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1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(4)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closing loops to complete diagnostic referrals remains a significant patient safety problem in most health systems, with 65%-73% failure rates and significant delays common despite years of improvement efforts, suggesting new approaches may be useful. Systems engineering (SE) methods increasingly are advocated in healthcare for their value in studying and redesigning complex processes. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a formative SE analysis of process logic, variation, reliability and failures for completing diagnostic referrals originating in two primary care practices serving different demographics, using dermatology as an illustrating use case. METHODS: An interdisciplinary team of clinicians, systems engineers, quality improvement specialists, and patient representatives collaborated to understand processes of initiating and completing diagnostic referrals. Cross-functional process maps were developed through iterative group interviews with an urban community-based health centre and a teaching practice within a large academic medical centre. Results were used to conduct an engineering process analysis, assess variation within and between practices, and identify common failure modes and potential solutions. RESULTS: Processes to complete diagnostic referrals involve many sub-standard design constructs, with significant workflow variation between and within practices, statistical instability and special cause variation in completion rates and timeliness, and only 21% of all process activities estimated as value-add. Failure modes were similar between the two practices, with most process activities relying on low-reliability concepts (eg, reminders, workarounds, education and verification/inspection). Several opportunities were identified to incorporate higher reliability process constructs (eg, simplification, consolidation, standardisation, forcing functions, automation and opt-outs). CONCLUSION: From a systems science perspective, diagnostic referral processes perform poorly in part because their fundamental designs are fraught with low-reliability characteristics and mental models, including formalised workaround and rework activities, suggesting a need for different approaches versus incremental improvement of existing processes. SE perspectives and methods offer new ways of thinking about patient safety problems, failures and potential solutions.

2.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies demonstrate how patient roles in system redesign teams reflect a continuum of involvement and influence. This research shows the process by which patients move through this continuum and effectively engage within redesign projects. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors studied members of redesign teams, consisting of 5-10 members: clinicians, systems engineers, health system staff and patient(s), from three health systems working on separate projects in a patient safety learning lab. Weekly team meetings were observed, January 2016-April 2018, 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted and findings through a patient focus group were refined. Grounded theory was used to analyze field notes and transcripts. FINDINGS: Results show how the social identity process enables patients to move through stages in a patient engagement continuum (informant, partner and active change agent). Initially, patient and team member perceptions of the patient's role influence their respective behaviors (activating, directing, framing and sharing). Subsequently, patient and team member behaviors influence patient contributions on the team, which can redefine patient and team member perceptions of the patient's role. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: As health systems grow increasingly complex and become more interested in responding to patient expectations, understanding how to effectively engage patients on redesign teams gains importance. This research investigates how and why patient engagement on redesign teams changes over time and what makes different types of patient roles valuable for team objectives. Findings have implications for how redesign teams can better prepare, anticipate and support the changing role of engaged patients.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Identificação Social , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
3.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(4): 293-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319924

