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1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120030226, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The general cardiovascular Framingham risk score (FRS) identifies adults at increased risk for stroke. We tested the hypothesis that baseline FRS is associated with the presence of postmortem cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathologies. METHODS: We studied the brains of 1672 older decedents with baseline FRS and measured CVD pathologies including macroinfarcts, microinfarcts, atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We employed a series of logistic regressions to examine the association of baseline FRS with each of the 5 CVD pathologies. RESULTS: Average age at baseline was 80.5±7.0 years and average age at death was 89.2±6.7 years. A higher baseline FRS was associated with higher odds of macroinfarcts (odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.07-1.13], P<0.001), microinfarcts (odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.07], P=0.009), atherosclerosis (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.04-1.11], P<0.001), and arteriolosclerosis (odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.07], P=0.005). C statistics for these models ranged from 0.537 to 0.595 indicating low accuracy for predicting CVD pathologies. FRS was not associated with the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. CONCLUSIONS: A higher FRS score in older adults is associated with higher odds of some, but not all, CVD pathologies, with low discrimination at the individual level. Further work is needed to develop a more robust risk score to identify adults at risk for accumulating CVD pathologies.

2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive trajectory varies widely and can distinguish people who develop dementia from people who remain cognitively normal. Variation in cognitive trajectory is only partially explained by traditional neuropathologies. We sought to identify novel genes associated with cognitive trajectory using DNA methylation profiles from human postmortem brain. METHODS: We performed a brain epigenome-wide association study of cognitive trajectory in 636 participants from the ROS (Religious Orders Study) and MAP (Rush Memory and Aging Project) using DNA methylation profiles of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. To maximize our power to detect epigenetic associations, we used the recently developed Gene Association with Multiple Traits test to analyze the 5 measured cognitive domains simultaneously. RESULTS: We found an epigenome-wide association for differential methylation of sites in the CLDN5 locus and cognitive trajectory (p = 9.96 × 10-7) that was robust to adjustment for cell type proportions (p = 8.52 × 10-7). This association was primarily driven by association with declines in episodic (p = 4.65 × 10-6) and working (p = 2.54 × 10-7) memory. This association between methylation in CLDN5 and cognitive decline was significant even in participants with no or little signs of amyloid-ß and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Differential methylation of CLDN5, a gene that encodes an important protein of the blood-brain barrier, is associated with cognitive trajectory beyond traditional Alzheimer's disease pathologies. The association between CLDN5 methylation and cognitive trajectory in people with low pathology suggests an early role for CLDN5 and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 17(4): e1009406, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830999

RESUMO

Phospholipase D3 (PLD3) is a protein of unclear function that structurally resembles other members of the phospholipase D superfamily. A coding variant in this gene confers increased risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the magnitude of this effect has been controversial. Because of the potential significance of this obscure protein, we undertook a study to observe its distribution in normal human brain and AD-affected brain, determine whether PLD3 is relevant to memory and cognition in sporadic AD, and to evaluate its molecular function. In human neuropathological samples, PLD3 was primarily found within neurons and colocalized with lysosome markers (LAMP2, progranulin, and cathepsins D and B). This colocalization was also present in AD brain with prominent enrichment on lysosomal accumulations within dystrophic neurites surrounding ß-amyloid plaques. This pattern of protein distribution was conserved in mouse brain in wild type and the 5xFAD mouse model of cerebral ß-amyloidosis. We discovered PLD3 has phospholipase D activity in lysosomes. A coding variant in PLD3 reported to confer AD risk significantly reduced enzymatic activity compared to wild-type PLD3. PLD3 mRNA levels in the human pre-frontal cortex inversely correlated with ß-amyloid pathology severity and rate of cognitive decline in 531 participants enrolled in the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. PLD3 levels across genetically diverse BXD mouse strains and strains crossed with 5xFAD mice correlated strongly with learning and memory performance in a fear conditioning task. In summary, this study identified a new functional mammalian phospholipase D isoform which is lysosomal and closely associated with both ß-amyloid pathology and cognition.

