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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078214

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia are common in heart failure and associated with worse outcomes. However, the optimal potassium range is unknown. We sought to determine the optimal range of potassium in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (< 40%) by exploring the relationship between baseline potassium level and short- and long-term outcomes using the Swedish Heart Failure Registry from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the association between baseline potassium level and all-cause mortality at 30 days, 12 months, and maximal follow-up, in uni- and multivariable stratified and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions. Of 13 015 patients, 93.3% had potassium 3.5-5.0 mmol/L, 3.7% had potassium <3.5 mmol/L, and 3.0% had potassium >5.0 mmol/L. Potassium <3.5 mmol/L and >5.0 mmol/L were more common with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and heart failure of longer duration and greater severity. The potassium level associated with the lowest hazard risk for mortality at 30 days, 12 months, and maximal follow-up was 4.2 mmol/L, and there was a steep increase in risk with both higher and lower potassium levels. In adjusted strata analyses, lower potassium was independently associated with all-cause mortality at 12 months and maximal follow-up, while higher potassium levels only increased risk at 30 days. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide registry, the relationship between potassium and mortality was U-shaped, with an optimal potassium value of 4.2 mmol/L. After multivariable adjustment, hypokalaemia was associated with increased long-term mortality but hyperkalaemia was associated with increased short-term mortality.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 103-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers reduce mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, patients older than 80 years are poorly represented in randomized controlled trials. We assessed the association between beta-blocker use and outcomes in HFrEF patients aged ≥80 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients with an ejection fraction <40% and aged ≥80 years from the Swedish HF Registry. The association between beta-blocker use, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) mortality/HF hospitalization was assessed by Cox proportional hazard models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort. To assess consistency, the same analyses were performed in a positive control cohort with age <80 years. A negative control outcome analysis was run using hospitalization for cancer as endpoint. Of 6562 patients aged ≥80 years, 5640 (86%) received beta-blockers. In the matched cohort including 1732 patients, beta-blocker use was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.99]. Reduction in CV mortality/HF hospitalization was not significant (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85-1.05) due to the lack of association with HF hospitalization, whereas CV death was significantly reduced. After adjustment rather than matching for the propensity score in the overall cohort, beta-blocker use was associated with reduced risk of all outcomes. In patients aged <80 years, use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced risk of all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92) and of the composite outcome (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In HFrEF patients ≥80 years of age, use of beta-blockers was high and was associated with improved all-cause and CV survival.

4.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1530-1539, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most randomized trials on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled patients >20 years ago. We investigated the association between ICD use and all-cause mortality in a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction cohort and examined relevant subgroups. METHODS: Patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry fulfilling the European Society of Cardiology criteria for primary-prevention ICD were included. The association between ICD use and 1-year and 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort and in prespecified subgroups. RESULTS: Of 16 702 eligible patients, only 1599 (10%) had an ICD. After matching, 1305 ICD recipients were compared with 1305 nonrecipients. ICD use was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality risk within 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.90]) and 5 years (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78-0.99]). Results were consistent in all subgroups including patients with versus without ischemic heart disease, men versus women, those aged <75 versus ≥75 years, those with earlier versus later enrollment in the Swedish heart failure registry, and patients with versus without cardiac resynchronization therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population, ICD for primary prevention was underused, although it was associated with reduced short- and long-term all-cause mortality. This association was consistent across all the investigated subgroups. These results call for better implementation of ICD therapy.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 254: 203-209, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), pulse pressure (PP) may reflect both vascular stiffness and left ventricular function, but its prognostic role in relation to ejection fraction (EF) is poorly understood. METHODS: In the Swedish Heart Failure Registry, we investigated the association between PP and 1-year mortality in patients with HF and reduced (HFrEF, <40%), mid-range (HFmrEF, 40-49%) and preserved EF (HFpEF, ≥50%), using multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: Among 36,770 patients discharged alive or enrolled as out-patients with 1-year follow-up (mean age 74±12years, 63% men, 56% HFrEF, 21% HFmrEF, 23% HFpEF), crude one-year mortality was 18%. Mean PP increased across EF groups: 51±16 in HFrEF, 57±18 in HFmrEF, 60±19mmHg in HFpEF. In crude regression splines, the association between PP and mortality was U-shaped in HFmrEF and HFpEF, but curvilinear with only low PP associated with mortality in HFrEF. In multivariable analyses, a significant interaction by EF group and PP was observed (pinteraction=0.015): low PP was associated with higher mortality in HFrEF (adjusted OR [1st vs. 4th quintile]=1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.67) and HFpEF (1.43, 1.14-1.81) but only by trend in HFmrEF; high PP had a trend towards higher mortality in HFmrEF (5th vs. 3rd quintile=1.30, 1.00-1.69) and HFpEF (1.25, 0.98-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: The association between PP and mortality in HF was influenced by EF. Low PP was independently associated with mortality in HFrEF and HFpEF and by trend in HFmrEF. High PP was independently associated with mortality by trend in HFmrEF and HFpEF.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
Europace ; 20(1): 19-24, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339885