RESUMO

COVID-19 necessitated significant care redesign, including new ambulatory workflows to handle surge volumes, protect patients and staff, and ensure timely reliable care. Opportunities also exist to harvest lessons from workflow innovations to benefit routine care. We describe a dedicated COVID-19 ambulatory unit for closing testing and follow-up loops characterized by standardized workflows and electronic communication, documentation, and order placement. More than 85% of follow-ups were completed within 24 hours, with no observed staff, nor patient infections associated with unit operations. Identified issues include role confusion, staffing and gatekeeping bottlenecks, and patient reluctance to visit in person or discuss concerns with phone screeners.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sistemas , Fluxo de Trabalho
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24292, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant uncertainty has existed about the safety of reopening college and university campuses before the COVID-19 pandemic is better controlled. Moreover, little is known about the effects that on-campus students may have on local higher-risk communities. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the range of potential community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality under various university reopening plans and uncertainties. METHODS: We developed campus-only, community-only, and campus × community epidemic differential equations and agent-based models, with inputs estimated via published and grey literature, expert opinion, and parameter search algorithms. Campus opening plans (spanning fully open, hybrid, and fully virtual approaches) were identified from websites and publications. Additional student and community exposures, infections, and mortality over 16-week semesters were estimated under each scenario, with 10% trimmed medians, standard deviations, and probability intervals computed to omit extreme outliers. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to inform potential effective interventions. RESULTS: Predicted 16-week campus and additional community exposures, infections, and mortality for the base case with no precautions (or negligible compliance) varied significantly from their medians (4- to 10-fold). Over 5% of on-campus students were infected after a mean of 76 (SD 17) days, with the greatest increase (first inflection point) occurring on average on day 84 (SD 10.2 days) of the semester and with total additional community exposures, infections, and mortality ranging from 1-187, 13-820, and 1-21 per 10,000 residents, respectively. Reopening precautions reduced infections by 24%-26% and mortality by 36%-50% in both populations. Beyond campus and community reproductive numbers, sensitivity analysis indicated no dominant factors that interventions could primarily target to reduce the magnitude and variability in outcomes, suggesting the importance of comprehensive public health measures and surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality resulting from reopening campuses are highly unpredictable regardless of precautions. Public health implications include the need for effective surveillance and flexible campus operations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Universidades/organização & administração , COVID-19/mortalidade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco , Incerteza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(1): 355-366, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098350

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify significant patient and system access barriers and facilitators to dermatology care in one rural health system with limited dermatology appointment availability. DESIGN: Mixed methods study using data from electronic medical records, patient surveys, stakeholder semi-structured interviews, and service area dermatologist demographics. Retrospective data were collected between 1 January 2017-1 March 2018, and interviews and surveys were conducted between June 1-August 31, 2018. Participants were recruited from two primary care practices in one rural Maine regional health system. METHODS: Findings from thematic analyses, descriptive statistics, and statistical modelling were integrated using Chi-square tests for homogeneity to develop a unified understanding. Statistical modelling using odd-ratio logistic and linear regression were performed for each outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Urgent referrals by primary care increased the likelihood of dermatology care overall (OR: 6.771; p = .007) and at nearby sites with limited availability (OR: 4.024; p = .024), but not at geographically further sites with higher capacities (p = .844). Referral under-diagnosis occurred in 20.8% of those biopsied. Older (p = .041) or non-working (p = .021) patients were more likely to remain unevaluated than seek more available but geographically further care. CONCLUSIONS: In rural areas with scarce appointment availability, primary care provider diagnostic accuracy may be an important barrier of dermatology care receipt and health outcomes, especially among at-risk populations. IMPACT: Although melanoma mortality rates are decreasing throughout the US, little is known about why rates in Maine continue to rise. This study applied a comprehensive approach to identify several patient and system access barriers to dermatology care in one underserved rural regional health system. While specific to this population and large service area, these findings will inform improvement efforts here and support broader future research efforts aimed at understanding and improving health outcomes in this rural state.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Appl Ergon ; 90: 103242, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861088

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant infections cause over 20 thousand deaths and $20 billion annually in the United States. Antibiotic prescribing decision making can be described as a "tragedy of the commons" behavioral economics problem, for which individual best interests affecting human decision-making lead to suboptimal societal antibiotic overuse. In 2015, the U.S. federal government announced a $1.2 billion National Action Plan to combat resistance and reduce antibiotic use by 20% in inpatient settings and 50% in outpatient settings by 2020. We develop and apply a behavioral economics model based on game theory and "tragedy of the commons" concepts to help illustrate why rational individuals may not practice ideal stewardship and how to potentially structure three specific alternate approaches to accomplish these objectives (collective cooperative management, usage taxes, resistance penalties), based on Ostrom's economic governance principles. Importantly, while each approach can effectively incentivize ideal stewardship, the latter two do so with 10-30% lower utility to all providers. Encouraging local or state-level self-managed cooperative stewardship programs thus is preferred to national taxes and penalties, in contrast with current trends and with similar implications in other countries.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Motivação , Estados Unidos
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025889, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201236