4.
J Proteome Res ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856812

RESUMO

Proteomic investigations of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease have provided valuable insights into neurodegenerative disorders. Thus far, these investigations have largely been restricted to bottom-up approaches, hindering the degree to which one can characterize a protein's "intact" state. Top-down proteomics (TDP) overcomes this limitation; however, it is typically limited to observing only the most abundant proteoforms and of a relatively small size. Therefore, fractionation techniques are commonly used to reduce sample complexity. Here, we investigate gas-phase fractionation through high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) within TDP. Utilizing a high complexity sample derived from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue, we describe how the addition of FAIMS to TDP can robustly improve the depth of proteome coverage. For example, implementation of FAIMS with external compensation voltage (CV) stepping at -50, -40, and -30 CV could more than double the mean number of non-redundant proteoforms, genes, and proteome sequence coverage compared to without FAIMS. We also found that FAIMS can influence the transmission of proteoforms and their charge envelopes based on their size. Importantly, FAIMS enabled the identification of intact amyloid beta (Aß) proteoforms, including the aggregation-prone Aß1-42 variant which is strongly linked to AD. Raw data and associated files have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the MassIVE data repository with data set identifier PXD023607.

5.
Nat Neurosci ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846625

RESUMO

Depression is a common condition, but current treatments are only effective in a subset of individuals. To identify new treatment targets, we integrated depression genome-wide association study (GWAS) results (N = 500,199) with human brain proteomes (N = 376) to perform a proteome-wide association study of depression followed by Mendelian randomization. We identified 19 genes that were consistent with being causal in depression, acting via their respective cis-regulated brain protein abundance. We replicated nine of these genes using an independent depression GWAS (N = 307,353) and another human brain proteomic dataset (N = 152). Eleven of the 19 genes also had cis-regulated mRNA levels that were associated with depression, based on integration of the depression GWAS with human brain transcriptomes (N = 888). Meta-analysis of the discovery and replication proteome-wide association study analyses identified 25 brain proteins consistent with being causal in depression, 20 of which were not previously implicated in depression by GWAS. Together, these findings provide promising brain protein targets for further mechanistic and therapeutic studies.

6.
Neurology ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that an inverse association exists between diabetes mellitus (DM) and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) with Transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) levels in older adults. METHODS: We leveraged antemortem and postmortem data of decedents from three community-based clinical-pathological studies. DM status, A1C levels, and medications for DM were documented annually. TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions, evaluated in 6 brain regions using immunohistochemistry, were used to obtain a semiquantitative TDP-43 score (0-5) in each region, and scores were averaged across regions to obtain a TDP-43 severity score. We used linear regressions to test the association of DM and A1C with the TDP-43 severity score. RESULTS: On average, participants (n=817) were 90 years old at the time of death, three fourth were women, and one fourth had DM. The mean A1C was 6.0% (SD=0.6). TDP-43 was observed in 54% of participants, and the mean TDP-43 score was 0.7 (range 0-4.5). A higher level of A1C was associated with a lower TDP-43 score (estimate=-0.156, S.E.=0.060, p=0.009) while DM had a borderline inverse association with the TDP-43 score (estimate=-0.163, S.E.=0.087, p=0.060). The association of higher levels of A1C with lower TDP-43 scores persisted after further adjustment by Apolipoprotein ε4, vascular risk factors, stroke, and hypoglycemic medications. Exclusion of the oldest old participants did not change the results. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results suggest that a high level of A1C is associated with less TDP-43 proteinopathy in older persons while the relationship of DM with TDP-43 needs further study.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 17(4): e1009482, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798195

