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1.
Ergonomics ; 64(4): 427-439, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094698

RESUMO

This article is concerned with scholarly ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) contributions to date to the field of research inquiry known as the 'future of work'. The review considers E/HF perspectives on how the nature of work is changing and what this means for the practice of E/HF and for human performance and wellbeing at work. This field of research has attracted much attention from scholars from various disciplines as flexible working arrangements and casualised employment, in particular, have come under the microscope during the COVID-19 pandemic. The article begins by setting out the future of work field, focussing on the mega trends and future of work forces that are most relevant to the discipline. Next, E/HF contributions to this field are identified and discussed. Surprisingly, given the E/HF tradition as a system discipline fundamentally concerned with the study of human work, and as a contributor to transdisciplinary research related to the design of work systems, a search of the scholarly literature found few contributions outside of the automation systems field that addressed the future of work and E/HF directly. A research agenda is presented to address gaps in current knowledge in a number of key future of work domains. Practitioner's Summary: We reflect on E/HF contributions to the 'future of work' field and how the practice of E/HF needs to consider the changing nature of work. We outline future of work concerns and suggest research areas for further E/HF attention towards the design of decent and sustainable work for all. Abbreviations: E/HF: ergonomics and human factors; ILO: International Labour Organisation; COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ergonomia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia/tendências , Recursos Humanos/tendências , Difusão de Inovações , Previsões , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27128929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. METHODS: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. CONCLUSION: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Cultura Organizacional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Appl Ergon ; 45(4): 839-48, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24359974

RESUMO

Workplace violence is a leading form of occupational injury and fatality, but has received little attention from the ergonomics research community. The paper reports findings from the 2012 New Zealand Workplace Violence Survey, and examines the workplace violence experience of 86 New Zealand organisations and the perceptions of occupational health and safety professionals from a systems perspective. Over 50% of respondents reported violence cases in their organisation, with perpetrators evenly split between co-workers and external sources such as patients. Highest reported levels of violence were observed for agriculture, forestry and construction sectors. Highest risk factor ratings were reported for interpersonal and organisational factors, notably interpersonal communication, time pressure and workloads, with lowest ratings for environmental factors. A range of violence prevention measures were reported, although most organisations relied on single control measures, suggesting unmanaged violence risks were common among the sample.


Assuntos
Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Psicologia , Risco , Análise de Sistemas , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Ergonomics ; 53(10): 1167-74, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20865601

RESUMO

This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.


Assuntos
Ergonomia/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Segurança , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional
5.
Appl Ergon ; 40(2): 175-80, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18501330

RESUMO

The vast majority of the published workplace slips, trips and falls (STF) literature is exceedingly narrow in its focus and often ignores wider systems issues in workplace STF aetiology. There is little recognition within the published literature of the importance of latent failures or the upstream organisational and cultural contexts within which workplace STF occur. This is unfortunate, as a systems approach to workplace STF analysis, that is inclusive of latent design and work organisation factors that often shape worker behaviour patterns related to STF risk (e.g. rushing, risk taking), is fundamental to the development of effective prevention measures. The aims of this paper are to provide an understanding of workplace STF causation that is cognisant of the potential role of both active and latent failures in STF causation. The paper presents an ergonomics model for workplace STF analysis that highlights information processing in STF aetiology, the STF incident process and the interaction between latent and active failures in STF causation. The paper draws upon ergonomics research conducted in a range of occupational contexts to illustrate the key features of the model as it applies to workplace STF. Implications of the model for analysis and prevention of STF are discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes de Trabalho , Ergonomia , Análise de Sistemas , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Cultura Organizacional , Psicologia Industrial , Local de Trabalho
6.
J Travel Med ; 15(6): 395-403, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19090793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Client safety is a major risk management concern for the commercial adventure tourism sector in New Zealand. This study built on previous exploratory analyses of New Zealand adventure tourism safety, including industry surveys conducted by these authors in 1999 and 2003. The aims of the study were to provide a continuation of injury monitoring across the sector through data collected from self-reported injury incidence by industry operators and to compare findings with those from other primary and secondary research studies conducted by the authors. METHODS: A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators during 2006. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, and safety management practices. RESULTS: Some 21 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n = 127), with most operations being very small in terms of staff numbers, although responding operators catered to nearly 1 million clients in total annually. Highest ranked risk factors for client injury included clients not following instructions; level of client skill, ability, and fitness; and changeable/unpredictable weather conditions. Highest client injury was reported for horse riding, ecotourism, and white water rafting sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evidenced across the sector. Slips, trips, and falls were the most frequently reported injury mechanism, while safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the sector. CONCLUSIONS: The industry should address reporting culture issues and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (eg, falls) as well as catastrophic events.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Viagem , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Gestão da Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
7.
Appl Ergon ; 38(6): 791-6, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17196926