RESUMO

Importance: Falls represent a leading cause of preventable injury in hospitals and a frequently reported serious adverse event. Hospitalization is associated with an increased risk for falls and serious injuries including hip fractures, subdural hematomas, or even death. Multifactorial strategies have been shown to reduce falls in acute care hospitals, but evidence for fall-related injury prevention in hospitals is lacking. Objective: To assess whether a fall-prevention tool kit that engages patients and families in the fall-prevention process throughout hospitalization is associated with reduced falls and injurious falls. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized controlled trial using stepped wedge design was conducted between November 1, 2015, and October 31, 2018, in 14 medical units within 3 academic medical centers in Boston and New York City. All adult inpatients hospitalized in participating units were included in the analysis. Interventions: A nurse-led fall-prevention tool kit linking evidence-based preventive interventions to patient-specific fall risk factors and designed to integrate continuous patient and family engagement in the fall-prevention process. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of patient falls per 1000 patient-days in targeted units during the study period. The secondary outcome was the rate of falls with injury per 1000 patient-days. Results: During the interrupted time series, 37 231 patients were evaluated, including 17 948 before the intervention (mean [SD] age, 60.56 [18.30] years; 9723 [54.17%] women) and 19 283 after the intervention (mean [SD] age, 60.92 [18.10] years; 10 325 [53.54%] women). There was an overall adjusted 15% reduction in falls after implementation of the fall-prevention tool kit compared with before implementation (2.92 vs 2.49 falls per 1000 patient-days [95% CI, 2.06-3.00 falls per 1000 patient-days]; adjusted rate ratio 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.96; P = .01) and an adjusted 34% reduction in injurious falls (0.73 vs 0.48 injurious falls per 1000 patient-days [95% CI, 0.34-0.70 injurious falls per 1000 patient-days]; adjusted rate ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.88; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nonrandomized controlled trial, implementation of a fall-prevention tool kit was associated with a significant reduction in falls and related injuries. A patient-care team partnership appears to be beneficial for prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02969343.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Hospitalização , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Segurança do Paciente
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 894, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) cause significant patient suffering. Surveillance and feedback of SSI rates is an evidence-based strategy to reduce SSIs, but traditional surveillance methods are slow and prone to bias. The objective of this cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if using optimized statistical process control (SPC) charts for SSI surveillance and feedback lead to a reduction in SSI rates compared to traditional surveillance. METHODS: The Early 2RIS Trial is a prospective, multicenter cluster RCT using a stepped wedge design. The trial will be performed in 29 hospitals in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network (DICON) and 105 clusters over 4 years, from March 2016 through February 2020; year one represents a baseline period; thereafter, 8-9 clusters will be randomized to intervention every 3 months over a 3-year period using a stepped wedge randomization design. All patients who undergo one of 13 targeted procedures at study hospitals will be included in the analysis; these procedures will be included in one of six clusters: cardiac, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, OB-GYN, vascular, and spinal. All clusters will undergo traditional surveillance for SSIs; once randomized to intervention, clusters will also undergo surveillance and feedback using optimized SPC charts. Feedback on surveillance data will be provided to all clusters, regardless of allocation or type of surveillance. The primary endpoint is the difference in rates of SSI between the SPC intervention compared to traditional surveillance and feedback alone. DISCUSSION: The traditional approach