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2.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 319-332, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243349

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive microcephaly or microcephaly primary hereditary (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a reduction in brain volume, indirectly measured by an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 2 standard deviations or more below the age- and sex-matched mean (-2SD) at birth and -3SD after 6 months, and leading to intellectual disability of variable severity. The abnormal spindle-like microcephaly gene (ASPM), the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster "abnormal spindle" gene (asp), encodes ASPM, a protein localized at the centrosome of apical neuroprogenitor cells and involved in spindle pole positioning during neurogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in ASPM cause MCPH5, which affects the majority of all MCPH patients worldwide. Here, we report 47 unpublished patients from 39 families carrying 28 new ASPM mutations, and conduct an exhaustive review of the molecular, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological features of the 282 families previously reported (with 161 distinct ASPM mutations). Furthermore, we show that ASPM-related microcephaly is not systematically associated with intellectual deficiency and discuss the association between the structural brain defects (strong reduction in cortical volume and surface area) that modify the cortical map of these patients and their cognitive abilities.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(8): 2081-2087, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573701

RESUMO

Interstitial 2p15p16.1 microdeletion is a rare chromosomal syndrome previously reported in 33 patients. It is characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, autism spectrum disorders, microcephaly, short stature, dysmorphic features, and multiple congenital organ defects. It is defined as a contiguous gene syndrome and two critical regions have been proposed at 2p15 and 2p16.1 loci. Nevertheless, patients with deletion of both critical regions shared similar features of the phenotype and the correlation genotype-phenotype is still unclear. We review all published cases and describe three additional patients, to define the phenotype-genotype correlation more precisely. We reported on two patients including the first prenatal case described so far, carrying a 2p15 deletion affecting two genes: XPO1 and part of USP34. Both patients shared similar features including facial dysmorphism and cerebral abnormalities. We considered the genes involved in the deleted segment to further understand the abnormal phenotype. The third case we described here was a 4-year-old boy with a heterozygous de novo 427 kb deletion encompassing BCL11A and PAPOLG at 2p16.1. He displayed speech delay, autistic traits, and motor stereotypies associated with brain structure abnormalities. We discuss the contribution of the genes included in the deletion to the abnormal phenotype. Our three new patients compared to previous cases, highlighted that despite two critical regions, both distal deletion at 2p16.1 and proximal deletion at 2p15 are associated with phenotypes that are very close to each other. Finally, we also discuss the genetic counseling of this microdeletion syndrome particularly in the course of prenatal diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Carioferinas/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética
6.
Prenat Diagn ; 35(8): 801-9, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25962607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The implementation of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in prenatal testing for all patients has not achieved a consensus. Technical alternatives such as Prenatal BACs-on-Beads(TM) (PNBoBs(TM) ) have thus been applied. The aim of this study was to provide the frequencies of the submicroscopic defects detectable by PNBoBs(TM) under different prenatal indications. METHODS: A total of 9648 prenatal samples were prospectively analyzed by karyotyping plus PNBoBs(TM) and classified by prenatal indication. The frequencies of the genomic defects and their 95%CIs were calculated for each indication. RESULTS: The overall incidence of cryptic imbalances was 0.7%. The majority involved the DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGS). The additional diagnostic yield of PNBoBs(TM) in the population with a low a priori risk was 1/298. The prevalences of DGS microdeletion and microduplication in the low-risk population were 1/992 and 1/850, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The constant a priori risk for common pathogenic cryptic imbalances detected by this technology is estimated to be ~0.3%. A prevalence higher than that previously estimated was found for the 22q11.2 microdeletion. Their frequencies were independent of maternal age. These data have implications for cell-free DNA screening tests design and justify prenatal screening for 22q11 deletion, as early recognition of DGS improves its prognosis.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cariotipagem/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Transtornos Cromossômicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Mol Autism ; 6: 19, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25844147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements can be associated with an abnormal phenotype, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genome-wide microarrays reveal cryptic genomic imbalances, related or not to the breakpoints, in 25% to 50% of patients with an abnormal phenotype carrying a microscopically balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Here we performed microarray analysis of 18 patients with ASD carrying balanced chromosomal abnormalities to identify submicroscopic imbalances implicated in abnormal neurodevelopment. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ASD carrying apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities were screened using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Nine rearrangements were de novo, seven inherited, and two of unknown inheritance. Genomic imbalances were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We detected clinically significant de novo copy number variants in four patients (22%), including three with de novo rearrangements and one with an inherited abnormality. The sizes ranged from 3.3 to 4.9 Mb; three were related to the breakpoint regions and one occurred elsewhere. We report a patient with a duplication of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region, contributing to the delineation of this rare genomic disorder. The patient has a chromosome 4p inverted duplication deletion, with a 0.5 Mb deletion of terminal 4p and a 4.2 Mb duplication of 4p16.2p16.3. The other cases included an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(5;18)(q12;p11.2) with a 4.2 Mb deletion at the 18p breakpoint, a subject with de novo pericentric inversion inv(11)(p14q23.2) in whom the array revealed a de novo 4.9 Mb deletion in 7q21.3q22.1, and a patient with a maternal inv(2)(q14.2q37.3) with a de novo 3.3 Mb terminal 2q deletion and a 4.2 Mb duplication at the proximal breakpoint. In addition, we identified a rare de novo deletion of unknown significance on a chromosome unrelated to the initial rearrangement, disrupting a single gene, RFX3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the utility of SNP arrays for investigating apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities in subjects with ASD or related neurodevelopmental disorders in both clinical and research settings.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(5): 1008-17, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728055

