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1.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are well positioned to support patients' minor ailments. The objective was to evaluate the clinical and humanistic impact of a minor ailment service (MAS) in community pharmacy compared with usual pharmacist care (UC). METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. Intervention patients received MAS, which included a consultation with the pharmacist. MAS pharmacists were trained in clinical pathways and communication systems mutually agreed with general practitioners and received monthly support. Control patients received UC. All patients were followed up by telephone at 14 days. Clinical and humanistic impact were defined by primary (appropriate referral rate and appropriate non-prescription medicine rate) and secondary outcomes (clinical product-based intervention rate, referral adherence, symptom resolution, reconsultation and EuroQol EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS)). RESULTS: Patients (n=894) were recruited from 30 pharmacies and 82% (n=732) responded to follow-up. Patients receiving MAS were 1.5 times more likely to receive an appropriate referral (relative rate (RR)=1.51; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.11; p=0.018) and were five times more likely to adhere to referral, compared with UC (RR=5.08; 95%CI 2.02 to 12.79; p=0.001). MAS patients (94%) achieved symptom resolution or relief at follow-up, while this was 88% with UC (RR=1.06; 95% CI 1 to 1.13; p=0.035). MAS pharmacists were 1.2 times more likely to recommend an appropriate medicine (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3; p=0.000) and were 2.6 times more likely to perform a clinical product-based intervention (RR=2.62, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.38; p=0.009), compared with UC. MAS patients had a greater mean difference in VAS at follow-up (4.08; 95% CI 1.23 to 6.87; p=0.004). No difference in reconsultation was observed (RR=0.98; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.28; p=0.89). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates improved clinical and humanistic outcomes with MAS. National implementation is a means to manage minor ailments more effectively in the Australian health system. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618000286246.

2.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation science emerged to address the challenges associated with the incorporation of evidence-based innovations into practice. Once the challenge is overcome, the ultimate goal is to achieve the sustainability of innovations to promote their continuity and long-term integration. Conceptual approaches and assessment tools have been designed to assess the sustainability of innovations in research and practice environments. However, the variability of approaches and tools available becomes a challenge for policymakers, researchers and practitioners, particularly when deciding how to evaluate the sustainability of innovations. OBJECTIVES: To identify conceptual approaches and assessment tools for the sustainability of healthcare innovations and to develop a specific discipline-based framework for the sustainability of professional pharmacy services. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in January of 2019 using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. General information regarding the conceptual approaches (based on Nilsen's classification), assessment tools and the factors affecting the sustainability of the healthcare innovations was retrieved. RESULTS: From 3123 articles screened, 132 articles were selected from which 106 conceptual approaches and 26 assessment tools were identified. Several key factors moderating the sustainability of the innovations in healthcare were identified (e.g. funding, adaptation). A framework for the sustainability of professional pharmacy services is proposed based on these factors. It presents three performance domains influencing the service sustainability (i.e. environment, social and economic). CONCLUSIONS: The identified approaches in different healthcare settings have allowed the adaptation and design of a specific framework for pharmacy. The core factors included in the proposed framework are moderators of the sustainability process and should be considered in sustainability studies and evaluations. This framework will guide pharmacy practice researchers and practitioners to measure and achieve the sustainability of professional pharmacy services. Furthermore, the adaptation of this framework will allow its application to other healthcare settings. (Registration number CRD42018092160).

3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(2): 123-141, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130436

RESUMO

Many community pharmacists ideologically support recent changes to their roles in primary healthcare. However, their antithetical resistance towards practice change could have systemic causes (i.e. role stresses), which may account for increased job dissatisfaction, burnout, and job turnover in the profession. Deeper comprehension was sought using a role theory framework. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors leading to role stresses and strain responses for community pharmacists, and to create a framework for community pharmacist role management. METHOD: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched for qualitative studies identifying community pharmacist role stress and strain using scoping review methodology from 1990 to 2019. Content and thematic analysis using the framework method was performed, and themes were reported using thematic synthesis. RESULTS: Screening of 10,880 records resulted in 33 studies identified, with 41 factors categorised into four domains: Interpersonal Interactions, Social Setting, Individual Attributes, and Extra-Role. All role stresses were present. Reported role strains suggest role system imbalance. CONCLUSION: Community pharmacists are in a multifactorial transitional environment. Reported role stresses may be a function of past pharmacist roles and increased role expectations, amplified by many requisite interactions and individual pharmacist characteristics. Social science theories were found to be applicable to the community pharmacy setting.