for SSI surveillance and feedback has several major deficiencies because SSIs are rare events. First, traditional statistical methods require aggregation of measurements over time, which delays analysis until enough data accumulate. Second, traditional statistical tests and resulting p values are difficult to interpret. Third, analyses based on average SSI rates during predefined time periods have limited ability to rapidly identify important, real-time trends. Thus, standard analytic methods that compare average SSI rates between arbitrarily designated time intervals may not identify an important SSI rate increase on time unless the "signal" is very strong. Therefore, novel strategies for early identification and investigation of SSI rate increases are needed to decrease SSI rates. While SPC charts are used throughout industry and healthcare to improve and optimize processes, including other types of healthcare-associated infections, they have not been evaluated as a tool for SSI surveillance and feedback in a randomized trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03075813 , Registered March 9, 2017.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Medição de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
9.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant uncertainty exists in many countries about the safety of, and best strategies for, reopening college and university campuses until the Covid-19 pandemic is better controlled. Little also is known about the effects on-campus students may have on local higher-risk communities. We aimed to estimate potential community and campus Covid-19 exposures, infections, and mortality due to various university reopening and precaution plans under current ranges of assumptions and uncertainties. METHODS: We developed and calibrated campus-only, community-only, and campus-x-community epidemic differential equation and agent-based models. Input parameters for campus and surrounding communities were estimated via published and grey literature, scenario development, expert opinion, accuracy optimization algorithms, and Monte Carlo simulation; models were cross-validated against each other using February-June 2020 data from heterogeneous U.S. counties and states. Campus opening plans (spanning various fully open, hybrid, and fully virtual approaches) were identified from websites and publications. All scenarios were simulated assuming 16-week semesters and estimated ranges for Covid-19 prevalence among community residents and arriving students, precaution compliance, contact frequency, virus attack rates, and tracing and isolation effectiveness. Additional student and community exposures, infections, and mortality were estimated under each scenario, with 10% trimmed medians, standard deviations, and probability intervals computed to omit extreme outlier scenarios. Factorial analyses were conducted to identify intervention inputs with largest and smallest effects. RESULTS: As a base case with no precautions (or no compliance), predicted 16-week student infections and mortality under normal operations ranged significantly from 471 to 9,495 (median: 2,286, SD: 2,627) and 0 to 123 (median: 9, SD: 14) per 10,000 students, respectively. The maximum active exposures across a semester was 15.76% of all students warranting tracing. Total additional community exposures, infections, and mortality ranged from 1 to 187, 13 to 820, and 1 to 21 per 10,000 residents, respectively. 1% and 5% of on-campus students were infected after a mean (SD) of 11 (3) and 76 (17) days, respectively; >10% students infected by the end of a semester in 34.8% of scenarios, with the greatest increase (first inflection point) occurring on aver-age on day 84 (SD: 10.2 days). Common reopening precautions reduced infections by 24% to 26% and mortality by 36% to 50% in both populations. Uncertainties in many factors, however, produced tremendous variability in all results, ranging from medians by -67% to +342%. CONCLUSIONS: Consequences on community and student Covid-19 exposures, infections, and mortality of reopening physical campuses are very highly unpredictable, depending on a combination of random chance, controllable (e.g. physical layouts), and uncontrollable (e.g. human behavior) factors. Implications include needs for criteria to adapt campus operations mid-semester, methods to detect when necessary, and contingency plans for doing so.