RESUMO

The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos em Atletas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
8.
Ergonomics ; 49(1): 62-77, 2006 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16393804

RESUMO

Slip, trip and fall (STF) incidents, particularly falls from a height, are a leading cause of injury in the New Zealand residential construction industry. The most common origins of falls from a height in this sector are ladders, scaffolding and roofs, while slipping is the most frequent fall initiating event category. The study aimed to provide detailed information on construction industry STF risk factors for high-risk tasks, work equipment and environments, as identified from an earlier analysis of STF claims data, together with information to be used in the development of interventions to reduce STF risk in New Zealand residential construction. The study involved the use of both incident-centred and incident-independent methods of investigation, including detailed follow-up investigations of incidents and observations and interviews with workers on construction sites, to provide data on a wide range of risk factors. A large number of risk factors for residential construction STFs were identified, including factors related to the work environment, tasks and the use and availability of appropriate height work equipment. The different methods of investigation produced complementary information on factors related to equipment design and work organization, which underlie some of the site conditions and work practices identified as key risk factors for residential construction STFs. A conceptual systems model of residential construction STF risk is presented.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes de Trabalho , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Local de Trabalho , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
N Z Med J ; 119(1247): U2359, 2006 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17195852

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). METHODS: Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. RESULTS: 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/economia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Responsabilidade Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões nas Costas/epidemiologia , Ciclismo/economia , Ciclismo/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montanhismo/economia , Montanhismo/lesões , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Esqui/economia , Esqui/lesões , Entorses e Distensões/epidemiologia
10.
Ergonomics ; 48(8): 1008-19, 2005 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16147417

RESUMO

The paper presents findings from 39 detailed follow-up investigations of slips, trips and falls (STF) incurred by individuals working in New Zealand's dairy farming industry. The study sought to identify the key contributory risk factors for STF in this sector to provide evidence to support intervention design, and to determine the effectiveness of the investigative methodology used to achieve these objectives. Findings from the follow-up investigations included an analysis of factors related to the underfoot surface, underfoot hazard and footwear. Of note here was the propensity for STF-involved workers to not see or identify an underfoot hazard due to concurrent visual task distractions, and for workers to use footwear that both lacked effective tread and was unsuitable for the task and underfoot surface. Key latent risk factors and their interactions identified included problems associated with time pressure and related time-saving behaviours and the presence of design errors that, for example, required workers to climb onto equipment to view aspects of the task they were working on. The paper concludes that the potential resource and logistical problems associated with conducting detailed STF investigations are outweighed by the opportunity to collect rich data on key risk factors and their interactions in STF research.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Appl Ergon ; 36(2): 165-75, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15694070

RESUMO

Highest injury rates within the New Zealand forest sector are reported for the logging operation, with up to 30% of logging injuries occurring during the felling task. This paper reports findings from a detailed task and job safety analysis of the motor-manual (chainsaw) felling task, and an analysis of New Zealand Accident Reporting Scheme data for logging injuries for the five-year period, 1996-2000. Key safety factors, including physical hazards and potential errors and violations associated with the felling task, were determined from the task and job safety analysis, along with possible adverse consequences and potential solutions for reducing injury risk. The potential for injury among inexperienced fellers was noted, as felling safety was dependent upon appropriate assessment of hazards and good judgement in respect of decisions regarding the felling of trees. The analysis of some 351 reported felling injury cases allowed identification of high-risk task elements, common injury initiating events and temporal and logger population injury patterns. Findings from the two methods of analysis were triangulated where possible to produce a better understanding of key risk areas. The potential risk associated with inexperienced employees, who incurred a high proportion of felling injuries, and the need for good judgement and decision making for different aspects of the felling task were particularly noted.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Ergonomia , Agricultura Florestal , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Gestão de Riscos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
J Travel Med ; 11(5): 280-6, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15544711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. RESULTS: Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. CONCLUSIONS: The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Setor Privado , Gestão da Segurança , Viagem , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Appl Ergon ; 35(3): 293-300, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15145292

RESUMO

This paper reports findings from a study which evaluated the draft New Zealand Code of Practice for Manual Handling. The evaluation assessed the ease of use, applicability and validity of the Code and in particular the associated manual handling hazard assessment tools, within New Zealand industry. The Code was studied in a sample of eight companies from four sectors of industry. Subjective feedback and objective findings indicated that the Code was useful, applicable and informative. The manual handling hazard assessment tools incorporated in the Code could be adequately applied by most users, with risk assessment outcomes largely consistent with the findings of researchers using more specific ergonomics methodologies. However, some changes were recommended to the risk assessment tools to improve usability and validity. The evaluation concluded that both the Code and the tools within it would benefit from simplification, improved typography and layout, and industry-specific information on manual handling hazards.


Assuntos
Lesões nas Costas/prevenção & controle , Remoção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
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