4.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 11(4): 21-31, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-4050

RESUMO

Introducción: la colaboración entre médicos y farmacéuticos es necesaria en el manejo de los síntomas menores, ya que el paciente acude a ambos profesionales sanitarios para su tratamiento. El objetivo del estudio fue elaborar protocolos de trabajo consensuados entre farmacéuticos comunitarios y médicos de atención primaria para el Servicio de Indicación Farmacéutica (SIF). Material y método: se utilizaron dos metodologías: revisión bibliográfica y grupo de expertos para el consenso. Estos protocolos se actualizaron y diseñaron a partir de un documento previo de 2008. En el grupo de expertos se incluyeron cuatro farmacéuticos comunitarios de SEFAC (2), MICOF (2) y cuatro médicos de atención primaria de semFYC (2) y SEMERGEN (2). Resultados: se consensuaron protocolos de trabajo para 31 síntomas menores distribuidos en cinco grupos: respiratorios, dolor moderado, digestivos, dermatológicos y otros. Se añadieron cinco síntomas nuevos al documento de partida. Respecto a la estructura de cada síntoma se consideró: concepto, causas más frecuentes, criterios de derivación al médico (edad, síntomas de alarma, duración de los síntomas, otros problemas de salud y/o medicamentos y situaciones especiales), recomendaciones para la prevención y tratamiento (no farmacológico y farmacológico). Conclusión: el documento desarrollado mediante colaboración entre profesionales de la medicina y la farmacia es una herramienta que contribuye a la mejora de la actuación del farmacéutico en el manejo de los síntomas menores desde la farmacia comunitaria, con énfasis en la definición de indicadores que señalan la necesidad de derivar el paciente al médico de atención primaria


Background: To increase the collaboration between community pharmacists and medical practitioners working in primary care it is critical to have collaborative protocols in place. Minor ailments could be a good example where this collaboration would benefit patient care as patients are seeking treatment in both settings. These collaborative protocols would assist in diminishing the variability of treatments in both settings. The aim of the study was to develop care protocols for minor ailments agreed between medical practitioners and pharmacists Methods: Two different methodologies were used to arrive at a consensus for the proto-cols: literature review and expert group. Some of the clinical protocols were updated from a previous document created in 2008. Expert group was composed of four community pharma-cists (SEFAC, MICOF) and four medical practitioners (SemFyC y Semergen). Results: Thirty-one protocols for minor ailments were agreed and allocated to five groups (five new minor ailments protocols were added: respiratory tract-related conditions, gastrointestinal disturbance, pain, dermatological problems and others.Protocols were structured following: definition, more frequent causes, referral criteria (pa-tient’s age, red flags, symptom’s duration, patient’s health problems and treatments and physiological situations), recommendations for management (prevention, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment) and references used. Conclusions: Clinical protocols agreed between health professionals of medicine and phar-macy are a tool that contribute to better management of minor ailments in community pharmacy

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013627, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711390