RESUMO

Aims: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) under the age of 65 and CHA2DS2-VASc risk score of 0 in men or 1 in women are considered to be at low risk for ischaemic stroke, and therefore without benefit of oral anticoagulation therapy. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence and predictors of ischaemic stroke among low-risk patients with AF identified from a National Patient Register. Methods and results: A retrospective study of 25 252 low-risk AF patients (age 18-64) out of total 345 123 AF patients identified from the Swedish Nationwide Patient Register for the period 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (interquartile range 2.9-6.8) years, ischaemic stroke occurred at an annual rate of 0.34 per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.38]. Significant predictors of stroke were age, hazard ratio (HR) 1.06 (CI 1.05-1.08) per incremental year, and previous alcohol-related hospitalization HR 2.01 (CI 1.45-2.79). Intracerebral bleeding events were rare and not statistically different HR 2.05 (CI 0.76-5.56) between patients with and without alcohol-related hospitalizations. Use of oral anticoagulants was associated with lower risk for ischaemic stroke, HR 0.78 (CI 0.63-0.97). Conclusion: The presence of a previous hospitalization with an alcohol-related disease was associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of stroke among low-risk AF patients. More research about relation between alcohol use and ischaemic stroke in AF patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 233-242, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain is one of the most common reasons for patients to seek primary health care. Pain relief is likely to be achieved for patients suffering from acute pain, but for individuals with chronic pain it is more likely that the condition will persist. These patients have the option of being referred to specialised pain clinics. However, the complexity surrounding chronic pain patients is not well studied in these settings. This study aimed to describe patients with chronic pain referred to a pain clinic by using the information submitted during their first visit and one year later and also to identify associations between baseline characteristics and improvements in health-related quality of life in the follow-up. METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of a sample consisting of 318 patients referred to a pain clinic. One group of patients containing 271 individuals (median age 48, 64% females) was assessed and received conventional pain treatment (CPT group) and a second group of 47 patients (median age 53, 64% females) was assessed by a pain specialist and referred back to their physician with a treatment recommendation (assessment only, AO group). Patient-reported outcome measures in health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), pain intensity (VAS), mental health (HADS), insomnia (ISI), pain-related disability (PDI), kinesiophobia (TSK) and sense of coherence (SOC) were collected at the first visit and one year later. RESULTS: At baseline, the CPT group reported a low EQ-5D Index (median (md) 0.157) and EQ VAS (md 40) as well as considerable high, current pain intensity VAS (md 58), HADS anxiety (md 8), ISI (md 17), PDI (md 36) and TSK (md 39). The AO group showed similar problems (no significant differences compared to the CPT group), except for ISI, where the AO group reported less severe problems. At the one-year follow-up, the CPT group had a statistically significant improvement in EQ-5D, VAS, ISI, PDI and TSK. In the AO group no significant changes were observed. In the CPT group there was an association between a high ISI level at baseline and an improved EQ-5D Index in the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The study describes rarely explored groups of patients with chronic pain at a pain clinic. Severe pain problems were present in both groups at their first visit. A statistically significant improvement could be seen in the group that was conventionally treated while this was not the case among those subjects who were assessed and referred. The results imply, that relatively limited treatment strategies were helpful for the patients' health-related quality of life. Despite these improvements, the patients were not fully recovered, pointing to the chronicity of pain conditions and the need of support for many patients. IMPLICATIONS: Increased knowledge about assessment, selection and treatment at pain clinics is important to improve the quality of the work performed at these clinics. Despite limited resources, further efforts should be made to collect comparable, valid data on a regular base from pain clinics in order to develop recommendation models.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Clínicas de Dor , Medição da Dor/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Dor Crônica/classificação , Dissonias , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(12): 1624-1634, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948683