11.
Appl Ergon ; 85: 103047, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174343

RESUMO

For health information technology to realize its potential to improve flow, care, and patient safety, applications should be intuitive to use and burden neutral for frontline clinicians. We assessed the impact of a patient safety dashboard on clinician cognitive and work load within a simulated information-seeking task for safe inpatient opioid medication management. Compared to use of an electronic health record for the same task, the dashboard was associated with significantly reduced time on task, mouse clicks, and mouse movement (each p < 0.001), with no significant increases in cognitive load nor task inaccuracy. Cognitive burden was higher for users with less experience, possibly partly attributable to usability issues identified during this study. Findings underscore the importance of assessing the usability, cognitive, and work load analysis during the design and implementation of health information technology applications.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Interface Usuário-Computador , Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
Appl Clin Inform ; 11(1): 34-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventable adverse events continue to be a threat to hospitalized patients. Clinical decision support in the form of dashboards may improve compliance with evidence-based safety practices. However, limited research describes providers' experiences with dashboards integrated into vendor electronic health record (EHR) systems. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to describe providers' use and perceived usability of the Patient Safety Dashboard and discuss barriers and facilitators to implementation. METHODS: The Patient Safety Dashboard was implemented in a cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial on 12 units in neurology, oncology, and general medicine services over an 18-month period. Use of the Dashboard was tracked during the implementation period and analyzed in-depth for two 1-week periods to gather a detailed representation of use. Providers' perceptions of tool usability were measured using the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (rated 1-5). Research assistants conducted field observations throughout the duration of the study to describe use and provide insight into tool adoption. RESULTS: The Dashboard was used 70% of days the tool was available, with use varying by role, service, and time of day. On general medicine units, nurses logged in throughout the day, with many logins occurring during morning rounds, when not rounding with the care team. Prescribers logged in typically before and after morning rounds. On neurology units, physician assistants accounted for most logins, accessing the Dashboard during daily brief interdisciplinary rounding sessions. Use on oncology units was rare. Satisfaction with the tool was highest for perceived ease of use, with attendings giving the highest rating (4.23). The overall lowest rating was for quality of work life, with nurses rating the tool lowest (2.88). CONCLUSION: This mixed methods analysis provides insight into the use and usability of a dashboard tool integrated within a vendor EHR and can guide future improvements and more successful implementation of these types of tools.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Pesquisa
13.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(6): 472-481, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common costly hospital-acquired conditions. While statistical process control (SPC) use in healthcare has increased, limited rigorous empirical research compares and optimises these methods for SSI surveillance. We sought to determine which SPC chart types and design parameters maximise the detection of clinically relevant SSI rate increases while minimising false alarms. DESIGN: Systematic retrospective data analysis and empirical optimisation. METHODS: We analysed 12 years of data on 13 surgical procedures from a network of 58 community hospitals. Statistically significant SSI rate increases (signals) at individual hospitals initially were identified using 50 different SPC chart variations (Shewhart or exponentially weighted moving average, 5 baseline periods, 5 baseline types). Blinded epidemiologists evaluated the clinical significance of 2709 representative signals of potential outbreaks (out of 5536 generated), rating them as requiring 'action' or 'no action'. These ratings were used to identify which SPC approaches maximised sensitivity and specificity within a broader set of 3600 individual chart variations (additional baseline variations and chart types, including moving average (MA), and five control limit widths) and over 32 million dual-chart combinations based on different baseline periods, reference data (network-wide vs local hospital SSI rates), control limit widths and other calculation considerations. Results were validated with an additional year of data from the same hospital cohort. RESULTS: The optimal SPC approach to detect clinically important SSI rate increases used two simultaneous MA charts calculated using lagged rolling baseline windows and 1 SD limits. The first chart used 12-month MAs with 18-month baselines and best identified small sustained increases above network-wide SSI rates. The second chart used 6-month MAs with 3-month baselines and best detected large short-term increases above individual hospital SSI rates. This combination outperformed more commonly used charts, with high sensitivity (0.90; positive predictive value=0.56) and practical specificity (0.67; negative predictive value=0.94). CONCLUSIONS: An optimised combination of two MA charts had the best performance for identifying clinically relevant small but sustained above-network SSI rates and large short-term individual hospital increases.