RESUMO

Background Pharmacists-led medication reviews (MRs) are claimed to be effective for the control of cardiovascular diseases; however, the evidence in the literature is conflicting. The main objective of this meta-analysis was to analyze the impact of pharmacist-led MRs on cardiovascular disease risk factors overall and in different ambulatory settings while exploring the effects of different components of MRs. Methods and Results Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials database. Randomized and cluster randomized controlled trials of pharmacist-led MRs compared with usual care were included. Settings were community pharmacies and ambulatory clinics. The classification used for MRs was the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe as basic (type 1), intermediate (type 2), and advanced (type 3). Meta-analyses in therapeutic goals used odds ratios to standardize the effect of each study, and for continuous data (eg, systolic blood pressure) raw differences were calculated using baseline and final values, with 95% CIs. Prediction intervals were calculated to account for heterogeneity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of results. Meta-analyses included 69 studies with a total of 11 644 patients. Sample demographic characteristics were similar between studies. MRs increased control of hypertension (odds ratio, 2.73; 95% prediction interval, 1.05-7.08), type 2 diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 3.11; 95% prediction interval, 1.17-5.88), and high cholesterol (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% prediction interval, 1.05-3.46). In ambulatory clinics, MRs produced significant effects in control of diabetes mellitus and cholesterol. For community pharmacies, systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein values decreased significantly. Advanced MRs had larger effects than intermediate MRs in diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia outcomes. Most intervention components had no significant effect on clinical outcomes and were often poorly described. CIs were significant in all analyses but prediction intervals were not in continuous clinical outcomes, with high heterogeneity present. Conclusions Intermediate and advanced MRs provided by pharmacists may improve control of blood pressure, cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as statistically significant prediction intervals were found. However, most continuous clinical outcomes failed to achieve statistical significance, with high heterogeneity present, although positive trends and effect sizes were found. Studies should use a standardized method for MRs to diminish sources of these heterogeneities.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220116, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary health professionals are well positioned to support the delivery of patient self-management in an evidence-based, structured capacity. A need exists to better understand the active components required for effective self-management support, how these might be delivered within primary care, and the training and system changes that would subsequently be needed. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine self-management support interventions in primary care on health outcomes for a wide range of diseases compared to usual standard of care; and (2) To identify the effective strategies that facilitate positive clinical and humanistic outcomes in this setting. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating self-management support interventions was conducted following the Cochrane handbook & PRISMA guidelines. Published literature was systematically searched from inception to June 2019 in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Eligible studies assessed the effectiveness of individualized interventions with follow-up, delivered face-to-face to adult patients with any condition in primary care, compared with usual standard of care. Matrices were developed that mapped the evidence and components for each intervention. The methodological quality of included studies were appraised. RESULTS: 6,510 records were retrieved. 58 studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. Findings reveal a structured patient-provider exchange is required in primary care (including a one-on-one patient-provider consultation, ongoing follow up and provision of self-help materials). Interventions should be tailored to patient needs and may include combinations of strategies to improve a patient's disease or treatment knowledge; independent monitoring of symptoms, encouraging self-treatment through a personalized action plan in response worsening symptoms or exacerbations, psychological coping and stress management strategies, and enhancing responsibility in medication adherence and lifestyle choices. Follow-up may include tailored feedback, monitoring of progress with respect to patient set healthcare goals, or honing problem-solving and decision-making skills. Theoretical models provided a strong base for effective SMS interventions. Positive outcomes for effective SMS included improvements in clinical indicators, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy (confidence to self-manage), disease knowledge or control. An SMS model has been developed which sets the foundation for the design and evaluation of practical strategies for the construct of self-management support interventions in primary healthcare practice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide primary care professionals with evidence-based strategies and structure to deliver SMS in practice. For this collaborative partnership approach to be more widely applied, future research should build on these findings for optimal SMS service design and upskilling healthcare providers to effectively support patients in this collaborative process.

7.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 13: 853-862, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213779

RESUMO

Background: Scarcity of prospective medication non-adherence cost measurements for the Australian population with no directly measured estimates makes determining the burden medication non-adherence places on the Australian health care system difficult. This study aims to indirectly estimate the national cost of medication non-adherence in Australia comparing the cost prior to and following a community pharmacy-led intervention. Methods: Retrospective observational study. A de-identified database of dispensing data from 20,335 patients (n=11,257 on rosuvastatin, n=6,797 on irbesartan and n=2,281 on desvenlafaxine) was analyzed and average adherence rate determined through calculation of PDC. Included patients received a pharmacist-led medication adherence intervention and had twelve months dispensing records; six months before and six months after the intervention. The national cost estimate of medication non-adherence in hypertension, dyslipidemia and depression pre- and post-intervention was determined through utilization of disease prevalence and comorbidity, non-adherence rates and per patient disease-specific adherence-related costs. Results: The total national cost of medication non-adherence across three prevalent conditions, hypertension, dyslipidemia and depression was $10.4 billion equating to $517 per adult. Following enrollment in the pharmacist-led intervention medication non-adherence costs per adult decreased $95 saving the Australian health care system and patients $1.9 billion annually. Conclusion: In the absence of a directly measured national cost of medication non-adherence, this estimate demonstrates that pharmacists are ideally placed to improve patient adherence and reduce financial burden placed on the health care system due to non-adherence. Funding of medication adherence programs should be considered by policy and decision makers to ease the current burden and improve patient health outcomes moving forward.

