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1.
Nature ; 581(7806): 71-76, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376954

RESUMO

Vascular contributions to dementia and Alzheimer's disease are increasingly recognized1-6. Recent studies have suggested that breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction7, including the early clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease5,8-10. The E4 variant of apolipoprotein E (APOE4), the main susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease11-14, leads to accelerated breakdown of the BBB and degeneration of brain capillary pericytes15-19, which maintain BBB integrity20-22. It is unclear, however, whether the cerebrovascular effects of APOE4 contribute to cognitive impairment. Here we show that individuals bearing APOE4 (with the ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4 alleles) are distinguished from those without APOE4 (ε3/ε3) by breakdown of the BBB in the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe. This finding is apparent in cognitively unimpaired APOE4 carriers and more severe in those with cognitive impairment, but is not related to amyloid-ß or tau pathology measured in cerebrospinal fluid or by positron emission tomography23. High baseline levels of the BBB pericyte injury biomarker soluble PDGFRß7,8 in the cerebrospinal fluid predicted future cognitive decline in APOE4 carriers but not in non-carriers, even after controlling for amyloid-ß and tau status, and were correlated with increased activity of the BBB-degrading cyclophilin A-matrix metalloproteinase-9 pathway19 in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings suggest that breakdown of the BBB contributes to APOE4-associated cognitive decline independently of Alzheimer's disease pathology, and might be a therapeutic target in APOE4 carriers.

2.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102248, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Volumetric biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are attractive due to their wide availability and ease of administration, but have traditionally shown lower diagnostic accuracy than measures of neuropathological contributors to AD. Our purpose was to optimize the diagnostic specificity of structural MRIs for AD using quantitative, data-driven techniques. METHODS: This retrospective study assembled several non-overlapping cohorts (total n = 1287) with publicly available data and clinical patients from Barnes-Jewish Hospital (data gathered 1990-2018). The Normal Aging Cohort (n = 383) contained amyloid biomarker negative, cognitively normal (CN) participants, and provided a basis for determining age-related atrophy in other cohorts. The Training (n = 216) and Test (n = 109) Cohorts contained participants with symptomatic AD and CN controls. Classification models were developed in the Training Cohort and compared in the Test Cohort using the receiver operating characteristics areas under curve (AUCs). Additional model comparisons were done in the Clinical Cohort (n = 579), which contained patients who were diagnosed with dementia due to various etiologies in a tertiary care outpatient memory clinic. RESULTS: While the Normal Aging Cohort showed regional age-related atrophy, classification models were not improved by including age as a predictor or by using volumetrics adjusted for age-related atrophy. The optimal model used multiple regions (hippocampal volume, inferior lateral ventricle volume, amygdala volume, entorhinal thickness, and inferior parietal thickness) and was able to separate AD and CN controls in the Test Cohort with an AUC of 0.961. In the Clinical Cohort, this model separated AD from non-AD diagnoses with an AUC 0.820, an incrementally greater separation of the cohort than by hippocampal volume alone (AUC of 0.801, p = 0.06). Greatest separation was seen for AD vs. frontotemporal dementia and for AD vs. non-neurodegenerative diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric biomarkers distinguished individuals with symptomatic AD from CN controls and other dementia types but were not improved by controlling for normal aging.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(4): 1045-1055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is also common with older age. Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies suggest that both cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid biomarkers are associated with more depressive symptoms in cognitively normal older adults. The recent availability of tau radiotracers offers the ability to examine in vivo tauopathy. It is unclear if the tau biomarker is associated with depression diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We examined if tau and amyloid imaging were associated with a depression diagnosis among cognitively normal adults (Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) and whether antidepressants modified this relationship. METHODS: Among 301 participants, logistic regression models evaluated whether in vivo PET tau was associated with depression, while another model tested the interaction between PET tau and antidepressant use. A second set of models substituted PET amyloid for PET tau. A diagnosis of depression (yes/no) was made during an annual clinical assessment by a clinician. Antidepressant use (yes/no) was determined by comparing medications the participants used to a list of 30 commonly used antidepressants. All models adjusted for age, sex, education, race, and apolipoprotein ɛ4. Similar models explored the association between the biomarkers and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Participants with elevated tau were twice as likely to be depressed. Antidepressant use modified this relationship where participants with elevated tau who were taking antidepressants had greater odds of being depressed. Relatedly, elevated amyloid was not associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that tau, not amyloid, was associated with a depression diagnosis. Additionally, antidepressant use interacts with tau to increase the odds of depression among cognitively normal adults.