RESUMO

Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have been widely used to integrate transcriptomic and genetic data to study complex human diseases. Within a test dataset lacking transcriptomic data, traditional two-stage TWAS methods first impute gene expression by creating a weighted sum that aggregates SNPs with their corresponding cis-eQTL effects on reference transcriptome. Traditional TWAS methods then employ a linear regression model to assess the association between imputed gene expression and test phenotype, thereby assuming the effect of a cis-eQTL SNP on test phenotype is a linear function of the eQTL's estimated effect on reference transcriptome. To increase TWAS robustness to this assumption, we propose a novel Variance-Component TWAS procedure (VC-TWAS) that assumes the effects of cis-eQTL SNPs on phenotype are random (with variance proportional to corresponding reference cis-eQTL effects) rather than fixed. VC-TWAS is applicable to both continuous and dichotomous phenotypes, as well as individual-level and summary-level GWAS data. Using simulated data, we show VC-TWAS is more powerful than traditional TWAS methods based on a two-stage Burden test, especially when eQTL genetic effects on test phenotype are no longer a linear function of their eQTL genetic effects on reference transcriptome. We further applied VC-TWAS to both individual-level (N = ~3.4K) and summary-level (N = ~54K) GWAS data to study Alzheimer's dementia (AD). With the individual-level data, we detected 13 significant risk genes including 6 known GWAS risk genes such as TOMM40 that were missed by traditional TWAS methods. With the summary-level data, we detected 57 significant risk genes considering only cis-SNPs and 71 significant genes considering both cis- and trans- SNPs, which also validated our findings with the individual-level GWAS data. Our VC-TWAS method is implemented in the TIGAR tool for public use.

8.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 71, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858515

RESUMO

Insulin is an important hormone for brain function, and alterations in insulin metabolism may be associated with neuropathology. We examined associations of molecular markers of brain insulin signaling with cerebrovascular disease. Participants were enrolled in the Religious Orders Study (ROS), an ongoing epidemiologic community-based, clinical-pathologic study of aging from across the United States. Using cross-sectional analyses, we studied a subset of ROS: 150 persons with or without diabetes, matched 1:1 by sex on age-at-death and education. We used ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and ex vivo stimulation with insulin, to document insulin signaling in postmortem midfrontal gyrus cortex tissue. Postmortem neuropathologic data identified cerebrovascular disease including brain infarcts, classified by number (as none for the reference; one; and more than one), size (gross and microscopic infarcts), and brain region/location (cortical and subcortical). Cerebral vessel pathologies were assessed, including severity of atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and amyloid angiopathy. In separate regression analyses, greater AKT1 phosphorylation at T308 following ex vivo stimulation with insulin (OR = 1.916; estimate = 0.650; p = 0.007) and greater pS616IRS1 immunolabeling in neuronal cytoplasm (OR = 1.610; estimate = 0.476; p = 0.013), were each associated with a higher number of brain infarcts. Secondary analyses showed consistent results for gross infarcts and microinfarcts separately, but no other association including by infarct location (cortical or subcortical). AKT S473 phosphorylation following insulin stimulation was associated with less amyloid angiopathy severity, but not with other vessel pathology including atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis. In summary, insulin resistance in the human brain, even among persons without diabetes, is associated with cerebrovascular disease and especially infarcts. The underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms need further elucidation. Because brain infarcts are known to be associated with lower cognitive function and dementia, these data are relevant to better understanding the link between brain metabolism and brain function.