8.
J Comp Eff Res ; 8(8): 555-567, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116029

RESUMO

Aim: To develop a standardized framework determining the economic impact of medication nonadherence. Materials & methods: Secondary analysis of existing literature reported cost data, aggregating cost outcome indicators. Weighted-average cost analysis performed, determining the proportional contribution to total cost. Results: Direct costs were reported in 92% of studies and indirect costs in 4% of studies. Three most utilized cost categories were hospital (68%), primary care (18%) and pharmacy costs (72%). Average unadjusted direct costs ranged from $625 to $154,203 contributing to 88% of the total cost; adjusted medical costs ranged from $565 to $56,313 representing 96% of the total cost. Conclusion: The medication adherence cost estimation framework enables the comparison of costing studies, facilitating informed health policy decision-making based on consistent evidence and terminology.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863308

RESUMO

Background: Medication non-adherence remains a significant problem for the health care system with clinical, humanistic and economic impact. Dispensing data is a valuable and commonly utilized measure due accessibility in electronic health data. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes on adherence implementation rates before and after a community pharmacist intervention integrated in usual real life practice, incorporating big data analysis techniques to evaluate Proportion of Days Covered (PDC) from pharmacy dispensing data. Methods: Retrospective observational study. A de-identified database of dispensing data from 20,335 patients (n = 11,257 on rosuvastatin, n = 6,797 on irbesartan, and n = 2,281 on desvenlafaxine) was analyzed. Included patients received a pharmacist-led medication adherence intervention and had dispensing records before and after the intervention. As a measure of adherence implementation, PDC was utilized. Analysis of the database was performed using SQL and Python. Results: Three months after the pharmacist intervention there was an increase on average PDC from 50.2% (SD: 30.1) to 66.9% (SD: 29.9) for rosuvastatin, from 50.8% (SD: 30.3) to 68% (SD: 29.3) for irbesartan and from 47.3% (SD: 28.4) to 66.3% (SD: 27.3) for desvenlafaxine. These rates declined over 12 months to 62.1% (SD: 32.0) for rosuvastatin, to 62.4% (SD: 32.5) for irbesartan and to 58.1% (SD: 31.1) for desvenlafaxine. In terms of the proportion of adherent patients (PDC >= 80.0%) the trend was similar, increasing after the pharmacist intervention from overall 17.4 to 41.2% and decreasing after one year of analysis to 35.3%. Conclusion: Big database analysis techniques provided results on adherence implementation over 2 years of analysis. An increase in adherence rates was observed after the pharmacist intervention, followed by a gradual decrease over time. Enhancing the current intervention using an evidence-based approach and integrating big database analysis techniques to a real-time measurement of adherence could help community pharmacies improve and sustain medication adherence.

10.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(2): 391-407, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879217