4.
Nat Med ; 26(3): 398-407, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161412

RESUMO

Development of tau-based therapies for Alzheimer's disease requires an understanding of the timing of disease-related changes in tau. We quantified the phosphorylation state at multiple sites of the tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid markers across four decades of disease progression in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. We identified a pattern of tau staging where site-specific phosphorylation changes occur at different periods of disease progression and follow distinct trajectories over time. These tau phosphorylation state changes are uniquely associated with structural, metabolic, neurodegenerative and clinical markers of disease, and some (p-tau217 and p-tau181) begin with the initial increases in aggregate amyloid-ß as early as two decades before the development of aggregated tau pathology. Others (p-tau205 and t-tau) increase with atrophy and hypometabolism closer to symptom onset. These findings provide insights into the pathways linking tau, amyloid-ß and neurodegeneration, and may facilitate clinical trials of tau-based treatments.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Fosforilação , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Solubilidade , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(10): 1019-1029, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation dose to the neuroregenerative zone of the hippocampus has been found to be associated with cognitive toxicity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy during whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is hypothesized to preserve cognition. METHODS: This phase III trial enrolled adult patients with brain metastases to HA-WBRT plus memantine or WBRT plus memantine. The primary end point was time to cognitive function failure, defined as decline using the reliable change index on at least one of the cognitive tests. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, and patient-reported symptom burden. RESULTS: Between July 2015 and March 2018, 518 patients were randomly assigned. Median follow-up for alive patients was 7.9 months. Risk of cognitive failure was significantly lower after HA-WBRT plus memantine versus WBRT plus memantine (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95; P = .02). This difference was attributable to less deterioration in executive function at 4 months (23.3% v 40.4%; P = .01) and learning and memory at 6 months (11.5% v 24.7% [P = .049] and 16.4% v 33.3% [P = .02], respectively). Treatment arms did not differ significantly in OS, intracranial PFS, or toxicity. At 6 months, using all data, patients who received HA-WBRT plus memantine reported less fatigue (P = .04), less difficulty with remembering things (P = .01), and less difficulty with speaking (P = .049) and using imputed data, less interference of neurologic symptoms in daily activities (P = .008) and fewer cognitive symptoms (P = .01). CONCLUSION: HA-WBRT plus memantine better preserves cognitive function and patient-reported symptoms, with no difference in intracranial PFS and OS, and should be considered a standard of care for patients with good performance status who plan to receive WBRT for brain metastases with no metastases in the HA region.

6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 219-228, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although some members of families with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutations learn their mutation status, most do not. How knowledge of mutation status affects clinical disease progression is unknown. This study quantifies the influence of mutation awareness on clinical symptoms, cognition, and biomarkers. METHODS: Mutation carriers and non-carriers from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) were stratified based on knowledge of mutation status. Rates of change on standard clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Mutation knowledge had no associations with cognitive decline, clinical progression, amyloid deposition, hippocampal volume, or depression in either carriers or non-carriers. Carriers who learned their status mid-study had slightly higher levels of depression and lower cognitive scores. DISCUSSION: Knowledge of mutation status does not affect rates of change on any measured outcome. Learning of status mid-study may confer short-term changes in cognitive functioning, or changes in cognition may influence the determination of mutation status.

7.
J Neurochem ; 152(2): 235-251, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613384

RESUMO

The striatum with a number of dopamine containing neurons, receiving projections from the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area; plays a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases of motor and memory function. Additionally, oxidative damage to nucleic acid may be vital in the development of age-associated neurodegeneration. The metabolism of dopamine is recognized as one of the sources of reactive oxygen species through the Fenton mechanism. The proposed interactions of oxidative insults and dopamine in the striatum during the progression of diseases are the hypotheses of most interest to our study. This study investigated the possibility of significant interactions between these molecules that are involved in the late-stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), Parkinson disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and controls using ELISA assays, autoradiography, and mRNA in situ hybridization assay. Interestingly, lower DNA/RNA oxidative adducts levels in the caudate and putamen of diseased brains were observed with the exception of an increased DNA oxidative product in the caudate of AD brains. Similar changes were found for dopamine concentration and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 densities. We also found that downstream pre-synaptic dopamine D1 Receptor binding correlated with dopamine loss in Lewy body disease groups, and RNA damage and ß-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 in the caudate of AD. This is the first demonstration of region-specific alterations of DNA/RNA oxidative damage which cannot be viewed in isolation, but rather in connection with the interrelationship between different neuronal events; chiefly DNA oxidative adducts and density of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 densities in AD and PD patients.

