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1.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6342-6352, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351131

RESUMO

Core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) encompasses AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) and AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22.1). Despite sharing a common pathogenic mechanism involving rearrangements of the CBF transcriptional complex, there is growing evidence for considerable genotypic heterogeneity. We comprehensively characterized the mutational landscape of 350 adult CBF-AML [inv(16): n = 160, t(8;21): n = 190] performing targeted sequencing of 230 myeloid cancer-associated genes. Apart from common mutations in signaling genes, mainly NRAS, KIT, and FLT3, both CBF-AML entities demonstrated a remarkably diverse pattern with respect to the underlying cooperating molecular events, in particular in genes encoding for epigenetic modifiers and the cohesin complex. In addition, recurrent mutations in novel collaborating candidate genes such as SRCAP (5% overall) and DNM2 (6% of t(8;21) AML) were identified. Moreover, aberrations altering transcription and differentiation occurred at earlier leukemic stages and preceded mutations impairing proliferation. Lasso-penalized models revealed an inferior prognosis for t(8;21) AML, trisomy 8, as well as FLT3 and KIT exon 17 mutations, whereas NRAS and WT1 mutations conferred superior prognosis. Interestingly, clonal heterogeneity was associated with a favorable prognosis. When entering mutations by functional groups in the model, mutations in genes of the methylation group (ie, DNMT3A, TET2) had a strong negative prognostic impact.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142733

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival has environmental and inherited components. The expression of specific genes can be inferred based on individual genotypes-so called expression quantitative trait loci. In this study, we used the PrediXcan method to predict gene expression in normal colon tissue using individual genotype data from 91 CRC patients and examined the correlation ρ between predicted and measured gene expression levels. Out of 5434 predicted genes, 58% showed a negative ρ value and only 16% presented a ρ higher than 0.10. We subsequently investigated the association between genotype-based gene expression in colon tissue for genes with ρ > 0.10 and survival of 4436 CRC patients. We identified an inverse association between the predicted expression of ARID3B and CRC-specific survival for patients with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (HR (hazard ratio) = 0.66 for an expression higher vs. lower than the median, p = 0.005). This association was validated using genotype and clinical data from the UK Biobank (HR = 0.74, p = 0.04). In addition to the identification of ARID3B expression in normal colon tissue as a candidate prognostic biomarker for obese CRC patients, our study illustrates the challenges of genotype-based prediction of gene expression, and the advantage of reassessing the prediction accuracy in a subset of the study population using measured gene expression data.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4740, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958755

RESUMO

The immune system can recognize and attack cancer cells, especially those with a high load of mutation-induced neoantigens. Such neoantigens are abundant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient, microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancers. MMR deficiency leads to insertion/deletion (indel) mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS) and to neoantigen-inducing translational frameshifts. Here, we develop a tool to quantify frameshift mutations in MSI colorectal and endometrial cancer. Our results show that frameshift mutation frequency is negatively correlated to the predicted immunogenicity of the resulting peptides, suggesting counterselection of cell clones with highly immunogenic frameshift peptides. This correlation is absent in tumors with Beta-2-microglobulin mutations, and HLA-A*02:01 status is related to cMS mutation patterns. Importantly, certain outlier mutations are common in MSI cancers despite being related to frameshift peptides with functionally confirmed immunogenicity, suggesting a possible driver role during MSI tumor evolution. Neoantigens resulting from shared mutations represent promising vaccine candidates for prevention of MSI cancers.


