonings. Little is known about the commercial availability of CBD products in vape shops (i.e., stores that sell e-cigarettes). To document the availability and marketing of CBD products in online vape shops, in June 2020, we used the Google Chrome browser without cached data to collect the first two pages of search results generated by five Google queries (n = 100 search results) indicative of shopping for vaping products (e.g., "order vapes"). We then determined whether and what type of CBD products could be mail-ordered from the returned websites, and whether any explicit health claims were made about CBD. Over a third of the search results (n = 37; 37.0%) directed to vape shops that allowed visitors to also mail-order CBD. These shops sold 12 distinct categories of CBD products-some with direct analogs of tobacco or cannabis products including CBD cigarettes, edibles, flowers, pre-rolled joints, and vapes. Two vape shops made explicit health claims of the therapeutic benefits of CBD use, including in the treatment of anxiety, inflammation, pain, and stress. The abundance and placement of CBD in online vape shops suggests a growing demand and appeal for CBD products among e-cigarette users. Additional surveillance on the epidemiology of CBD use and its co-use with tobacco is warranted.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Marketing , Uso de Tabaco
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15121, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302015

RESUMO

Despite reductions in malaria incidence and mortality across Sub-Saharan (SSA) countries, malaria control and elimination efforts are currently facing multiple global challenges such as climate and land use change, invasive vectors, and disruptions in healthcare delivery. Although relationships between malaria risks and socioeconomic factors have been widely demonstrated, the strengths and variability of these associations have not been quantified across SSA. In this study, we used data from population-based malaria indicator surveys in SSA countries to assess spatial trends in relative and absolute socioeconomic inequalities, analyzed as social (mothers' highest educational level-MHEL) and economic (wealth index-WI) inequalities in malaria prevalence. To capture spatial variations in socioeconomic (represented by both WI and MHEL) inequalities in malaria, we calculated both the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in each administrative region. We also conducted cluster analyses based on Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) to consider the spatial auto-correlation in SII and RII across regions and countries. A total of 47,404 participants in 1874 Primary Sampling Units (PSU) were analyzed across the 13 SSA countries. Our multi-country assessment provides estimations of strong socioeconomic inequalities between and within SSA countries. Such within- and between- countries inequalities varied greatly according to the socioeconomic metric and the scale used. Countries located in Eastern Africa showed a higher median Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in malaria prevalence relative to WI in comparison to countries in other locations across SSA. Pockets of high SII in malaria prevalence in relation to WI and MHEL were observed in the East part of Africa. This study was able to map this wide range of malaria inequality metrics at a very local scale and highlighted the spatial clustering patterns of pockets of high and low malaria inequality values.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(10): 1015-1023, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308532

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the role of cardiovascular health (CVH) and vascular events as potential contributors to socioeconomic inequalities in dementia using causal mediation analyses. We used data from the Three-City Cohort, a French population-based study with 12 years of follow-up, with active search of dementia cases and validated diagnosis. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using education, occupation and income. A CVH score as defined by the American Heart Association and incident vascular events were considered separately as mediators. We performed multi-level Cox proportional and Aalen additive hazard regression models to estimate the total effects of socioeconomic status on dementia risk. To estimate natural direct and indirect effects through CVH and vascular events, we applied two distinct weighting methods to quantify the role of CVH and vascular events: Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting (IORW) and Marginal Structural Models (MSM) respectively. Among 5581 participants, the risk of dementia was higher among participants with primary education (HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.44-1.78), blue-collar workers (HR 1.62, 95%CI 1.43-1.84) and with lower income (HR 1.23, 95%CI 1.09-1.29). Using additive models, 571 (95% CI 288-782) and 634 (95% CI 246-1020) additional cases of dementia per 100 000 person and year were estimated for primary education and blue-collar occupation, respectively. Using IORW, the CVH score mediate the relationship between education or income, and dementia (proportion mediated 17% and 26%, respectively). Yet, considering vascular events as mediator, MSM generated indirect effects that were smaller and more imprecise. Socioeconomic inequalities in dementia risk were observed but marginally explained by CVH or vascular events mediators.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Demência/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Clim Dyn ; : 1-16, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092924