8.
Ageing Res Rev ; 57: 100994, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765822

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms which relentlessly and progressively lead to substantial disability and economic burden. Pathologically, these symptoms follow the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) associated with abnormal α-synuclein (α-Syn) deposition as cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in pigmented brainstem nuclei, and in dystrophic neurons in striatal and cortical regions (Lewy neurites). Pharmacotherapy for PD focuses on improving quality of life and primarily targets dopaminergic pathways. Dopamine acts through two families of receptors, dopamine D1-like and dopamine D2-like; dopamine D3 receptors (D3R) belong to dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) family. Although D3R's precise role in the pathophysiology and treatment of PD has not been determined, we present evidence suggesting an important role for D3R in the early development and occurrence of PD. Agonist activation of D3R increases dopamine concentration, decreases α-Syn accumulation, enhances secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), ameliorates neuroinflammation, alleviates oxidative stress, promotes neurogenesis in the nigrostriatal pathway, interacts with D1R to reduce PD associated motor symptoms and ameliorates side effects of levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment. Furthermore, D3R mutations can predict PD age of onset and prognosis of PD treatment. The role of D3R in PD merits further research. This review elucidates the potential role of D3R in PD pathogenesis and therapy.

9.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(6): 311-315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794503

RESUMO

This review article provides a general overview on the various methodologies for quantifying brain structure on magnetic resonance images of the human brain. This overview is followed by examples of applications in Alzheimer dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Other examples will include traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative dementias. Finally, an overview of general principles for protocol acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging for volumetric quantification will be discussed along with the current choices of FDA cleared algorithms for use in clinical practice.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917126, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825500

RESUMO

Importance: The amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (A/T/N) framework uses cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (tTau) as a marker of neurodegeneration and CSF levels of phosphorylated tau 181 (pTau181) as a marker of tau tangles. However, it is unclear whether CSF levels of tTau and pTau181 have similar or different trajectories over the course of Alzheimer disease. Objectives: To examine the rates of change in CSF levels of tTau and pTau181 across the Alzheimer disease course and how the rates of change are associated with brain atrophy as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was set in tertiary research clinics. Each participant was a member of a pedigree with a known mutation for dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease. Participants were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the presence of a mutation and their Clinical Dementia Rating score. Data analysis was performed in June 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of change of CSF tTau and pTau181 levels and their association with the rate of change of brain volume. Results: Data from 465 participants (283 mutation carriers and 182 noncarriers) were analyzed. The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 37.8 (11.3) years, and 262 (56.3%) were women. The mean (SD) follow-up duration was 2.7 (1.5) years. Two or more longitudinal CSF and magnetic resonance imaging assessments were available for 160 and 247 participants, respectively. Sixty-five percent of mutation carriers (183) did not have symptoms at baseline (Clinical Dementia Rating score, 0). For mutation carriers, the annual rates of change for CSF tTau and pTau181 became significantly different from 0 approximately 10 years before the estimated year of onset (mean [SE] rates of change, 5.5 [2.8] for tTau [P = .05] and 0.7 [0.3] for pTau 181 [P = .04]) and 15 years before onset (mean [SE] rates of change, 5.4 [3.9] for tTau [P = .17] and 1.1 [0.5] for pTau181 [P = .03]), respectively. The rate of change of pTau181 was positive and increased at the early stages of the disease, showing a positive rate of change starting at 15 estimated years before onset until 5 estimated years before onset (mean [SE], 0.4 [0.3]), followed by a positive but decreasing rate of change at year 0 (mean [SE], 0.1 [0.3]) and then negative rates of change at 5 years (mean [SE], -0.3 [0.4]) and 10 years (mean [SE], -0.6 [0.6]) after symptom onset. In individuals without symptoms (Clinical Dementia Rating score, 0), the rates of change of CSF tTau and pTau181 were negatively associated with brain atrophy (high rates of change in CSF measures were associated with low rates of change in brain volume in asymptomatic stages). After symptom onset (Clinical Dementia Rating score, >0), an increased rate of brain atrophy was not associated with rates of change of levels of both CSF tTau and pTau181. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that CSF tTau and pTau181 may have different associations with brain atrophy across the disease time course. These results have implications for understanding the dynamics of disease pathobiology and interpreting neuronal injury biomarker concentrations in response to Alzheimer disease progression and disease-modifying therapies.