Assuntos
Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Vigilância Imunológica , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Taxa de Mutação , Seleção Genética , Microglobulina beta-2/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751332

RESUMO

An individual's inherited genetic variation may contribute to the 'angiogenic switch', which is essential for blood supply and tumor growth of microscopic and macroscopic tumors. Polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes potentially predispose to colorectal cancer (CRC) or affect the survival of CRC patients. We investigated the association of 392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 33 angiogenesis-related genes with CRC risk and survival of CRC patients in 1754 CRC cases and 1781 healthy controls within DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening), a German population-based case-control study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from unconditional logistic regression to test for genetic associations with CRC risk. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for survival. Multiple testing was adjusted for by a false discovery rate. No variant was associated with CRC risk. Variants in EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 were significantly associated with overall survival. The association of the EFNB2 tagging SNP rs9520090 (p < 0.0001) was confirmed in two validation datasets (p-values: 0.01 and 0.05). The associations of the tagging SNPs rs6040062 in JAG1 (p-value 0.0003) and rs2241145 in MMP2 (p-value 0.0005) showed the same direction of association with overall survival in the first and second validation sets, respectively, although they did not reach significance (p-values: 0.09 and 0.25, respectively). EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 are known for their functional role in angiogenesis and the present study points to novel evidence for the impact of angiogenesis-related genetic variants on the CRC outcome.

6.
Blood ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812041

RESUMO

Monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) provides prognostic information in patients with Nucleophosmin1 mutated (NPM1mut) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and represents a powerful tool to evaluate treatment effects within clinical trials. We determined NPM1mut transcript levels (TL) by RQ-PCR and evaluated the prognostic impact of NPM1mut MRD and the effect of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) on NPM1mut TL and the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) in patients with NPM1mut AML enrolled in the randomized phase III AMLSG 09-09 trial. 3733 bone marrow (BM) and 3793 peripheral blood (PB) samples from 469 patients were analyzed. NPM1mut TL log10 reduction ≥3 and achievement of MRD negativity in BM and PB were significantly associated with a lower CIR rate, after two treatment cycles and at end of treatment (EOT). In multivariate analyses, MRD positivity consistently revealed as poor prognostic factor in BM and PB. With regard to treatment effect, the median NPM1mut TL were significantly lower in the GO-Arm across all treatment cycles, resulting in a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving MRD negativity at EOT (56% vs 41%; P=.01). The betterreduction of NPM1mut TL after two treatment cycles in MRD-positive patients by the addition of GO led to a significantly lower CIR rate (4-year CIR 29.3% vs 45.7%, P=.009). In conclusion, the addition of GO to intensive chemotherapy in NPM1mut AML resulted in a significantly better reduction of NPM1mut TL across all treatment cycles leading to a significantly lower relapse rate. The AMLSG 09-09 trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00893399.

7.
Cancer Med ; 9(20): 7398-7406, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We consider an existing clinical cohort with events but limited resources for the investigation of a further potentially expensive marker. Biological material of the patients is stored in a biobank, but only a limited number of samples can be analyzed with respect to the marker. The question arises as to which patients to sample, if the number of events preclude standard sampling designs. METHODS: Modifications of the nested case-control and the case-cohort design for the proportional hazards model are applied, that allow efficient sampling in situations where standard nested case-control and case-cohort are not feasible. These sampling designs are compared to simple random sampling and extreme group sampling, the latter including only patients with extreme outcomes, ie either with an event early in time or without an event until at least a point later in time. RESULTS: The modified nested case-control design and the modified case-cohort design provide powerful methods for sampling in a clinical cohort with many events. The simple random sampling usually is less efficient. If focus is on precise estimation of a potential effect in terms of a hazard ratio, extreme group sampling is not competitive. If focus is on screening for important biomarkers, extreme group sampling markedly outperforms the other sampling designs. CONCLUSIONS: When it is not feasible to sample all events, a modified nested case-control design or case-cohort design leads to efficient effect estimates in the proportional hazards model. If screening for important biomarkers is the primary objective, extreme group sampling is preferable.