RESUMO

Santa Ana winds (SAWs) are associated with anomalous temperatures in coastal Southern California (SoCal). As dry air flows over SoCal's coastal ranges on its way from the elevated Great Basin down to sea level, all SAWs warm adiabatically. Many but not all SAWs produce coastal heat events. The strongest regionally averaged SAWs tend to be cold. In fact, some of the hottest and coldest observed temperatures in coastal SoCal are linked to SAWs. We show that hot and cold SAWs are produced by distinct synoptic dynamics. High-amplitude anticyclonic flow around a blocking high pressure aloft anchored at the California coast produces hot SAWs. Cold SAWs result from anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking over the northwestern U.S. Hot SAWs are preceded by warming in the Great Basin and dry conditions across the Southwestern U.S. Precipitation over the Southwest, including SoCal, and snow accumulation in the Great Basin usually precede cold SAWs. Both SAW flavors, but especially the hot SAWs, yield low relative humidity at the coast. Although cold SAWs tend to be associated with the strongest winds, hot SAWs tend to last longer and preferentially favor wildfire growth. Historically, out of large (> 100 acres) SAW-spread wildfires, 90% were associated with hot SAWs, accounting for 95% of burned area. As health impacts of SAW-driven coastal fall, winter and spring heat waves and impacts of smoke from wildfires have been recently identified, our results have implications for designing early warning systems. The long-term warming trend in coastal temperatures associated with SAWs is focused on January-March, when hot and cold SAW frequency and temperature intensity have been increasing and decreasing, respectively, over our 71-year record. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00382-021-05802-z.

16.
Health Place ; 69: 102573, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934062

RESUMO

This study employed novel GPS methods to assess the effect of a multilevel physical activity (PA) intervention on device-measured walking locations in 305 community dwelling older adults, ages 65+ (mean age = 83, 73% women). Retirement communities were randomized to a 1-year PA intervention that encouraged neighborhood walking, or to a healthy aging control condition. Total time and time spent walking in four life-space domains were assessed using GPS and accelerometer devices. The intervention increased the time spent walking as a proportion of total time spent in the Campus, Neighborhood and Beyond Neighborhood domains. Intervention effects on walking location were observed in both genders and across physical and cognitive functioning groups. Results demonstrate that an intervention providing individual, social and environmental support for walking can increase PA in larger life-space domains for a broad spectrum of older adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Características de Residência
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031244

RESUMO

Extreme heat and ozone are co-occurring exposures that independently and synergistically increase the risk of respiratory disease. To our knowledge, no joint warning systems consider both risks; understanding their interactive effect can warrant use of comprehensive warning systems to reduce their burden. We examined heterogeneity in joint effects (on the additive scale) between heat and ozone at small geographical scales. A within-community matched design with a Bayesian hierarchical model was applied to study this association at the zip code level. Spatially varying relative risks due to interaction (RERI) were quantified to consider joint effects. Determinants of the spatial variability of effects were assessed using a random effects metaregression to consider the role of demographic/neighborhood characteristics that are known effect modifiers. A total of 817,354 unscheduled respiratory hospitalizations occurred in California from 2004 to 2013 in the May to September period. RERIs revealed no additive interaction when considering overall joint effects. However, when considering the zip code level, certain areas observed strong joint effects. A lower median income, higher percentage of unemployed residents, and exposure to other air pollutants within a zip code drove stronger joint effects; a higher percentage of commuters who walk/bicycle, a marker for neighborhood wealth, showed decreased effects. Results indicate the importance of going beyond average measures to consider spatial variation in the health burden of these exposures and predictors of joint effects. This information can be used to inform early warning systems that consider both heat and ozone to protect populations from these deleterious effects in identified areas.