RESUMO

Background Pharmacists are increasingly being included as members of general practice primary care teams. To date, there have been few published studies describing the competencies of general practice (GP) pharmacists and establishing their subsequent educational needs. Aim of the review The aim of this literature review is to establish the activities of pharmacists in general practice to inform the development of a comprehensive role description and competency map. Method A systematic literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, international pharmaceutical abstracts and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews was conducted from the start of the databases to August 2018. The search focused on studies investigating the roles performed by GP pharmacists. Full text peer-reviewed English language articles were included. A qualitative content analysis of included studies was performed. Two researchers reviewed studies to identify pharmacist roles. Subcategories of roles were then agreed by the research team and used to present the data. GP pharmacist's activities were mapped by two researchers to associated competencies. Any discrepancies between role descriptions and competency maps were resolved in consultation with a third member of the research team. Results The search conducted resulted in 5370 potential articles. Two hundred and twenty-seven full text articles were selected for review resulting in 34 articles that were included for analysis. Seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories and 48 GP pharmacist individual roles were identified. The seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories included medication management, patient examination and screening, chronic disease management, drug information and education, collaboration and liaison, audit and quality assurance and research. All FIP competency domains were included in the GP pharmacist competency map. Competencies related to compounding, dispensing and packaging of medications were not found relevant to the GP Pharmacist role. No roles were mapped to competencies relating to re-imbursement for medicines, procurement, or medication production. All areas of professional and personal competence were relevant to the GP pharmacist role. Conclusion A comprehensive role description and competency map for GP pharmacists is described and may be used to inform future research into the education of GP pharmacists.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Educação em Farmácia , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adherence-enhancing interventions have been assessed in the literature, however heterogeneity and conflicting findings have prohibited a consensus on the most effective approach to maintain adherence over time. With the ageing population and growth of chronic conditions, evaluation of sustainable strategies to improve and maintain medication adherence long term is paramount. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness of interventions for improving medication adherence over time among adults with any clinical condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analyses evaluating interventions to improve medication adherence were searched in PubMed in January 2019 and reviewed for primary studies. Experimental studies with a comparison group assessing an intervention to enhance medication adherence in adult patients with reported adherence outcomes were included. Two authors extracted data for study characteristics, interventions and adherence outcomes. Interventions were categorized into four groups or combinations: educational, attitudinal, technical and rewards. Four network meta-analyses were performed to compare interventions based on patient follow-up time. Medication adherence effect sizes were reported as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% credibility interval (CrI) and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) to allow ranking probabilities. Risk of bias was assessed as per Cochrane guidelines. RESULTS: Data was obtained from 69 meta-analyses with 468 primary studies being included in qualitative synthesis. The four networks compromised of 249 studies in total (0-3 month follow-up: 99 studies, 4-6 months: 104, 7-9 months: 18, ≥10 months: 94). Interventions showing success in follow-ups of less than 10 months varied across time. Significant effects compared to standard of care (SOC) were found in technical (4-6 months: OR 0.34, 95% CrI 0.25-0.45) and attitudinal interventions (7-9 months: 0.37, 0.17-0.84). Multicomponent interventions demonstrated effectiveness compared to standard of care with an additive effect displayed, particularly in longer follow-ups (educational + attitudinal + technical interventions ≥10 months: OR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.27-0.88). DISCUSSION: All interventions reviewed improved medication adherence compared to standard of care. Multicomponent interventions displayed the most promising results in maintenance of long-term medication adherence. Technical and reward components enhanced adherence on a short-term basis, while educational and attitudinal interventions evolved over time to be more effective in follow-ups greater than 7 months. Sustainability of adherence to medications over time is dependent upon multicomponent interventions including educational, attitudinal and technical aspects to modify and enhance patient medication-taking behavior. Future research should focus on the most cost-effective approaches able to be integrated into routine practice.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Teorema de Bayes , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Seguimentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
12.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 59(1): 108-116.e1, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited studies have assessed the financial benefit of professional pharmacy services (PPSs) to the community pharmacy as a business. These studies are crucial in developing an insight into the long-term sustainability and broader implementation of services. We reviewed the literature to identify measures and indicators used to assess the financial performance of professional services in community pharmacy. DATA SOURCES: The literature search was undertaken in Pubmed and Scopus, and a gray literature search was performed in Google.com. References of the included papers were reviewed for other relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were reviewed against the following exclusion criteria: 1) literature reviews, 2) studies not reporting quantitative financial data from community pharmacy, 3) studies not assessing a PPS, 4) studies lacking a methodology for the measurement and assessment of financial outcomes, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, or cost-benefit analysis studies. DATA EXTRACTION: A piloted data extraction form was used. A selection of key data collected is as follows: 1) method of data collection and calculation, 2) currency, limitations for cost and revenue and method of data collection and method of calculation, 3) standardized currency value for the results reported, 4) professional services: number assessed, type of service, name of services, nature of services, implementation stage reported, financial result, the frequency of service, costs, sources of revenue, net total cost, net total revenue, break-even point, break-even price, net profit and loss. RESULTS: The 21 studies included used different methodologies and indicators to financially assess PPSs. This has led to the development of a model for assessing PPSs composed of the key financial elements identified in this systematic review. CONCLUSION: From this review, we propose a model that provides a structured approach for pharmacists to manage the financial performance of services.