RESUMO

Interstitial deletion 1q24q25 is a rare rearrangement associated with intellectual disability, growth retardation, abnormal extremities and facial dysmorphism. In this study, we describe the largest series reported to date, including 18 patients (4M/14F) aged from 2 days to 67 years and comprising two familial cases. The patients presented with a characteristic phenotype including mild to moderate intellectual disability (100%), intrauterine (92%) and postnatal (94%) growth retardation, microcephaly (77%), short hands and feet (83%), brachydactyly (70%), fifth finger clinodactyly (78%) and facial dysmorphism with a bulbous nose (72%), abnormal ears (67%) and micrognathia (56%). Other findings were abnormal palate (50%), single transverse palmar crease (53%), renal (38%), cardiac (38%), and genital (23%) malformations. The deletions were characterized by chromosome microarray. They were of different sizes (490 kb to 20.95 Mb) localized within chromosome bands 1q23.3-q31.2 (chr1:160797550-192912120, hg19). The 490 kb deletion is the smallest deletion reported to date associated with this phenotype. We delineated three regions that may contribute to the phenotype: a proximal one (chr1:164,501,003-167,022,133), associated with cardiac and renal anomalies, a distal one (chr1:178,514,910-181,269,712) and an intermediate 490 kb region (chr1:171970575-172460683, hg19), deleted in the most of the patients, and containing DNM3, MIR3120 and MIR214 that may play an important role in the phenotype. However, this genetic region seems complex with multiple regions giving rise to the same phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/classificação , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/classificação , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(8): 1010-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25351778

RESUMO

6q16 deletions have been described in patients with a Prader-Willi-like (PWS-like) phenotype. Recent studies have shown that certain rare single-minded 1 (SIM1) loss-of-function variants were associated with a high intra-familial risk for obesity with or without features of PWS-like syndrome. Although SIM1 seems to have a key role in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems. We describe 15 new patients in whom de novo 6q16 deletions were characterised by comparative genomic hybridisation or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, including the first patient with fetopathological data. This fetus showed dysmorphic facial features, cerebellar and cerebral migration defects with neuronal heterotopias, and fusion of brain nuclei. The size of the deletion in the 14 living patients ranged from 1.73 to 7.84 Mb, and the fetus had the largest deletion (14 Mb). Genotype-phenotype correlations confirmed the major role for SIM1 haploinsufficiency in obesity and the PWS-like phenotype. Nevertheless, only 8 of 13 patients with SIM1 deletion exhibited obesity, in agreement with incomplete penetrance of SIM1 haploinsufficiency. This study in the largest series reported to date confirms that the PWS-like phenotype is strongly linked to 6q16.2q16.3 deletions and varies considerably in its clinical expression. The possible involvement of other genes in the 6q16.2q16.3-deletion phenotype is discussed.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Obesidade/genética , Penetrância , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Feto Abortado , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia , Gravidez
10.
Prenat Diagn ; 35(1): 35-43, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25118001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microduplication 22q11.2 is primarily characterized by a highly variable clinical phenotype, which ranges from apparently normal or slightly dysmorphic features (in the presence or absence of learning disorders) to severe malformations with profound mental retardation. Hence, genetic counseling is particularly challenging when microduplication 22q11.2 is identified in a prenatal diagnosis. Here, we report on 24 prenatal cases of microduplication 22q11.2. METHODS: Seventeen of the cases were also reanalyzed by microarray analysis, in order to determine copy number variations (CNVs, which are thought to influence expressivity). We also searched for possible correlations between fetal phenotypes, indications for invasive prenatal diagnosis, inheritance, and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 24 cases, 15 were inherited, six occurred de novo, and three were of unknown origin. Termination of pregnancy occurred in seven cases and was mainly decided on the basis of ultrasound findings. Moreover, additional CNVs were found in some patients and we try to make a genotype-phenotype correlation. CONCLUSION: We discuss the complexity of genetic counseling for microduplication 22q11.2 and comment on possible explanations for the clinical heterogeneity of this syndrome. In particular, we assessed the co-existence of additional CNVs and their contribution to phenotypic variations in chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Análise Citogenética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/epidemiologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
11.
Mol Cytogenet ; 7(1): 59, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25320640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder mainly characterized by growth retardation, limb defects and craniofacial anomalies. Characteristic cytogenetic findings are "railroad track" appearance of chromatids and premature centromere separation in metaphase spreads. Mutations in the ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2) gene located in 8p21.1 have been found in several families. ESCO2, a member of the cohesion establishing complex, has a role in the effective cohesion between sister chromatids. In order to analyze sister chromatids topography during interphase, we performed 3D-FISH using pericentromeric heterochromatin probes of chromosomes 1, 4, 9 and 16, on preserved nuclei from a fetus with RBS carrying compound heterozygous null mutations in the ESCO2 gene. RESULTS: Along with the first observation of an abnormal separation between sister chromatids in heterochromatic regions, we observed a statistically significant change in the intranuclear localization of pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 1 in cells of the fetus compared to normal cells, demonstrating for the first time a modification in the spatial arrangement of chromosome domains during interphase. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that the disorganization of nuclear architecture may result in multiple gene deregulations, either through disruption of DNA cis interaction -such as modification of chromatin loop formation and gene insulation - mediated by cohesin complex, or by relocation of chromosome territories. These changes may modify interactions between the chromatin and the proteins associated with the inner nuclear membrane or the pore complexes. This model offers a link between the molecular defect in cohesion and the complex phenotypic anomalies observed in RBS.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(9): 2335-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24891185