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinical features and outcomes in the novel phenotype heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction [HFmrEF, ejection fraction (EF) 40-49%] were compared with heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF, EF <40%) and preserved EF (HFpEF, EF ≥50%). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Swedish Heart Failure Registry, we assessed the association between baseline characteristics and EF group using multivariable logistic regressions, and the association between EF group and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox regressions. Of 42 061 patients, 56% had HFrEF, 21% had HFmrEF, and 23% had HFpEF. Characteristics were continuous for age (72 ± 12 vs. 74 ± 12 vs. 77 ± 11 years), proportion of women (29% vs. 39% vs. 55%), and 13 other characteristics. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was distinctly more common in HFrEF (54%) and HFmrEF (53%) vs. HFpEF (42%); adjusted odds ratio for CAD in HFmrEF vs. HFpEF was 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.63]. For six additional characteristics HFmrEF resembled HFrEF, for seven characteristics HFmrEF resembled HFpEF, and for 10 characteristics there was no pattern. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in HFrEF vs. HFpEF was 1.35 (95% CI 1.14-1.60) at 30 days, 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35) at 1 year, and 1.20 (95% CI 1.14-1.26) at 3 years. In contrast, HFmrEF and HFpEF had a similar prognosis (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.86-1.30 at 30 days; HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.18 at 1 year; and HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12 at 3 years). Three-year mortality was higher in HFmrEF than in HFpEF in the presence of CAD (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21), but not in the absence of CAD (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.12; P for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HFmrEF was an intermediate phenotype, except that CAD was more common in HFmrEF and HFrEF vs. HFpEF, crude all-cause mortality was lower in HFmrEF and HFrEF, adjusted all-cause mortality was lower in HFmrEF and HFpEF, and CAD portended a higher adjusted risk of death in HFmrEF and HFrEF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Open Heart ; 4(2): e000568, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown how the creatinine-based renal function estimations differ for dose adjustment cut-offs and risk prediction in patients with heart failure. METHOD AND RESULTS: The renal function was similar with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) (median 59 mL/min/1.73 m2, IQR 42 to 77) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) (59 mL/min/1.73 m2, IQR 43 to 75) and slightly lower with the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation (57 mL/min, IQR 39 to 82). Across the commonly used renal function stages, the CKD-EPI and the MDRD classified patients into the same stage in 87.2% (kappa coefficient 0.83, p<0.001); the CKD-EPI and the CG equation agreed in 52.3% (kappa coefficient 0.39, p<0.001). Hence, a differing number of patients will receive dose adjustment depending on which formula is used as cut-off. The CG equation predicted worse prognosis better (c-statistics 0.740, 95% CI 0.734 to 0.746) than CKD-EPI (0.697, 95% CI 0.690 to 0.703, p<0.001) and MDRD (0.680, 95% CI 0.734 to 0.746). Using net reclassification improvement (NRI), the CG identified 12.8% more patients at higher risk of death as compared with the CKD-EPI equation. Patients registered in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (n= 40 736) with standardised creatinine values between 2000 and 2012 had their renal function estimated with the CKD-EPI, the MDRD and the CG. Agreement between the formulas was compared for categories. Prediction of death was assessed with c-statistics and with NRI. CONCLUSION: The choice of renal function estimation formula has clinical implications and differing results at various cut-off levels. For prognosis, the CG predicts mortality better than the CKD-EPI and MDRD.