Assuntos
Auditoria Clínica/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Patient Saf ; 16(2): e75-e81, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to evaluate the amount and content of data patients and care partners reported using a real-time electronic safety tool compared with other reporting mechanisms and to understand their perspectives on safety concerns and reporting in the hospital. METHODS: This study used mixed methods including 20-month preimplementation and postimplementation trial evaluating MySafeCare, a web-based application, which allows hospitalized patients/care partners to report safety concerns in real time. The study compared MySafeCare submission rates for three hospital units (oncology acute care, vascular intermediate care, medical intensive care) with submissions rates of Patient Family Relations (PFR) Department, a hospital service to address patient/family concerns. The study used triangulation of quantitative data with thematic analysis of safety concern submissions and patient/care partner interviews to understand submission content and perspectives on safety reporting. RESULTS: Thirty-two MySafeCare submissions were received with an average rate of 1.7 submissions per 1000 patient-days and a range of 0.3 to 4.8 submissions per 1000 patient-days across all units, indicating notable variation between units. MySafeCare submission rates were significantly higher than PFR submission rates during the postintervention period on the vascular unit (4.3 [95% confidence interval = 2.8-6.5] versus 1.5 [95% confidence interval = 0.7-3.1], Poisson) (P = 0.01). Overall trends indicated a decrease in PFR submissions after MySafeCare implementation. Triangulated data indicated patients preferred to report anonymously and did not want concerns submitted directly to their care team. CONCLUSIONS: MySafeCare evaluation confirmed the potential value of providing an electronic, anonymous reporting tool in the hospital to capture safety concerns in real time. Such applications should be tested further as part of patient safety programs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/normas , Hospitalização/tendências , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(3): 306-312, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of Clostridoides difficile infection (CDI) has increased in recent years, partly due to broadening adoption of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) replacing enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods. Our aim was to quantify the impact of this switch on reported CDI rates using a large, multihospital, empirical dataset. METHODS: We analyzed 9 years of retrospective CDI data (2009-2017) from 47 hospitals in the southeastern United States; 37 hospitals switched to NAAT during this period, including 24 with sufficient pre- and post-switch data for statistical analyses. Poisson regression was used to quantify the NAAT-over-EIA incidence rate ratio (IRR) at hospital and network levels while controlling for longitudinal trends, the proportion of intensive care unit patient days, changes in surveillance methodology, and previously detected infection cluster periods. We additionally used change-point detection methods to identify shifts in the mean and/or slope of hospital-level CDI rates, and we compared results to recorded switch dates. RESULTS: For hospitals that transitioned to NAAT, average unadjusted CDI rates increased substantially after the test switch from 10.9 to 23.9 per 10,000 patient days. Individual hospital IRRs ranged from 0.75 to 5.47, with a network-wide IRR of 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.62-1.89). Reported CDI rates significantly changed 1.6 months on average after switching to NAAT testing (standard deviation, 1.9 months). CONCLUSION: Hospitals that switched from EIA to NAAT testing experienced an average postswitch increase of 75% in reported CDI rates after adjusting for other factors, and this increase was often gradual or delayed.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(2): 301-307, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to share challenges, recommendations, and lessons learned regarding the development and implementation of a Patient Safety Learning Laboratory (PSLL) project, an innovative and complex intervention comprised of a suite of Health Information Technology (HIT) tools integrated with a newly implemented Electronic Health Record (EHR) vendor system in the acute care setting at a large academic center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PSLL Administrative Core engaged stakeholders and study personnel throughout all phases of the project: problem analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Implementation challenges and recommendations were derived from direct observations and the collective experience of PSLL study personnel. RESULTS: The PSLL intervention was implemented on 12 inpatient units during the 18-month study period, potentially impacting 12,628 patient admissions. Challenges to implementation included stakeholder engagement, project scope/complexity, technology/governance, and team structure. Recommendations to address each of these challenges were generated, some enacted during the trial, others as lessons learned for future iterative refinements of the intervention and its implementation. CONCLUSION: Designing, implementing, and evaluating a suite of tools integrated within a vendor EHR to improve patient safety has a variety of challenges. Keys to success include continuous stakeholder engagement, involvement of systems and human factors engineers within a multidisciplinary team, an iterative approach to user-centered design, and a willingness to think outside of current workflows and processes to change health system culture around adverse event prevention.