13.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(5): 496-504, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An international strategy designed to promote access to primary care is the utilisation of community pharmacy to deliver structured minor ailment services (MASs). An understanding of key implementation features of MASs will support effective service delivery and implementation, promote MAS viability, sustainability and overall improvement. AIM: The aim of this study is to explore the views and experiences of a range of stakeholders concerning the implementation of MASs in the United Kingdom. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to obtain data. Participants were recruited using purposeful and snowball sampling. Stakeholders from five different regions were included. Using the digital recordings of the interviews, thematic content analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants agreed to be interviewed. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic content analysis yielded three major themes, including (1) benefits of MASs, (2) structural challenges associated with MAS design and (3) other implementation factors associated with MAS delivery. Stakeholders recognised the positive impact of the service to improve patient access and care, promote efficiencies, and promote the professional role of the pharmacist. Nevertheless barriers do exist to service delivery and implementation. Stakeholders identified the need to potentially increase the population groups served by MASs, increase the conditions treated and widen their formulary lists. Similarly, marketing strategies needed to be improved to enhance consumer awareness. Stakeholders presented mixed views about whether pharmacists needed to complete clinical training and the need to increase pharmacist's remuneration. In addition the level of healthcare collaboration needed to improve. CONCLUSION: Several concepts emerged from the investigation to facilitate service delivery. Barriers to service implementation had a variable impact on implementation. Service delivery should function to meet all stakeholder needs and can be achieved through stakeholder collaboration. However, improved marketing to promote consumer awareness together with better collaborative processes can potentially improve MAS implementation.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(1): 25-33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Global Network of Age-friendly Cities is a project promoted by the World Health Organization as a response to demographic ageing and urbanization process. San Sebastian, Spain, is one of these Age-friendly Cities and community pharmacies of the city joined the initiative. OBJECTIVE: To define and implement the Age-friendly Pharmacy concept to promote active ageing, optimize the contribution of community pharmacies of San Sebastian to the friendliness of the city and to the improvement of quality of life of the ageing population. METHOD: A bottom-up participative approach was undertaken. A focus group was conducted to determine elderly people's opinions and expectations of community pharmacy. The information obtained was analysed using content analysis and validated for reliability, usefulness and applicability through three expert groups of community pharmacy owners and staff. KEY FINDINGS: Fifteen requirements were agreed, covering four main areas: relationships, pharmacy layout, pharmaceutical services and communication of services. Initially, 18 community pharmacies committed to become Age-friendly Pharmacies by pledging to these requirements and the Official Pharmacist Association of Gipuzkoa supported pharmacies in the implementation of the initiative. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is demand for a patient-centred community pharmacy to support older people, in which pharmaceutical care services are required. The 18 Age-friendly Pharmacies together with the Official Pharmacist Association of Gipuzkoa have publicly committed to actively work on social and patient-centred care to meet the needs of the ageing population.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Envelhecimento Saudável , Farmácias/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
15.
Aust J Prim Health ; 24(6): 448-454, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384879

RESUMO

The Western Sydney Primary Health Network (PHN), WentWest, has been working to improve patient and health system outcomes by commissioning projects that enhance patient-focussed, team-based care. One such project is the WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice sites. The aim of this study is to describe, classify and analyse recommendations made by pharmacists to GPs, resulting from patient consultations between pharmacists and patients in a general practice setting. This study was a multi-centre prospective observational study (April 2017-September 2017) investigating recommendations made by pharmacists integrated in a general practice setting. Thirteen general practice sites located in Western Sydney, NSW, Australia were involved in the study. The main outcome measures of this study include the classification of pharmacist recommendations and the percentage of those recommendations accepted by GPs. The pharmacists recorded the results from 618 patient consultations. These consultations resulted in 1601 recommendations of which 1404 (88%) were recorded as accepted. This study demonstrated that the recommendations made by pharmacists in general practice are well accepted by GPs and may lead to improvements in medication management and patient care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Medicina Geral/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Austrália , Humanos
16.
Int J Integr Care ; 18(2): 4, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127688

RESUMO

Introduction: This process evaluation examined the circumstances affecting implementation, intervention design and situational context of the twelve week pilot phase of a project integrating five pharmacists into twelve general practice sites in Western Sydney. Description of Care Practice: This study used a mixed method study design using qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews and quantitative data collected by project pharmacists to analyse the process of the integrating pharmacists is general practice. Framework analysis of the interview transcripts was used to align the results with the key process evaluation themes of implementation, mechanism of impact and context. Preliminary quantitative data was used to provide implementation feedback and to support the qualitative findings. Results: The interventional design included three phases, patient recruitment and selection, the pharmacist consultation and the communication and recording of recommendations. A number of barriers and facilitators affecting implementation were identified. Insight into the situational context of the intervention was gained from examining the differences between individual pharmacists and between practice sites. Conclusion: Conducting a process evaluation in the pilot phase of an integrated care project can allow adjustments to be made to the project procedures to improve the effectiveness and reproducibility of the intervention going forward.