9.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 26, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is associated with a greater response to neuroinflammation and the risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms for this association are not clear. The activation of calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is involved in inflammatory signaling and is elevated within the plaques of AD brains. The relation between APOE4 genotype and cPLA2 activity is not known. METHODS: Mouse primary astrocytes, mouse and human brain samples differing by APOE genotypes were collected for measuring cPLA2 expression, phosphorylation, and activity in relation to measures of inflammation and oxidative stress. RESULTS: Greater cPLA2 phosphorylation, cPLA2 activity and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels were identified in ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 in primary astrocytes, brains of ApoE-targeted replacement (ApoE-TR) mice, and in human brain homogenates from the inferior frontal cortex of patients with AD carrying APOE3/E4 compared to APOE3/E3. Greater cPLA2 phosphorylation was also observed in human postmortem frontal cortical synaptosomes and primary astrocytes after treatment with recombinant ApoE4 ex vivo. In ApoE4 astrocytes, the greater levels of LTB4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were reduced after cPLA2 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implicate greater activation of cPLA2 signaling system with APOE4, which could represent a potential drug target for mitigating the increased neuroinflammation with APOE4 and AD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inadequate financial and health literacy presents a formidable public health and economic challenge in old age. This study investigated declining financial and health literacy in relation to decision making performance, scam susceptibility and psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: A community-based cohort in Northeastern Illinois, USA. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand fourty-six older adults who were free of dementia at baseline and underwent annual clinical and literacy assessments. MEASUREMENTS: Financial and health literacy, decision making, scam susceptibility, and psychological wellbeing were assessed using validated instruments. Linear mixed effects models estimated person-specific rates of change in financial and health literacy, and multivariable regression analyses examined the associations of declining literacy with subsequent levels of decision making, scam susceptibility, and psychological wellbeing. RESULTS: The mean age was 81 years and 76% were female. Over up to 10 years of annual follow-ups, the average financial and health literacy score dropped 1 percentage point a year. Substantial variability in decline was observed between participants. Faster decline in financial and health literacy was associated with poorer decision making, higher scam susceptibility, and lower psychological wellbeing. Notably, these associations were above and beyond the baseline literacy level and persisted even after controlling for cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Most community-dwelling older adults experience decline in financial and health literacy over time, but decline is not inevitable. Declining literacy is related to poorer decision making, greater scam susceptibility and lower wellbeing. These findings suggest that efforts to mitigate declining financial and health literacy may promote independence and wellbeing in old age.

11.
Brain ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742668

RESUMO

The aging brain is vulnerable to a wide array of neuropathologies. Prior work estimated that the three most studied of these, Alzheimer's disease (AD), infarcts, and Lewy bodies, account for about 40% of the variation in late life cognitive decline. However, that estimate did not incorporate many other diseases that are now recognized as potent drivers of cognitive decline (e.g. limbic predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy [LATE-NC], hippocampal sclerosis, other cerebrovascular conditions). We examined the degree to which person-specific cognitive decline in old age is driven by a wide array of neuropathologies. 1,164 deceased participants from two longitudinal clinical-pathologic studies, the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study, completed up to 24 annual evaluations including 17 cognitive performance tests and underwent brain autopsy. Neuropathologic examinations provided 11 pathologic indices, including markers of AD, non-AD neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. LATE-NC, hippocampal sclerosis, Lewy bodies), and cerebrovascular conditions (i.e. macroscopic infarcts, microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, atherosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis). Mixed effects models examined the linear relation of pathologic indices with global cognitive decline, and random change point models examined the relation of the pathologic indices with the onset of terminal decline and rates of preterminal and terminal decline. Cognition declined an average of about 0.10 unit per year (estimate = -0.101, SE = 0.003, p < 0.001) with considerable heterogeneity in rates of decline (variance estimate for the person-specific slope of decline was 0.0094, p < 0.001). When considered separately, 10 of the 11 pathologic indices were associated with faster decline and accounted for between 2 and 34% of the variation in decline, respectively. When considered simultaneously, the 11 pathologic indices together accounted for a total of 43% of the variation in decline; AD-related indices accounted for 30-36% of the variation, non-AD neurodegenerative indices 4-10%, and cerebrovascular indices 3-8%. Finally, the 11 pathologic indices combined accounted for less than a third of the variation in the onset of terminal decline (28%) and rates of preterminal (32%) and terminal decline (19%). Although age-related neuropathologies account for a large proportion of the variation in late life cognitive decline, considerable variation remains unexplained even after considering a wide array of neuropathologies. These findings highlight the complexity of cognitive aging and have important implications for the ongoing effort to develop effective therapeutics and identify novel treatment targets.