10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 10(6)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; EF <40%) is well established, but its pathogenic and prognostic significance in HF with midrange (HFmrEF; EF 40%-50%) and preserved EF (HFpEF; EF ≥50%) has been much less explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 42 987 patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry with respect to baseline IHD, outcomes (IHD, HF, cardiovascular events, and all-cause death), and EF change during a median follow-up of 2.2 years. Overall, 23% had HFpEF (52% IHD), 21% had HFmrEF (61% IHD), and 55% had HFrEF (60% IHD). After multivariable adjustment, associations with baseline IHD were similar for HFmrEF and HFrEF and lower in HFpEF (risk ratio, 0.91 [0.89-0.93] versus HFmrEF and risk ratio, 0.90 [0.88-0.92] versus HFrEF). The adjusted risk of IHD events was similar for HFmrEF versus HFrEF and lower in HFpEF (hazard ratio, 0.89 [0.84-0.95] versus HFmrEF and hazard ratio, 0.84 [0.80-0.90] versus HFrEF). After adjustment, prevalent IHD was associated with increased risk of IHD events and all other outcomes in all EF categories except all-cause mortality in HFpEF. Those with IHD, particularly new IHD events, were also more likely to change to a lower EF category and less likely to change to a higher EF category over time. CONCLUSIONS: HFmrEF resembled HFrEF rather than HFpEF with regard to both a higher prevalence of IHD and a greater risk of new IHD events. Established IHD was an important prognostic factor across all HF types.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 10(4)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrates may be beneficial in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) by enhancing cGMP signaling and improving hemodynamics, but real-world data on potential efficacy are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We linked the Swedish Heart Failure Registry to national registries with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision comorbidity diagnoses and demographic and socioeconomic data. In HFpEF, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40%, we derived propensity scores for nitrate use using 52 baseline variables. The association between nitrate use and all-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality or first heart failure hospitalization was assessed in a cohort matched 2:1 untreated to treated based on age and propensity score. In the overall HFpEF cohort (n=19 047; mean [SD] age, 76 [12] years; 46% women), nitrates were used in 17%, and the crude 1-year survival for treated versus untreated patients was 79% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78%-80%) versus 84% (95% CI, 83%-84%) respectively; hazard ratio was 1.48 (95% CI, 1.40-1.56; P<0.001) during a median 755-day follow-up. Matching yielded 2235 treated versus 4470 untreated patients, with 1-year survival of 80% (95% CI, 78%-82%) versus 79% (95% CI, 78%-81%) and hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98-1.15; P=0.12). Nitrates were associated with worse composite outcome in the matched HFpEF cohort, with 1-year event-free survival of 62% (95% CI, 60%-64%) versus 65% (95% CI, 63%-66%) and hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.18; P=0.003). These patterns were reproduced in several consistency analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In HFpEF, the use of nitrates was not associated with improvements in all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Nitratos/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 5(1): 14-24, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to compare the prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic impact of diabetes in Southeast Asian versus white patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is common in HF and is associated with impaired prognosis. Asia is home to the majority of the world's diabetic population, yet data on the prevalence and clinical significance of diabetes in Asian patients with HF are sparse, and no studies have directly compared Asian and white patients. METHODS: Two contemporary population-based HF cohorts were combined: from Singapore (n = 1,002, median [25th to 75th percentile] age 62 [54 to 70] years, 76% men, 19.5% obesity) and Sweden (n = 19,537, 77 [68 to 84] years, 60% men, 24.8% obesity). The modifying effect of ethnicity on the relationship between diabetes and clinical correlates or prognosis (HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality) was examined using interaction terms. RESULTS: Diabetes was present in 569 (57%) Asian patients versus 4,680 (24%) white patients (p < 0.001). Adjusting for clinical covariates, obesity was more strongly associated with diabetes in white patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86 to 4.17) than in Asian patients (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.96; pinteraction = 0.026). Diabetes was more strongly associated with increased HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality in Asian patients (hazard ratio: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.87) than in white patients (hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.36; pinteraction = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was 3-fold more common in Southeast Asian compared to white patients with HF, despite younger age and less obesity, and more strongly associated with poor outcomes in Asian patients than white patients. These results underscore the importance of ethnicity-tailored aggressive strategies to prevent diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Singapura , Volume Sistólico , Suécia
13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(10): 1270-1279, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176416

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves outcomes in heart failure (HF) but may be underutilized. The reasons are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We linked the Swedish Heart Failure Registry to national registries with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision) co-morbidity diagnoses and demographic and socio-economic data. In patients with EF ≤39% and NYHA II-IV, we assessed prevalence of CRT indication and CRT use. In those with CRT indication, we assessed the association between 37 potential baseline covariates and CRT non-use using multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Of 12 807 patients (mean age 71 ± 12 years, 28% female), 841 (7%) had CRT, 3094 (24%) had an indication for but non-use of CRT, and 8872 (69%) had no indication. Important variables independently associated with CRT non-use were: HF duration <6 months [risk ratio (RR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.24]; non-cardiology planned follow-up (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.09-1.18); age >75 years (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.09-1.18); non-cardiology care at baseline (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.14); small-town non-university centre (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.12); female sex (RR 1.07 95% CI 1.03-1.10) (all P < 0.05); as was absence of AF, living alone; psychiatric diagnosis; smoking; and non-use of HF drugs. Education, income, cancer, or HF characteristics were not independently associated with CRT non-use. CONCLUSION: In this population-wide HF registry, CRT was underutilized. Non-use was associated mostly with demographic and organizational, but not clinical or socio-economic factors. This calls for programmes to raise awareness of CRT indications and improve access and referrals to cardiology specialists.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(3): 366-376, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338764