18.
Environ Int ; 156: 106583, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily exposure to air pollution has been shown to increase cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. While increases in short-term exposure to air pollutants at any daily concentrations has been shown to be associated to adverse health outcomes, days with extreme levels, also known as air pollution peaks based on specific thresholds, have been used to implement air quality alerts in various cities across the globe. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at evaluating the potential effects of the Air Quality Alerts (AQA) system on different causes of premature mortality in Paris, France. METHODS: Air quality alerts (AQA) based on particulate matter (PM10) levels and related interventions were implemented in the region of Paris in 2008 and were revised to be more stringent in 2011. In this study, we applied a difference-in-differences (DID) approach coupled with propensity-score matching (PSM) to daily mortality data for the period 2000 to 2015 to evaluate the effects of the Paris AQA program on different causes of premature mortality for the entire population and for adults > 75 years old. RESULTS: Overall, results did not show evidence of a reduction in mortality of the PM10 AQA program when first implemented in 2008 with initial thresholds (80 µg/m3); DID estimates were slightly above 1 for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. However, when evaluating the drastic reduction in revised thresholds in 2011 (50 µg/m3) to trigger interventions, we identified a reduction in cardiovascular (DID = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.755 to 0.930) mortality, but no change in respiratory mortality was detected (DID = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.796, 1.191). DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that AQA may not have health benefits for the population when thresholds are set at high daily PM10 levels. Given that such policies are implemented in many other metropolitan areas across the globe, evaluating the effectiveness of AQA is important to provide public authorities and researchers a rationale for defining specific thresholds and extending the scope of these policies to lower air pollution levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922573

RESUMO

Climate change is negatively impacting the mental health of populations. This scoping review aims to assess the available literature related to climate change and mental health across the World Health Organisation's (WHO) five global research priorities for protecting human health from climate change. We conducted a scoping review to identify original research studies related to mental health and climate change using online academic databases. We assessed the quality of studies where appropriate assessment tools were available. We identified 120 original studies published between 2001 and 2020. Most studies were quantitative (n = 67), cross-sectional (n = 42), conducted in high-income countries (n = 87), and concerned with the first of the WHO global research priorities-assessing the mental health risks associated with climate change (n = 101). Several climate-related exposures, including heat, humidity, rainfall, drought, wildfires, and floods were associated with psychological distress, worsened mental health, and higher mortality among people with pre-existing mental health conditions, increased psychiatric hospitalisations, and heightened suicide rates. Few studies (n = 19) addressed the other four global research priorities of protecting health from climate change (effective interventions (n = 8); mitigation and adaptation (n = 7); improving decision-support (n = 3); and cost estimations (n = 1)). While climate change and mental health represents a rapidly growing area of research, it needs to accelerate and broaden in scope to respond with evidence-based mitigation and adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Inundações , Saúde Global , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917841

RESUMO

Active travel (AT) provides an opportunity to alleviate the physical inactivity and climate crises contributing to the global chronic disease burden, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Though AT shows promising links to reduced CVD risk, prior studies relied on self-reported AT assessment. In the present study, device-measured and self-reported AT were compared across population subgroups and relationships with CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated for both measures. The study recruited an ethnically diverse sample (N = 602, mean age 59 years, 42% Hispanic/Latino ethnicity) from neighborhoods that varied by walkability and food access. AT was assessed using concurrently collected accelerometer and GPS data and self-report data from a validated survey. Relationships with body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were modeled using multivariable linear regression. Devices captured more AT than did self-report. We found differences in AT measures by population subgroups, including race, ethnicity, education, income, vehicle access, and walkability. Men had more accelerometer-measured MVPA, though women self-reported more daily minutes. Both device and survey AT measures were positively associated with total accelerometer-measured MVPA, though the relationship was stronger with device-measured AT. Device-measured AT was associated with lower BMI. No other CVD risk biomarker was associated with either AT measure. No effect modification by Hispanic/Latino ethnicity was detected. Further studies with device-based measures are warranted to better understand the relationship between AT and cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato
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