12.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR) is a predementia syndrome characterized by cognitive complaints and slow gait. MCR is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and incident dementia. Predictors of transition to dementia in MCR patients are still obscure. METHODS: We examined clinical, biological and lifestyle parameters related to conversion to dementia using Cox models in 439 older adults with prevalent MCR (mean age 79.87 ± 8.13 years, 70% women) from two cohorts, 268 from the Chicago-based Rush Memory and Aging project (MAP) and 171 from the Religious Orders Study (ROS), which enrolled religious clergy across the United States. RESULTS: In the pooled sample, 439 (13.2%) had prevalent MCR (268 MAP and 171 ROS). There were 140 (31.9%) incident dementia cases over a median follow up of 4.0 years. Age predicted conversion from MCR to dementia in both cohorts. Male gender was a risk factor only in ROS. In the pooled data, only higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher risk of conversion to dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.24). Lower cognitive activity participation (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.79) and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (aHR 2.57, 95% CI 1.48-4.45) predicted conversion to dementia in MAP. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms and other cohort-specific risk factors were identified as predictors of transition to dementia in individuals with MCR. These findings suggest common pathological mechanisms underlying mood, gait and cognitive declines in aging, which could help develop preventive strategies.

13.
Acta Neuropathol ; 141(5): 755-770, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646358

RESUMO

Age-related neuropathologies progressively impair cognitive abilities by damaging synaptic function. We aimed to identify key components within the presynaptic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) machinery associated with cognitive performance and estimate their potential contribution to brain reserve in old age. We used targeted SRM proteomics to quantify amounts of 60 peptides, encoded in 30 different genes, in postmortem specimens of the prefrontal cortex from 1209 participants of two aging studies, with available antemortem cognitive evaluations and postmortem neuropathologic assessments. We found that select (but not all) proteoforms are strongly associated with cognitive function and the burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Specifically, greater abundance of STX1A (but not other syntaxins), SYT12, full-length SNAP25, and the GABAergic STXBP1 variant were robustly associated with better cognitive performance. By contrast, greater abundance of other presynaptic proteins (e.g., STXBP5 or tomosyn, STX7, or SYN2) showed a negative influence on cognition. Regression models adjusting for demographic and pathologic variables showed that altered levels of these protein species explained 7.7% additional between-subject variance in cognition (more than any individual age-related neuropathology in the model), suggesting that these molecules constitute key elements of brain reserve. Network analyses indicated that those peptides associated with brain reserve, and closest to the SNARE fusogenic activity, showed greater centrality measures and were better connected in the network. Validation assays confirmed the selective loss of the STX1A (but not STX1B) isoform in cognitively impaired cases. In rodent and human brains, STX1A was selectively located at glutamatergic terminals. However, in AD brains, STX1A was redistributed adjacent to neuritic pathology, and markedly expressed in astrocytes. Our study provides strong evidence, indicating that select presynaptic proteins are key in maintaining brain reserve. Compromised ability to sustain expression levels of these proteins may trigger synaptic dysfunction and concomitant cognitive impairment.

14.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 55, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies only explain part of the heritability of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epistasis has been considered as one of the main causes of "missing heritability" in AD. METHODS: We performed genome-wide epistasis screening (N = 10,389) for the clinical diagnosis of AD using three popularly adopted methods. Subsequent analyses were performed to eliminate spurious associations caused by possible confounding factors. Then, candidate genetic interactions were examined for their co-expression in the brains of AD patients and analyzed for their association with intermediate AD phenotypes. Moreover, a new approach was developed to compile the epistasis risk factors into an epistasis risk score (ERS) based on multifactor dimensional reduction. Two independent datasets were used to evaluate the feasibility of ERSs in AD risk prediction. RESULTS: We identified 2 candidate genetic interactions with PFDR <  0.05 (RAMP3-SEMA3A and NSMCE1-DGKE/C17orf67) and another 5 genetic interactions with PFDR <  0.1. Co-expression between the identified interactions supported the existence of possible biological interactions underlying the observed statistical significance. Further association of candidate interactions with intermediate phenotypes helps explain the mechanisms of neuropathological alterations involved in AD. Importantly, we found that ERSs can identify high-risk individuals showing earlier onset of AD. Combined risk scores of SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions showed slightly but steadily increased AUC in predicting the clinical status of AD. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we performed a genome-wide epistasis analysis to identify novel genetic interactions potentially implicated in AD. We found that ERS can serve as an indicator of the genetic risk of AD.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0240342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661922