RESUMO

AIMS: Symptom severity assessed by NYHA functional class and QRS duration are essential criteria for selection of heart failure (HF) patients for CRT. This study assessed the relationship between NYHA class, QRS duration, and survival in a nationwide HF registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 13 423 patients with HF in NYHA class II-IV and LVEF <40% in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry. Survival was followed via the Swedish Population Registry. Of 12 534 patients without CRT (age 71 ± 12 years, 29% women), 51% and 49% were in NYHA class II and III-IV, respectively. Patients in NYHA class II compared with class III-IV were younger (69 vs. 73 years), and had a better systolic function (49% vs. 58% with LVEF <30%), P <0.001 for all, and a favourable co-morbidity profile. QRS duration was 116 ± 29 ms in NYHA class II and 119 ± 29 ms in NYHA class III-IV with QRS ≥120 ms found in 37% vs. 44%, and an LBBB in 23% vs. 28% (P < 0.001 for all). Upon multivariable Cox regression adjusting for 40 clinically relevant variables, mortality risk was higher in NYHA class III-IV vs. class II, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.40. Mortality was also higher with QRS prolongation ≥120 ms vs. narrow QRS. The HR in NYHA class II patients with non-LBBB was 1.19 (95% CI 1.05 - 1.36) and in those with LBBB it was 1.16 (95% CI 1.03-1.41). The corresponding HRs in NYHA class III-IV were 1.33 (95% CI 1.21-1.47) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.22). There was no significant interaction between the effects of NYHA class and QRS duration or morphology on mortality. Applying different scenarios to estimate guideline adherence, fewer patients with NYHA class II (range 14.4-42.6%) compared with NYHA class III-IV (18.0-45.4%) had received a CRT device when indicated. CONCLUSIONS: In HF with reduced LVEF, QRS prolongation is common and independently linked to worse survival. The increase in mortality risk associated with QRS prolongation of both LBBB and non-LBBB morphology is similar in NYHA class II and III-IV.


Assuntos
Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueio de Ramo/complicações , Bloqueio de Ramo/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia
15.
J Card Fail ; 23(4): 293-303, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anabolic drive is impaired in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) but insufficiently studied in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediates growth hormone effects and IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) regulates IGF-1 activity. We tested the hypothesis that HFpEF and HFrEF are similar with regard to IGF-1 and IGFBP-1. METHODS AND RESULTS: In patients with HFpEF (n = 79), HFrEF (n = 85), and controls (n = 136), we analyzed serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 concentrations, correlations, and associations with outcome. Age-standardized scores of IGF-1 were higher in HFpEF, median arbitrary units (interquartile range); 1.21 (0.57-1.96) vs HFrEF, 0.09 (-1.40-1.62), and controls, 0.22 (-0.47-0.96), P overall <.001. IGFBP-1 was increased in HFpEF, 48 (28-79), and HFrEF, 65 (29-101), vs controls, 27(14-35) µg/L, P overall <.001. These patterns persisted after adjusting for metabolic and HF severity confounders. IGF-1 was associated with outcomes in HFrEF, hazard ratio per natural logarithmic increase in IGF-1 SD score 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.32-0.82, P = .005), but not significantly in HFpEF. IGFBP-1 was not associated with outcomes in either HFpEF nor HFrEF. CONCLUSION: HFpEF and HFrEF phenotypes were similar with regard to increased IGFBP-1 concentrations but differed regarding IGF-1 levels and prognostic role. HFrEF and HFpEF may display different impairment in anabolic drive.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatística como Assunto , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Suécia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16(1): 504, 2016 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the distribution of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genotypes in a Ugandan population of persons with tuberculosis (TB) and establish the relationship between class I HLA types and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) disease. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn from HIV negative individuals with active TB and HIV negative household controls. DNA was extracted from blood samples and HLA typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. The allelic frequencies were determined by direct count. RESULTS: HLA-A*02, B*15, C*07, C*03, B*58, C*04, A*01, A*74, C*02 and A*30 were the dominant genotypes in this Ugandan cohort. There were differences in the distribution of HLA types between the individuals with active TB and the household controls with only HLA-A*03 allele showing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.017 crude; OR = 6.29 and p = 0.016; OR = 11.67 after adjustment for age). However, after applying the Benjamini and Hochberg adjustment for multiple comparisons the difference was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.374 and p = 0.176 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a number of HLA class I alleles in a population from Central Uganda which will enable us to carry out a functional characterization of CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses to MTB. Our results do not show a positive association between the HLA class I alleles and TB in this Ugandan population however the study sample was too small to draw any firm conclusions about the role of HLA class I alleles and TB development in Uganda.