11.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study explored relationships among personality, Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, and dementia by addressing the following questions: (1) Does personality discriminate healthy aging and earliest detectable stage of AD? (2) Does personality predict conversion from healthy aging to early-stage AD? (3) Do AD biomarkers mediate any observed relationships between personality and dementia status/conversion? METHODS: Both self- and informant ratings of personality were obtained in a large well-characterized longitudinal sample of cognitively normal older adults (N = 436) and individuals with early-stage dementia (N = 74). Biomarkers included amyloid imaging, hippocampal volume, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) Aß42, and CSF tau. RESULTS: Higher neuroticism, lower conscientiousness, along with all four biomarkers strongly discriminated cognitively normal controls from early-stage AD individuals. The direct effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness were only mediated by hippocampal volume. Conscientiousness along with all biomarkers predicted conversion from healthy aging to early-stage AD; however, none of the biomarkers mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and conversion. Conscientiousness predicted conversion as strongly as the biomarkers, with the exception of hippocampal volume. CONCLUSIONS: Conscientiousness and to a lesser extent neuroticism serve as important independent behavioral markers for AD risk.

12.
Neurobiol Aging ; 83: 130-134, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732016

RESUMO

The structure and function of the brain change over the life span. Aged brains often accumulate pathologic lesions, such as amyloid plaques and tau tangles, which lead to diminished cognitive ability in some, but not all, individuals. The basis of this vulnerability and resilience is unclear. Age-related changes can alter neural firing patterns and ability to form new memories. Risk factors for cognitive decline include male sex and apolipoprotein E genotype. Physical activity seems to be protective against cognitive decline. Longitudinal studies have shown that, although the onset of amyloid pathology and associated cognitive decline can vary greatly, once it begins, the rate of deposition is similar among affected individuals. This session of the Cognitive Aging Summit III explored fixed and modifiable factors that can threaten cognitive function in aging adults and approaches to modulate at least some of these risks.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225093, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary brain tumors are composed of tumor cells, neural/glial tissues, edema, and vasculature tissue. Conventional MRI has a limited ability to evaluate heterogeneous tumor pathologies. We developed a novel diffusion MRI-based method-Heterogeneity Diffusion Imaging (HDI)-to simultaneously detect and characterize multiple tumor pathologies and capillary blood perfusion using a single diffusion MRI scan. METHODS: Seven adult patients with primary brain tumors underwent standard-of-care MRI protocols and HDI protocol before planned surgical resection and/or stereotactic biopsy. Twelve tumor sampling sites were identified using a neuronavigational system and recorded for imaging data quantification. Metrics from both protocols were compared between World Health Organization (WHO) II and III tumor groups. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging was also compared with the HDI-derived perfusion fraction. RESULTS: The conventional apparent diffusion coefficient did not identify differences between WHO II and III tumor groups. HDI-derived slow hindered diffusion fraction was significantly elevated in the WHO III group as compared with the WHO II group. There was a non-significantly increasing trend of HDI-derived tumor cellularity fraction in the WHO III group, and both HDI-derived perfusion fraction and DSC-derived CBV were found to be significantly higher in the WHO III group. Both HDI-derived perfusion fraction and slow hindered diffusion fraction strongly correlated with DSC-derived CBV. Neither HDI-derived cellularity fraction nor HDI-derived fast hindered diffusion fraction correlated with DSC-derived CBV. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional apparent diffusion coefficient, which measures averaged pathology properties of brain tumors, has compromised accuracy and specificity. HDI holds great promise to accurately separate and quantify the tumor cell fraction, the tumor cell packing density, edema, and capillary blood perfusion, thereby leading to an improved microenvironment characterization of primary brain tumors. Larger studies will further establish HDI's clinical value and use for facilitating biopsy planning, treatment evaluation, and noninvasive tumor grading.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of race in driving performance and behavior prospectively among cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: Cognitively normal participants (Clinical Dementia Rating 0), ≥ 65 years of age (n = 177) were selected from prospective, longitudinal studies at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center at Washington University. Self-reported driving behavior (Driving Habits Questionnaire) and driving performance (road test) were annually assessed. Daily driving behavior data were collected using the Driving Real World In-Vehicle Evaluation System (DRIVES). Baseline differences between African Americans and Caucasians were tested using t tests and general linear models. Amyloid imaging and cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers were compared across groups. Linear mixed models examined change in daily driving behavior over time. Survival analyses tested time to a marginal or fail rating on the road test. RESULTS: There were no differences between African Americans (n = 34) and Caucasians (n = 143) in age, sex, education, or vascular risk factors. Baseline self-reported driving behavior and road test performance were largely similar for both races. Longitudinal analyses using the DRIVES data aggregated monthly showed that African Americans had a greater reduction in number of trips made per month, miles driven per month, and trips with aggressive behavior compared to Caucasians. These effects remained after controlling for AD biomarkers, age, education, and sex. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of cognitively normal older adults, African Americans had a greater reduction of daily driving behavior compared to Caucasians. Observed racial differences may reflect differences in environmental/social factors, changes in cognition, and/or physical functioning.