17.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 40(3): 566-572, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542035

RESUMO

Background Team based care has been used internationally to improve the delivery of best practice primary health care. The WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice teams, was commissioned to improve medication management of general practice patients. A particular focus of the project was the performance of medication review to allow the detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs). Objective The objectives of this 6-month study (October 2016-March 2017) were to: (1) identify and classify the DRPs detected as a result of pharmacist activities within a general practice primary care setting. (2) compare the number of pharmacist recommendations and GP acceptance rates as a result of pharmacist patient consultations across multiple general practice sites. Setting 15 general practice primary care sites in Western Sydney NSW Australia. A multi-centre prospective observational study conducted over a 6-month period from October 2016 to March 2017. Main outcome measure Drug-related problems (DRPs). Results Six pharmacists recorded the results from 493 patient consultations. The pharmacists identified 1124 DRPs and made 984 recommendations, of which 685 (70%) were recorded as accepted by the GP. Conclusion Pharmacists have a valuable role to play in the detection and resolution of DRP as part of the general practice team.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/métodos , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Idoso , Humanos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 145, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacies provide a suitable setting to promote self-screening programs aimed at enhancing the early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF). Developing and implementing novel community pharmacy services (CPSs) is a complex and acknowledged challenge, which requires comprehensive planning and the participation of relevant stakeholders. Co-design processes are participatory research approaches that can enhance the development, evaluation and implementation of health services. The aim of this study was to co-design a pharmacist-led CPS aimed at enhancing self-monitoring/screening of AF. METHODS: A 3-step co-design process was conducted using qualitative methods: (1) interviews and focus group with potential service users (n = 8) to identify key needs and concerns; (2) focus group with a mixed group of stakeholders (n = 8) to generate a preliminary model of the service; and (3) focus group with community pharmacy owners and managers (n = 4) to explore the feasibility and appropriateness of the model. Data were analysed qualitatively to identify themes and intersections between themes. The JeMa2 model to conceptualize pharmacy-based health programs was used to build a theoretical model of the service. RESULTS: Stakeholders delineated: a clear target population (i.e., individuals ≥65 years old, with hypertension, with or without previous AF or stroke); the components of the service (i.e., patient education; self-monitoring at home; results evaluation, referral and follow-up); and a set of circumstances that may influence the implementation of the service (e.g., quality of the service, competency of the pharmacist, inter-professional relationships, etc.). A number of strategies were recommended to enable implementation (e.g.,. endorsement by leading cardiovascular organizations, appropriate communication methods and channels between the pharmacy and the general medical practice settings, etc.). CONCLUSION: A novel and preliminary model of a CPS aimed at enhancing the management of AF was generated from this participatory process. This model can be used to inform decision making processes aimed at adopting and piloting of the service. It is expected the co-designed service has been adapted to suit existing needs of patients and current care practices, which, in turn, may increase the feasibility and acceptance of the service when it is implemented into a real setting.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos , Autocuidado , Participação dos Interessados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 58(2): 210-219, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacists have adopted an active role in asthma management. This review aimed to analyze the intervention dose, understood as the "amount of program delivered," and core components of the intervention provided by pharmacists in asthma management. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted in December 2016 using PubMed. STUDY SELECTION: A 2-stage approach was used. At the first stage, systematic reviews of pharmacists' interventions in asthma management were identified. At the second stage, primary studies included in the systematic reviews were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: The DEPICT-2 (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was used for data extraction. In addition GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines were used as a reference to classify the interventions' core components. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies were included. In most of the studies, the pharmacist-patient intervention occurred at the community pharmacy setting (n = 22). The most common core components used in pharmacists' interventions were the provision of drug information and patient counseling (n = 27). Pharmacists' interventions frequently were targeted at assessing and improving the use of patient's inhaler technique (n = 27). Educational materials and written action plans were the materials most commonly used in the interventions (n = 20). The duration (n = 13) and the frequency (n = 16) of the intervention were the most frequent information about the intervention dose measure reported. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists' interventions in asthma management are complex. Structured educational programs and patient counseling appear to be the most frequent core components of pharmacists' interventions. Interventions were focused on providing information about the condition and on inhaler technique assessment and training. However, most studies failed to report the intervention dose sufficiently to be reproduced. The reporting of this indicator is crucial to ensure the reproducibility of the interventions assessed and their implementation in practice. (Registration number CRD42016029181.).


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Humanos , Papel Profissional
20.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 14(11): 989-998, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources. AIM: To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model. METHODS: A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed. RESULTS: A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market. Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model. CONCLUSION: MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of the service.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Autocuidado/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Mecanismo de Reembolso
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