17.
Hum Reprod ; 31(11): 2484-2490, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27664217

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does a progestin releasing subdermal contraceptive implant affect the efficacy of medical abortion if inserted at the same visit as the progesterone receptor modulator, mifepristone, at medical abortion? SUMMARY ANSWER: A etonogestrel releasing subdermal implant inserted on the day of mifepristone did not impair the efficacy of the medical abortion compared with routine insertion at 2-4 weeks after the abortion. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The etonogestrel releasing subdermal implant is one of the most effective long acting reversible contraceptive methods. The effect of timing of placement on the efficacy of mifepristone and impact on prevention of subsequent unintended pregnancy is not known. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION: This multicentre, randomized controlled, equivalence trial with recruitment between 13 October 2013 and 17 October 2015 included a total of 551 women with pregnancies below 64 days gestation opting for the etonogestrel releasing subdermal implant as postabortion contraception. Women were randomized to either insertion at 1 hour after mifepristone intake (immediate) or at follow-up 2-4 weeks later (delayed insertion). An equivalence design was used due to advantages for women such as fewer visits to the clinic with immediate insertion. The primary outcome was the percentage of women with complete abortion not requiring surgical intervention within 1 month. Secondary outcomes included insertion rates, pregnancy and repeat abortion rates during 6 months follow-up. Analysis was per protocol and by intention to treat. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Women aged 18 years and older who had requested medical termination of a pregnancy up to 63 days of gestation and opted for an etonogestrel releasing contraceptive implant were recruited in outpatient family planning clinics in six hospitals in Sweden and Scotland. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Efficacy of medical abortion was 259/275 (94.2%) in the immediate insertion group and 239/249 (96%) in the routine insertion group with a risk difference of 1.8% (95% CI -0.4 to 4.1%), which was within the ±5% margin of equivalence. The insertion rate was 275/277 (98.9%) in the immediate group compared to 187/261 (71.6%) women in the routine group (P < 0.001). At 6 months of follow-up significantly fewer women in the immediate group had become pregnant again (2/277, 0.8%) compared to the routine group (10/261, 3.8%) P = 0.018. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: For the main outcome loss to follow-up data was minimized through access to patient records. Efforts were made to reduce loss to follow-up also for secondary outcomes. The results of the sensitivity analysis did not differ from the intention to treat or per protocol analysis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Guidelines on postabortion contraception should be amended to include insertion of the etonogestrel releasing implant at the time of mifepristone intake for medical abortion up to and including a gestation of 63 days. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was funded by the Swedish Research Council (2012-2844), Stockholm City County and Karolinska Institutet (ALF). The contraceptive implants were provided by Merck and supplied by MSD Sweden. HKK and KGD have received honorariums for giving lectures for MSD/Merck and have participated in the national (HKK and KGD) and international (KGD) medical advisory boards for MSD/Merck. The other authors have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials number NCT01920022. TRIAL REGISTRATION DATE: 06 August 2013. DATE OF FIRST PATIENT'S ENROLMENT: 13 October 2013.