RESUMO

The inflammatory hypothesis posits that sustained neuroinflammation is sufficient to induce neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Alzheimer's dementia. One potential source of inflammation is the intestine which harbors pro-inflammatory microorganisms capable of promoting neuroinflammation. Systemic inflammation is robustly associated with neuroinflammation as well as low levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the systemic circulation and brain. Thus, in this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that intestinal barrier dysfunction precedes risk of death, incident AD dementia and MCI, cognitive impairment and neuropathology. Serum BDNF was associated with changes in global cognition, working memory, and perceptual speed but not risk of death, incident AD dementia, incident MCI, or neuropathology. Neither of the markers of intestinal barrier integrity examined, including lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) nor intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), were associated with risk of death, incident AD dementia, incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI), change in cognition (global or domains), or neuropathology. Taken together, the data in this pilot study suggest that intestinal barrier dysfunction does not precede diagnosis of AD or MCI, changes in cognition, or brain pathology. However, since MCI and AD are related to global cognition, the findings with BDNF and the contiguous cognitive measures suggest low power with the trichotomous cognitive status measures. Future studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further investigate the results from this pilot study.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobility disability and parkinsonism are associated with decreased survival in older adults. This study examined the transition from no motor impairment to mobility disability and parkinsonism and their associations with death. METHODS: 867 community-dwelling older adults without mobility disability or parkinsonism at baseline were examined annually. Mobility disability was based on annual measured gait speed. Parkinsonism was based on the annual assessment of 26 items from the motor portion of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. A multistate Cox model simultaneously examined the incidences of mobility disability and parkinsonism and their associations with death. RESULTS: Average age at baseline was 75 years old and 318 (37%) died during 10 years of follow-up. Mobility disability was almost 2-fold more common than parkinsonism. Some participants developed mobility disability alone (42%), or parkinsonism alone (5%), while many developed both (41%). Individuals with mobility disability or parkinsonism alone had an increased risk of death, but their risk was less than the risk in individuals with both impairments. The risk of death did not depend on the order in which impairments occurred. CONCLUSION: The varied patterns of transitions from no motor impairment to motor impairment highlights the heterogeneity of late-life motor impairment and its contribution to survival. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying biology of these different transitions and how they might impact survival.

17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The goal was to investigate effects of APOE-TOMM40-'523 haplotypes on cognitive decline in non-demented non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), and determine whether effects differ from non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). METHODS: The impact of zero to two copies of the '523-Short variant (S; poly-T alleles < 20) within apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on a composite measure of global cognition and five domains was examined. RESULTS: In NHB with ε3/ε3 (N = 294), '523-S/S was associated with faster decline in global cognition (ß = -0.048, P = 0.017), episodic memory (ß = -0.05, P = 0.031), and visuospatial ability (ß = -0.037, P = 0.034) relative to those without '523-S. For NHB ε4+ (N = 182), '523-S/S had slower decline in global cognition (ß = 0.047, P = 0.042) and visuospatial ability (ß = 0.07, P = 0.0005) relative to '523-S non-carriers. NHB ε4+ with '523-S also had a slower rate of decline than NHWs ε4+ with '523-S. DISCUSSION: '523-S/S has a different effect on cognitive decline among NHB dependent on APOE allele. Differences in the effect of ε4-'523-S in NHB may explain prior mixed findings on ε4 and decline in this population.