RESUMO

We report on a 6-year-old child with a de novo 1.6 Mb deletion in the 3q26.31q26.32 region identified by SNP array, involving only one relevant gene: TBL1XR1. The girl shows non-specific, mild to moderate intellectual deficiency but no autistic behavior. Point mutations in TBL1XR1 have recently been implicated in three patients with intellectual disability (ID) and autistic features. Our report supports that haploinsufficiency for TBL1XR1 could be implicated in non-ASD autosomal dominant ID.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deleção de Genes , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 99(8): E1592-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24731013

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Paucisymptomatic forms of Turner's syndrome (TS), in which short stature is the predominant clinical abnormality, remain underdiagnosed. Abnormal liver tests are extremely frequent in adult TS patients reflecting various types of hepatic lesions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether unexplained elevated liver enzymes in women with short stature could reveal X chromosome abnormalities of undiagnosed TS. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one consecutive short stature women displaying elevated liver enzymes and no previous diagnosis of TS were compared with 31 age-matched controls in a prospective study. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Systematic karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: X chromosome abnormalities were found in 27 patients and one control (87.0% vs 3.2%, P < .0001), including a 45,X/46,XX mosaicism in 24 patients and isochromosome of the long arm in three. Liver histological analysis showed architectural changes in 17 patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia in 12. Biliary lesions were present in 13 patients and liver steatosis in 20. CONCLUSIONS: X chromosome abnormalities indicative of cryptic TS are extremely frequent in short-stature women with unexplained elevated liver enzymes. In short-stature women, abnormal liver tests should lead to systematic karyotype analysis.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X , Nanismo/genética , Hepatopatias/genética , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Turner/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Nanismo/complicações , Nanismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Síndrome de Turner/complicações , Síndrome de Turner/epidemiologia
16.
Asian J Androl ; 15(5): 622-5, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23792341

RESUMO

There has been a growing interest over the past few years in the impact of male nutrition on fertility. Infertility has been linked to male overweight or obesity, and conventional semen parameter values seem to be altered in case of high body mass index (BMI). A few studies assessing the impact of BMI on sperm DNA integrity have been published, but they did not lead to a strong consensus. Our objective was to explore further the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and BMI, through a 3-year multicentre study. Three hundred and thirty male partners in subfertile couples were included. Using the terminal uridine nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay, we observed an increased rate of sperm DNA damage in obese men (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.5 (1.2-5.1)).


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fragmentação do DNA , Humanos , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/genética , Análise do Sêmen
18.
Hum Reprod ; 27(11): 3337-46, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22888167