8.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684633

RESUMO

Intensive upfront therapy in newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) including induction therapy (IT), high-dose melphalan (MEL200), and autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) followed by consolidation and/or maintenance is mostly restricted to patients up to 65 years of age. Prospective phase III trial data in the era of novel agents for patients up to 70 years of age are not available. The GMMG-MM5 trial included 601 patients between 18 and 70 years of age, divided in three groups for the present analysis: ≤60 years (S1, n = 353), 61-65 years (S2, n = 107) and 66-70 years (S3, n = 141). Treatment consisted of a bortezomib-containing IT, MEL200/ASCT, consolidation, and maintenance with lenalidomide. Adherence to treatment was similar among patients of the three age groups. Overall toxicity during all treatment phases was increased in S2 and S3 compared to S1 (any adverse event/any serious adverse event: S1:81.7/41.8% vs. S2:90.7/56.5% vs. S3:87.2/68.1%, p = 0.05/<0.001). With respect to progression-free survival (log-rank p = 0.73), overall survival (log-rank p = 0.54) as well as time-to-progression (Gray's p = 0.83) and non-relapse mortality (Gray's p = 0.25), no differences were found between the three age groups. Our results imply that an intensive upfront therapy with a bortezomib-containing IT, MEL200/ASCT, lenalidomide consolidation, and maintenance should be applied to transplant-eligible MM patients up to 70 years of age.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(8): 1338-1350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical procedure is the treatment of choice in early stage I lung adenocarcinoma. However, a considerable number of patients experience recurrence within the first 2 years after complete resection. Suitable prognostic biomarkers that identify patients at high risk of recurrence (who may probably benefit from adjuvant treatment) are still not available. This study aimed at identifying methylation markers for early recurrence that may become important tools for the development of new treatment modalities. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed on 30 stage I lung adenocarcinomas, comparing 14 patients with early metastatic recurrence with 16 patients with a long-term relapse-free survival period using methylated-CpG-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. The differentially methylated regions between the two subgroups were validated for their prognostic value in two independent cohorts using the MassCLEAVE assay, a high-resolution quantitative methylation analysis. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of patients in the discovery cohort on the basis of differentially methylated regions identified patients with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 0.66-7.53; p = 0.03). In two validation cohorts, promoter hypermethylation of the long noncoding RNA PLUT was significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.93; p < 0.026) and could be reported as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Promoter hypermethylation of the long noncoding RNA PLUT is predictive in patients with early stage I adenocarcinoma at high risk for early recurrence. Further studies are needed to validate its role in carcinogenesis and its use as a biomarker to facilitate patient selection and risk stratification.

10.
Blood ; 135(18): 1517-1530, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107537

RESUMO

Daratumumab has shown promising first results in systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We analyzed a consecutive series of 168 patients with advanced AL receiving either daratumumab/dexamethasone (DD, n = 106) or daratumumab/bortezomib/dexamethasone (DVD, n = 62). DD achieved a remission rate (RR) of 64% and a very good hematologic remission (VGHR) rate of 48% after 3 months. Median hematologic event-free survival (hemEFS) was 11.8 months and median overall survival (OS) was 25.6 months. DVD achieved a 66% RR and a 55% VGHR rate. Median hemEFS was 19.1 months and median OS had not been reached. Cardiac organ responses were noted in 22% with DD and 26% with DVD after 6 months. Infectious complications were common (Common Terminology Criteria [CTC] grade 3/4: DD 16%, DVD 18%) and likely related to a high rate of lymphocytopenia (CTC grade 3/4: DD 20%, DVD 17%). On univariable analysis, hyperdiploidy and gain 1q21 conferred an adverse factor for OS and hemEFS with DD, whereas translocation t(11;14) was associated with a better hemEFS. N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide >8500 ng/L could not be overcome for survival with each regimen. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed plasma cell dyscrasia (difference between serum free light chains [dFLC]) >180 mg/L as an overall strong negative prognostic factor. Additionally, nephrotic-range albuminuria with an albumin-to-creatinine-ratio (ACR) >220 mg/mmol was a significantly adverse factor for hemEFS (hazard ratio, 2.1 and 3.1) with DD and DVD. Daratumumab salvage therapy produced good results and remission rates challenging any therapy in advanced AL. Outcome is adversely influenced by the activity of the underlying plasma cell dyscrasia (dFLC) and nephrotic-range albuminuria (ACR).