15.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486975

RESUMO

Personality traits such as Neuroticism and Conscientiousness are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology in cognitively normal (CN) and impaired individuals, and may represent potential risk or resilience factors, respectively. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between personality traits and regional tau deposition using positron emission tomography (PET) in cognitively normal older adults. A cohort of CN (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0, n = 128) older adults completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess traits of Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and underwent tau-PET and ß-amyloid (Aß)-PET imaging. We utilized linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex, geriatric depression score, and Aß to evaluate the association between each of the personality traits and regional tau-PET accumulation. Elevated Neuroticism scores were associated with higher tau-PET accumulation in the amygdala (p = .002), entorhinal cortex (p = .012), and inferior temporal cortex (p = .016), as well as with a composite tau-PET measure (p = .002). In contrast, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were not associated with tau deposition in any of these regions (p's > 0.160). Our results indicate that increased Neuroticism is associated with higher tau pathophysiology in regions known to be vulnerable to AD pathophysiology in CN participants. High Neuroticism scores may therefore serve as a potential risk factor for tau accumulation. Alternatively, personality can change with the onset of AD, thus increased tau levels may affect Neuroticism scores. While future longitudinal studies are needed to determine directionality, our findings suggest early associations between Neuroticism and tau accumulation in CN adults.

16.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 5: 450-457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517032

RESUMO

Introduction: Study outcomes can be measured repeatedly based on the clinical trial protocol before randomization during what is known as the "run-in" period. However, it has not been established how best to incorporate run-in data into the primary analysis of the trial. Methods: We proposed two-period (run-in period and randomization period) linear mixed effects models to simultaneously model the run-in data and the postrandomization data. Results: Compared with the traditional models, the two-period linear mixed effects models can increase the power up to 15% and yield similar power for both unequal randomization and equal randomization. Discussion: Given that analysis of run-in data using the two-period linear mixed effects models allows more participants (unequal randomization) to be on the active treatment with similar power to that of the equal-randomization trials, it may reduce the dropout by assigning more participants to the active treatment and thus improve the efficiency of AD clinical trials.

17.
Theranostics ; 9(17): 4959-4970, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410194

RESUMO

The strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the Apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (ApoE ε4). The interaction between sex and ApoE ε4 carrier status on AD risk remains an area of intense investigation. We hypothesized that sex modulates the relationship between ApoE ε4 carrier status and brain tau deposition (a quantitative endophenotype in AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Preprocessed 18F-AV-1451 tau and 18F-AV-45 amyloid PET images, T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, demographic information, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) measurements from 108 MCI subjects in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were included. After downloading pre-processed images from ADNI, an iterative reblurred Van Cittertiteration partial volume correction (PVC) method was applied to all PET images. MRIs were used for PET spatial normalization. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in standard space, and standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) images relative to cerebellum were computed. ApoE ε4 by sex interaction analyses on 18F-AV-1451 and CSF tau (t-tau, p-tau) were assessed using generalized linear models. The association between 18F-AV-1451 SUVR and CSF tau (t-tau, p-tau) was assessed. Results: After applying PVC and controlling for age, education level and global cortical 18F-AV-45 SUVR, we found that the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate, and occipital ROIs exhibited a significant ApoE ε4 by sex interaction effect (false discovery rate P < 0.1) among MCI individuals. We also found a significant ApoE ε4 by sex interaction effect on CSF t-tau and p-tau. 18F-AV-1451 SUVR in the 5 ROIs with ApoE ε4 by sex interaction was significantly correlated with CSF p-tau and t-tau. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women are more susceptible to ApoE ε4-associated accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles in MCI compared to males. Both CSF tau (p-tau, t-tau) and brain tau PET are robust quantitative biomarkers for studying ApoE ε4 by sex effects on brain tau deposition in MCI participants.