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can we identify new sequence variants in the aurora kinase C gene (AURKC) of patients with macrozoospermia and establish a genotype-phenotype correlation? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified a new non-sense mutation, p.Y248*, that represents 13% of all mutant alleles. There was no difference in the phenotype of individuals carrying this new mutation versus the initially described and main mutation c.144delC. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The absence of a functional AURKC gene causes primary infertility in men by blocking the first meiotic division and leading to the production of tetraploid large-headed spermatozoa. We previously demonstrated that most affected men were of North African origin and carried a homozygous truncating mutation (c.144delC). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a retrospective study carried out on patients consulting for infertility and described as having >5% large-headed spermatozoa. A total of 87 patients are presented here, 43 patients were published previously and 44 are new patients recruited between January 2008 and December 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All patients consulted for primary infertility in fertility clinics in France (n = 44), Tunisia (n = 30), Morocco (n = 9) or Algeria (n = 4). Sperm analysis was carried out in the recruiting fertility clinics and all molecular analyses were performed at Grenoble teaching hospital. DNA was extracted from blood or saliva and the seven AURKC exons were sequenced. RT-PCR was carried out on transcripts extracted from leukocytes from one patient homozygous for p.Y248*. Microsatellite analysis was performed on all p.Y248* patients to evaluate the age of this new mutation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified a new non-sense mutation, p.Y248*, in 10 unrelated individuals of European (n = 4) and North African origin (n = 6). We show that this new variant represents 13% of all mutant alleles and that the initially described c.144delC variant accounts for almost all of the remaining mutated alleles (85.5%). No mutated transcripts could be detected by RT-PCR suggesting a specific degradation of the mutant transcripts by non-sense mediated mRNA decay. A rare variant located in the 3' untranslated region was found to strictly co-segregate with p.Y248*, demonstrating a founding effect. Microsatellite analysis confirmed this linkage and allowed us to estimate a mutational age of between 925 and 1325 years, predating the c.144delC variant predicted by the same method to have arisen 250-650 years ago. Patients with no identified AURKC mutation (n = 15) have significantly improved parameters in terms of vitality and concentration of normal spermatozoa, and a decreased rate of spermatozoa with a large head and multiple flagella (P < 0.001). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Despite adherence to the World Health Organization guidelines, large variations in most characteristic sperm parameters were observed, even for patients with the same homozygous mutation. We believe that is mainly related to inter-laboratory variability in sperm parameter scoring. This prevented us from establishing clear-cut values to indicate a need for molecular analysis of patients with macrozoospermia. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study confirms yet again the importance of AURKC mutations in the aetiology of macrozoospermia. Although a large majority of patients are of North African origin, we have now identified European patients carrying a new non-sense mutation indicating that a diagnosis of absence of a functional AURKC gene should not be ruled out for non-Magrebian individuals. Indirect evidence indicates that AURKC might be playing a role in the meiotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) during meiosis. We postulate that heterozygous men might have a more relaxed SAC leading to a more abundant sperm production and a reproductive advantage. This could be the reason for the rapid accumulation of the two AURKC mutations we observe in North African individuals. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None of the authors have any competing interest. This work is part of the project 'Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Infertility (ICG2I)' funded by the programme GENOPAT 2009 from the French Research Agency (ANR).


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Adulto , Argélia , Aurora Quinase C , Aurora Quinases , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Coortes , Troca Genética , Éxons , Efeito Fundador , França , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Marrocos , Linhagem , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cabeça do Espermatozoide/patologia , Espermatozoides/patologia , Tunísia
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(10): 2430-8, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22903608

RESUMO

FOXC1 deletion, duplication, and mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, and Dandy-Walker malformation spectrum. We describe the clinical history, physical findings, and available brain imaging studies in three fetuses, two children, and one adult with 6p25 deletions encompassing FOXC1. Various combinations of ocular and cerebellar malformations were found. In all three fetuses, necropsy including detailed microscopic assessments of the eyes and brains showed ocular anterior segment dysgenesis suggestive of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. Five 6p25 deletions were terminal, including two derived from inherited reciprocal translocations; the remaining 6p25 deletion was interstitial. The size and breakpoints of these deletions were characterized using comparative genomic hybridization arrays. All six deletions included FOXC1. Our data confirm that FOXC1 haploinsufficiency plays a major role in the phenotype of patients with 6p25 deletions. Histopathological features of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly were clearly identifiable before the beginning of the third-trimester of gestation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/patologia , Feto/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deleção de Genes , Adulto , Segmento Anterior do Olho/anormalidades , Segmento Anterior do Olho/patologia , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/genética , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/patologia , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gravidez
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(9): 2277-82, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22821638

RESUMO

We report on an 8-month-old girl with intra-uterine growth retardation, microcephaly, incomplete cleft lip, axial hypotonia, failure to thrive, and brachydactyly type B (phalangeal agenesis and absence of nails). She carried a supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosomes 4 and 9, leading to 4pter-q12 and 9pter-p21.2 duplication. The marker was derived from the 3:1 segregation of a maternal balanced translocation 46,XX, t(4;9)(q12;p21.2). The proposita is the first reported individual with distal phalangeal agenesis and anonychia, and trisomy 4p and partial trisomy 9p due to 3:1 segregation of a maternal reciprocal translocation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/patologia , Duplicação Gênica , Unhas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
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