11.
Transplantation ; 104(11): 2354-2359, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) represents a double-edged sword. In its nonsevere form, cGVHD associates with better control of the malignant disease, thus highlighting graft-versus-leukemia effects. However, severe cGVHD leads to debilitating morbidity and increased nonrelapse mortality. The prediction of severe cGVHD, in particular at disease onset, is therefore of high importance for ensuing clinical decisions and overall success of allogeneic stem cell transplantations. CXC-chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9) is an interferon-inducible chemokine of the CXC family and is increased in cGVHD. Endothelial activation and stress index (EASIX) was shown to predict death after acute graft-versus-host disease. We explored CXCL9 and EASIX as predictors of severe cGVHD. METHODS: Sera and clinical data of 480 patients were available who survived at least 6 months following allogeneic stem cell transplantation without steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease and without early relapse. CXCL9 and EASIX were measured on day +100 and onset of cGVHD. RESULTS: Development of nonsevere cGVHD was significantly associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio 0.53, P < 0.001). CXCL9 serum levels at the onset of cGVHD predicted the development of severe cGVHD later on (hazard ratio 1.33, P = 0.02). In contrast, EASIX at the onset of cGVHD was not associated with cGVHD severity but was a significant independent risk factor for overall mortality and nonrelapse mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL9 levels at the onset of cGVHD can help to predict severe courses of the disease and have potential for optimizing tailored administration of immunosuppressive therapy.

12.
Nat Protoc ; 15(2): 479-512, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932775

RESUMO

DNA methylation data-based precision cancer diagnostics is emerging as the state of the art for molecular tumor classification. Standards for choosing statistical methods with regard to well-calibrated probability estimates for these typically highly multiclass classification tasks are still lacking. To support this choice, we evaluated well-established machine learning (ML) classifiers including random forests (RFs), elastic net (ELNET), support vector machines (SVMs) and boosted trees in combination with post-processing algorithms and developed ML workflows that allow for unbiased class probability (CP) estimation. Calibrators included ridge-penalized multinomial logistic regression (MR) and Platt scaling by fitting logistic regression (LR) and Firth's penalized LR. We compared these workflows on a recently published brain tumor 450k DNA methylation cohort of 2,801 samples with 91 diagnostic categories using a 5 × 5-fold nested cross-validation scheme and demonstrated their generalizability on external data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. ELNET was the top stand-alone classifier with the best calibration profiles. The best overall two-stage workflow was MR-calibrated SVM with linear kernels closely followed by ridge-calibrated tuned RF. For calibration, MR was the most effective regardless of the primary classifier. The protocols developed as a result of these comparisons provide valuable guidance on choosing ML workflows and their tuning to generate well-calibrated CP estimates for precision diagnostics using DNA methylation data. Computation times vary depending on the ML algorithm from <15 min to 5 d using multi-core desktop PCs. Detailed scripts in the open-source R language are freely available on GitHub, targeting users with intermediate experience in bioinformatics and statistics and using R with Bioconductor extensions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Fluxo de Trabalho , Humanos , Probabilidade
13.
Biom J ; 62(3): 610-626, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448463

RESUMO

When performing survival analysis in very high dimensions, it is often required to reduce the number of covariates using preliminary screening. During the last years, a large number of variable screening methods for the survival context have been developed. However, guidance is missing for choosing an appropriate method in practice. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of marginal variable screening methods for survival and develop recommendations for their use. For this purpose, a literature review is given, offering a comprehensive and structured introduction to the topic. In addition, a novel screening procedure based on distance correlation and martingale residuals is proposed, which is particularly useful in detecting nonmonotone associations. For evaluating the performance of the discussed approaches, a simulation study is conducted, comparing the true positive rates of competing variable screening methods in different settings. A real data example on mantle cell lymphoma is provided.