18.
Brain Pathol ; : e12939, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624322

RESUMO

Limbic-predominant age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) and microvascular pathologies, including microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and arteriolosclerosis are common in old age. A relationship between LATE-NC and arteriolosclerosis has been reported in some but not all studies. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of co-occurring LATE-NC and microvascular pathologies and test the hypothesis that arteriolosclerosis, specifically, is related to LATE-NC in brains from community-dwelling older persons. Analyses included 749 deceased participants with completed data on LATE-NC and microvascular pathology from 3 longitudinal clinical pathologic studies of aging. Given the specific interest in arteriolosclerosis, we expanded the examination of arteriolosclerosis to include not only the basal ganglia but also two additional white matter regions from anterior and posterior watershed territories. Ordinal logistic regression models examined the association of microvascular pathology with LATE-NC. LATE-NC was present in 409 (54.6%) decedents, of which 354 (86.5%) had one or multiple microvascular pathologies including 132 (32.3%) with moderate-severe arteriolosclerosis in basal ganglia, 195 (47.6%) in anterior watershed, and 144 (35.2%) in posterior watershed; 170 (41.5%) with moderate-severe CAA, and 150 (36.6%) with microinfarcts. In logistic regression models, only posterior watershed arteriolosclerosis, but not other regions of arteriolosclerosis was associated with a higher odds of more advanced LATE-NC stages (Odds Ratio = 1.12; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.01-1.25) after controlling for demographics, AD, and other age-related pathologies. Capillary CAA, but not the severity of CAA was associated with an increased odds of LATE-NC burden (Odds Ratio = 1.71; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13-2.58). Findings were unchanged in analyses controlling for APOE ε4, vascular risk factors, or vascular diseases. These findings suggest that LATE-NC with microvascular pathology is a very common mixed pathology and small vessel disease pathology may contribute to LATE-NC in the aging brain.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 139, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627625

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has suggested that the molecular transcriptional mechanism contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its endophenotypes of cognitive decline and neuropathological traits, ß-amyloid (Aß) and phosphorylated tangles (TAU). However, it is unknown what is the impact of the AD risk factors, personality characteristics assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, on the human brain's transcriptome. Using postmortem human brain samples from 466 subjects, we found that neuroticism has a significant overall impact on the brain transcriptome (omnibus P = 0.005) but not the other four personality characteristics. Focused on those cognitive decline related gene co-expressed modules, neuroticism has nominally significant associations (P < 0.05) with four neuronal modules, which are more related to PHFtau than Aß across all eight brain regions. Furthermore, the effect of neuroticism on cognitive decline and AD might be mediated through the expression of module 7 and TAU pathology (P = 0.008). To conclude, neuroticism has a broad impact on the transcriptome of human brains, and its effect on cognitive decline and AD may be mediated through gene transcription programs related to TAU pathology.

20.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that sarcopenia and its constituent components, reduced lean muscle mass and impaired motor function, are associated with reduced survival and increased risk of incident disabilities. METHODS: 1466 community-dwelling older adults underwent assessment of muscle mass with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), grip strength, gait speed and other components of physical frailty and annual self-report assessments of disability. We used Cox proportional hazards models that controlled for age, sex, race, education and height to examine the associations of a continuous sarcopenia metric with the hazard of death and incident disabilities. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was about 80 years old and follow-up was 5.5 years. In a proportional hazards model controlling for age, sex, race, education and baseline sarcopenia, each 1-SD higher score on a continuous sarcopenia scale was associated with lower hazards of death (HR 0.70, 95%CI [0.62, 0.78]), incident IADL (HR 0.80,95%CI [0.70, 0.93]), incident ADL disability (HR 0.80 95%CI [71, 91]) and incident mobility disability (HR 0.81, 95%CI [0.70, 0.93]). Further analyses suggest that grip strength and gait speed rather than muscle mass drive the associations with all four adverse health outcomes. Similar findings were observed when controlling for additional measures used to assess physical frailty including BMI, fatigue and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Motor function is the primary driver of the associations of sarcopenia and physical frailty with diverse adverse health outcomes. Further work is needed to identify other facets of muscle structure and motor function which together can identify adults at risk for specific adverse health outcomes.

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