18.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1423-1434, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), in glial cells of the brain has been used as a neuroinflammation marker in the early and middle stages of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). In this study, we investigated the changes in TSPO density with respect to late stage AD and DLB. METHODS: TSPO density was measured in multiple regions of postmortem human brains in 20 different cases: seven late stage AD cases (Braak amyloid average: C; Braak tangle average: VI; Aged 74-88, mean: 83 ± 5 years), five DLB cases (Braak amyloid average: C; Braak tangle average: V; Aged 79-91, mean: 84 ± 4 years), and eight age-matched normal control cases (3 males, 5 females: aged 77-92 years; mean: 87 ± 6 years). Measurements were taken by quantitative autoradiography using [3 H]PK11195 and [3 H]PBR28. RESULTS: No significant changes were found in TSPO density of the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus, or red nucleus of the AD and DLB brains. A significant reduction in TSPO density was found in the substantia nigra (SN) of the AD and DLB brains compared to that of age-matched healthy controls. INTERPRETATION: This distinct pattern of TSPO density change in late stage AD and DLB cases may imply the occurrence of microglia dystrophy in late stage neurodegeneration. Furthermore, TSPO may not only be a microglia activation marker in early stage AD and DLB, but TSPO may also be used to monitor microglia dysfunction in the late stage of these diseases.

19.
Neurology ; 93(17): e1647-e1659, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether plasma ß-amyloid (Aß)42/Aß40, as measured by a high-precision assay, accurately diagnosed brain amyloidosis using amyloid PET or CSF p-tau181/Aß42 as reference standards. METHODS: Using an immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, we measured Aß42/Aß40 in plasma and CSF samples from 158 mostly cognitively normal individuals that were collected within 18 months of an amyloid PET scan. RESULTS: Plasma Aß42/Aß40 had a high correspondence with amyloid PET status (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-0.93) and CSF p-tau181/Aß42 (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92). The combination of plasma Aß42/Aß40, age, and APOE ε4 status had a very high correspondence with amyloid PET (AUC 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Individuals with a negative amyloid PET scan at baseline and a positive plasma Aß42/Aß40 (<0.1218) had a 15-fold greater risk of conversion to amyloid PET-positive compared to individuals with a negative plasma Aß42/Aß40 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma Aß42/Aß40, especially when combined with age and APOE ε4 status, accurately diagnoses brain amyloidosis and can be used to screen cognitively normal individuals for brain amyloidosis. Individuals with a negative amyloid PET scan and positive plasma Aß42/Aß40 are at increased risk for converting to amyloid PET-positive. Plasma Aß42/Aß40 could be used in prevention trials to screen for individuals likely to be amyloid PET-positive and at risk for Alzheimer disease dementia. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that plasma Aß42/Aß40 levels accurately determine amyloid PET status in cognitively normal research participants.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Amiloidose/sangue , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Amiloidose/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
20.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 152: 30-36, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280104

RESUMO

Automated synthesis of a radiopharmaceutical 3-((2-fluoro-4-(5-(2'-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzyl) (methyl-11C)amino)propanoic acid ([11C]CS1P1) for PET imaging sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) was accomplished by a two-step-one-pot procedure in a Siemens CTI methylation automated module using TR-19 cyclotron. The synthesis of [11C]CS1P1 was successfully validated under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) conditions, resulting in a consistent average radiochemical yield of ∼15%, molar activity of ∼3129 GBq/µmol (decay corrected to end of bombardment, EOB), and radiochemical purity > 95%. The radiopharmaceutical product meets all quality control criteria for human use for an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to permit human studies.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , /química , Automação , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química
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