14.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(3): 553-561, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558788

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is an effective immunotherapy in patients with hematological malignancies. Endothelial dysfunction was linked to major complications after alloSCT. We asked the question if the "Endothelial Activation and Stress Index" (EASIX; [(creatinine × LDH) ÷ thrombocytes]) can predict mortality after alloSCT. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in five alloSCT centers in the USA and Germany. EASIX was assessed prior to conditioning (EASIX-pre) and correlated with mortality in 755 patients of a training cohort in multivariable models. The predictive model established in the training cohort was validated in 1267 adult allo-recipients. Increasing EASIX-pre predicted lower overall survival (OS) after alloSCT, and successful model validation was achieved for the validation cohort. We found that EASIX-pre predicts OS irrespective of established scores. Moreover, EASIX-pre was also a significant prognostic factor for transplant-associated microangiopathy. Finally, EASIX-pre correlated with biomarkers of endothelial homeostasis such as CXCL8, interleukin-18, and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 serum levels. This study establishes EASIX-pre based on a standard laboratory biomarker panel as a predictor of individual risk of mortality after alloSCT independently from established clinical criteria.

15.
Haematologica ; 105(5): 1454-1464, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296579

RESUMO

Testosterone is an important determinant of endothelial function and vascular health in men. As both factors play a role in mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), we retrospectively evaluated the impact of pre-transplant testosterone levels on outcome in male patients undergoing alloSCT. In the discovery cohort (n=346), an impact on outcome was observed only in the subgroup of patients allografted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=176, hereafter termed 'training cohort'). In the training cohort, lower pre-transplant testosterone levels were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) for a decrease of 100 ng/dL: 1.11, P=0.045]. This was based on a higher hazard of non-relapse mortality (NRM) (cause-specific HR: 1.25, P=0.013), but not relapse (cause-specific HR: 1.06, P=0.277) in the multivariable models. These findings were replicated in a confirmation cohort of 168 male patients allografted for AML in a different center (OS, HR: 1.15, P=0.012 and NRM, cause-specific HR: 1.23; P=0.008). Next, an optimized cut-off point for pre-transplant testosterone was derived from the training set and evaluated in the confirmation cohort. In multivariable models, low pre-transplant testosterone status (<250 ng/dL) was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 1.95, P=0.021) and increased NRM (cause-specific HR 2.68, P=0.011) but not with relapse (cause-specific HR: 1.28, P=0.551). Our findings may provide a rationale for prospective studies on testosterone/androgen assessment and supplementation in male patients undergoing alloSCT for AML.

16.
Mol Oncol ; 14(1): 8-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652396

RESUMO

Blood-based protein biomarkers may be an attractive option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we used a two-stage design to measure 275 protein markers by proximity extension assay (PEA), first in plasma samples of a discovery set consisting of 98 newly diagnosed CRC cases and 100 age- and gender-matched controls free of neoplasm at screening colonoscopy. An algorithm predicting the presence of early- or late-stage CRC was derived by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression with .632+ bootstrap method, and the algorithms were then validated using PEA again in an independent validation set consisting of participants of screening colonoscopy with and without CRC (n = 56 and 102, respectively). Three different signatures for all-, early-, and late-stage CRC consisting of 9, 12, and 11 protein markers were obtained in the discovery set with areas under the curves (AUCs) after .632 + bootstrap adjustment of 0.92, 0.91, and 0.96, respectively. External validation among participants of screening colonoscopy yielded AUCs of 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.67-0.84], 0.75 (95% CI, 0.62-0.87), and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.89) for all-, early-, and late-stage CRC, respectively. Although the identified protein markers are not competitive with the best available stool tests, these proteins may contribute to the development of powerful blood-based tests for CRC early detection in the future.