Assuntos
Abortivos Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/uso terapêutico , Desogestrel/uso terapêutico , Implantes de Medicamento , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 16(1): 431, 2016 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies address the prevalence of medication errors but few address medication errors serious enough to be regarded as malpractice. Other studies have analyzed the individual and system contributory factor leading to a medication error. Nurses have a key role in medication administration, and there are contradictory reports on the nurses' work experience in relation to the risk and type for medication errors. METHODS: All medication errors where a nurse was held responsible for malpractice (n = 585) during 11 years in Sweden were included. A qualitative content analysis and classification according to the type and the individual and system contributory factors was made. In order to test for possible differences between nurses' work experience and associations within and between the errors and contributory factors, Fisher's exact test was used, and Cohen's kappa (k) was performed to estimate the magnitude and direction of the associations. RESULTS: There were a total of 613 medication errors in the 585 cases, the most common being "Wrong dose" (41 %), "Wrong patient" (13 %) and "Omission of drug" (12 %). In 95 % of the cases, an average of 1.4 individual contributory factors was found; the most common being "Negligence, forgetfulness or lack of attentiveness" (68 %), "Proper protocol not followed" (25 %), "Lack of knowledge" (13 %) and "Practice beyond scope" (12 %). In 78 % of the cases, an average of 1.7 system contributory factors was found; the most common being "Role overload" (36 %), "Unclear communication or orders" (30 %) and "Lack of adequate access to guidelines or unclear organisational routines" (30 %). The errors "Wrong patient due to mix-up of patients" and "Wrong route" and the contributory factors "Lack of knowledge" and "Negligence, forgetfulness or lack of attentiveness" were more common in less experienced nurses. The experienced nurses were more prone to "Practice beyond scope of practice" and to make errors in spite of "Lack of adequate access to guidelines or unclear organisational routines". CONCLUSIONS: Medication errors regarded as malpractice in Sweden were of the same character as medication errors worldwide. A complex interplay between individual and system factors often contributed to the errors.


Assuntos
Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Erros de Medicação/legislação & jurisprudência , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/enfermagem , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Heart ; 102(18): 1464-71, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: QRS duration (QRSd) criteria for device therapy in heart failure (HF) were derived from predominantly white populations and ethnic differences are poorly understood. METHODS: We compared the association of QRSd with ejection fraction (EF) and outcomes between 839 Singaporean Asian and 11 221 Swedish white patients with HF having preserved EF (HFPEF)and HF having reduced EF (HFREF) were followed in prospective population-based HF studies. RESULTS: Compared with whites, Asian patients with HF were younger (62 vs 74 years, p<0.001), had smaller body size (height 163 vs 171 cm, weight 70 vs 80 kg, both p<0.001) and had more severely impaired EF (EF was <30% in 47% of Asians vs 28% of whites). Overall, unadjusted QRSd was shorter in Asians than whites (101 vs 104 ms, p<0.001). Lower EF was associated with longer QRSd (p<0.001), with a steeper association among Asians than whites (pinteraction<0.001), independent of age, sex and clinical covariates (including body size). Excluding patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and adjusting for clinical covariates, QRSd was similar in Asians and whites with HFPEF, but longer in Asians compared with whites with HFREF (p=0.001). Longer QRSd was associated with increased risk of HF hospitalisation or death (absolute 2-year event rate for ≤120 ms was 40% and for >120 ms it was 52%; HR for 10 ms increase of QRSd was 1.04 (1.03 to 1.06), p<0.001), with no interaction by ethnicity. CONCLUSION: We found ethnic differences in the association between EF and QRSd among patients with HF. QRS prolongation was similarly associated with increased risk, but the implications for ethnicity-specific QRSd cut-offs in clinical decision-making require further study.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 18(5): 503-11, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26869252

RESUMO

AIMS: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, drug and device therapy improve survival. We studied contemporary trends in utilization of evidence-based therapy and associated survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 5908 patients with NYHA class II-IV heart failure, EF <30%, and duration of heart failure ≥6 months registered in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry between 2003 and 2012. Regression using generalized estimation equations was used to examine temporal trends in crude and risk-adjusted rates of utilization of evidence-based heart failure therapy and 30-day, 1-year, and 3-year survival. In 2003 vs. 2012, the risk-adjusted use of therapy and P-values for trends were as follows: renin-angiotensin system antagonists, 88% vs. 86% (P = 0.091); beta-blockers, 85% vs. 93% (P = 0.008); mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, 53% vs. 42% (P < 0.001); CRT, 2.4% vs. 8.2% (P = 0.074); and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 4.0% vs. 10.7% (P = 0.004). During the same period, the risk-adjusted 30-day, 1-year, and 3-year survival was 92% vs. 94% (P = 0.532), 81% vs. 77% (P = 0.260), and 58% vs. 54% (P = 0.425), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this large nationwide registry, over the last decade the use of evidence-based drug therapy was high and remained stable over time, but, despite an increased use of device therapy, the absolute use was poor. This was associated with an absence of improvement in survival. The improvements in therapy and prognosis over the last generation may be levelling off, and efforts should be directed at improving implementation of evidence-based therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia
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