Assuntos
Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Segurança do Paciente , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Humanos , Informática Médica , Portais do Paciente , Integração de Sistemas
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 974, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to healthcare is a poorly defined construct, with insufficient understanding of differences in facilitators and barriers between US urban versus rural specialty care. We summarize recent literature and expand upon a prior conceptual access framework, adapted here specifically to urban and rural specialty care. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of literature within the CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, PsycInfo, and ProQuest Social Sciences databases published between January 2013 and August 2018. Search terms targeted peer-reviewed academic publications pertinent to access to US urban or rural specialty healthcare. Exclusion criteria produced 67 articles. Findings were organized into an existing ten-dimension care access conceptual framework where possible, with additional topics grouped thematically into supplemental dimensions. RESULTS: Despite geographic and demographic differences, many access facilitators and barriers were common to both populations; only three dimensions did not contain literature addressing both urban and rural populations. The most commonly represented dimensions were availability and accommodation, appropriateness, and ability to perceive. Four new identified dimensions were: government and insurance policy, health organization and operations influence, stigma, and primary care and specialist influence. CONCLUSIONS: While findings generally align with a preexisting framework, they also suggest several additional themes important to urban versus rural specialty care access.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 26(6): 553-560, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903660

RESUMO

We established a Patient Safety Learning Laboratory comprising 2 core and 3 individual project teams to introduce a suite of digital health tools integrated with our electronic health record to identify, assess, and mitigate threats to patient safety in real time. One of the core teams employed systems engineering (SE) and human factors (HF) methods to analyze problems, design and develop improvements to intervention components, support implementation, and evaluate the system of systems as an integrated whole. Of the 29 participants, 19 and 16 participated in surveys and focus groups, respectively, about their perception of SE and HF. We identified 7 themes regarding use of the 12 SE and HF methods over the 4-year project. Qualitative methods (interviews, focus, groups, observations, usability testing) were most frequently used, typically by individual project teams, and generated the most insight. Quantitative methods (failure mode and effects analysis, simulation modeling) typically were used by the SE and HF core team but generated variable insight. A decentralized project structure led to challenges using these SE and HF methods at the project and systems level. We offer recommendations and insights for using SE and HF to support digital health patient safety initiatives.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Ergonomia , Segurança do Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Informática Médica/educação , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal
20.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(3): 282-288, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure diagnostic imaging safety events reported to an electronic safety reporting system and assess steps at which they occurred within the diagnostic imaging workflow and contributing sociotechnical factors. METHODS: The authors evaluated all electronic safety reporting system reports related to diagnostic imaging during calendar year 2015 at an academic medical center with 50,000 admissions, 950,000 ambulatory visits, and 680,000 diagnostic imaging studies annually. Each report was assigned a harm score ranging from 0 to 4 by the reporter; scores of 2 (minor harm) to 4 (death) were classified as "potential harm." Two reviewers manually classified reports into steps involved in the diagnostic imaging chain and sociotechnical factors per the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety framework. The κ coefficient was used to measure interreviewer agreement on 10% of reports. The percentage of reports that could cause "potential harm" was compared for each step and sociotechnical factor using χ2 analysis. RESULTS: Of 11,570 safety reports submitted in 2015, 854 (7%) were related to diagnostic imaging. Although the most common step was imaging procedure (54% of reports), potential harm occurred more in result communication (odds ratio, 2.36; P = .05). Person factors most commonly contributed to safety reports (71%). Potential harm occurred more in safety reports that were related to tasks compared with person factors (odds ratio, 5.03; P < .0001). The κ coefficient was 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: Safety events were related to diagnostic imaging in 7% of reported events. Potential harm occurred primarily during imaging procedure and result communication. Safety events were attributed to multifactorial sociotechnical factors. Further work is necessary to decrease safety events related to diagnostic imaging.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Erros Médicos/classificação , Segurança do Paciente , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluxo de Trabalho
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