17.
Brief Bioinform ; 21(6): 1904-1919, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750518

RESUMO

Data integration, i.e. the use of different sources of information for data analysis, is becoming one of the most important topics in modern statistics. Especially in, but not limited to, biomedical applications, a relevant issue is the combination of low-dimensional (e.g. clinical data) and high-dimensional (e.g. molecular data such as gene expressions) data sources in a prediction model. Not only the different characteristics of the data, but also the complex correlation structure within and between the two data sources, pose challenging issues. In this paper, we investigate these issues via simulations, providing some useful insight into strategies to combine low- and high-dimensional data in a regression prediction model. In particular, we focus on the effect of the correlation structure on the results, while accounting for the influence of our specific choices in the design of the simulation study.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(6): 623-632, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High CD33 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated NPM1 provides a rationale for the evaluation of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in this AML entity. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate GO in combination with intensive induction and consolidation therapy in NPM1-mutated AML. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 2010 and September 2017, patients ≥ 18 years old and considered eligible for intensive therapy were randomly assigned up front for induction therapy with idarubicin, cytarabine, etoposide, and all-trans-retinoic acid with or without GO. The early (P = .02) primary end point of event-free survival (EFS) was evaluated 6 months after completion of patient recruitment. RESULTS: Five hundred eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned (standard arm, n = 296; GO arm, n = 292). EFS in the GO arm was not significantly different compared with that in the standard arm (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.04; P = .10). The early death rate during induction therapy was 10.3% in the GO arm and 5.7% in the standard arm (P = .05). Causes of death in both arms were mainly infections. The cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) in patients achieving a complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) was significantly reduced in the GO arm compared with the standard arm (P = .005), with no difference in the cumulative incidence of death (P = .80). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant beneficial effect of GO in female, younger (≤ 70 years), and FLT3 internal tandem duplication-negative patients with respect to EFS and CIR. CONCLUSION: The trial did not meet its early primary end point of EFS, mainly as a result of a higher early death rate in the GO arm. However, in patients achieving CR/CRi after induction therapy, significantly fewer relapses occurred in the GO compared with the standard arm.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Gemtuzumab/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Consolidação/métodos , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Stat Med ; 39(7): 923-939, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863499

RESUMO

One of the main endeavours in present-day medicine, especially in oncological research, is to provide evidence for individual treatment decisions ("stratified medicine"). In the pursuit of optimal treatment decision rules, the identification of predictive biomarkers that modify the treatment effect is essential. Proposed methods have often been based on recursive partitioning since a wide variety of interaction patterns can be captured automatically and the results are easily interpretable. Furthermore, these methods are readily extendable to high-dimensional settings by means of ensemble learning. In this article, we present predMOB, an adaptation of the model-based recursive partitioning (MOB) for subgroup analysis approach specifically tailored to the identification of predictive factors. In a simulation study, predMOB outperforms the original MOB with respect to the number of false detections and shows to be more robust in moderately complex settings. Furthermore, we compare the results of predMOB for the application to a public data base of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients to those obtained from the original MOB and are able to elucidate the nature of the biomarkers' effects.

20.
Blood ; 135(5): 371-380, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826241

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITDs) have poor outcomes, in particular AML with a high (≥0.5) mutant/wild-type allelic ratio (AR). The 2017 European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations defined 4 distinct FLT3-ITD genotypes based on the ITD AR and the NPM1 mutational status. In this retrospective exploratory study, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of the NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes categorized according to the 2017 ELN risk groups in patients randomized within the RATIFY trial, which evaluated the addition of midostaurin to standard chemotherapy. The 4 NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes differed significantly with regard to clinical and concurrent genetic features. Complete ELN risk categorization could be done in 318 of 549 trial patients with FLT3-ITD AML. Significant factors for response after 1 or 2 induction cycles were ELN risk group and white blood cell (WBC) counts; treatment with midostaurin had no influence. Overall survival (OS) differed significantly among ELN risk groups, with estimated 5-year OS probabilities of 0.63, 0.43, and 0.33 for favorable-, intermediate-, and adverse-risk groups, respectively (P < .001). A multivariate Cox model for OS using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission as a time-dependent variable revealed treatment with midostaurin, allogeneic HCT, ELN favorable-risk group, and lower WBC counts as significant favorable factors. In this model, there was a consistent beneficial effect of midostaurin across ELN risk groups.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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