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Neurol Int ; 12(3): 109-129, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302331


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to significant morbidity and disability. PD is caused by a loss of dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and peripherally; the syndromic parkinsonism symptoms of movement disorder, gait disorder, rigidity and tremor are mostly driven by the loss of these neurons in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients taking levodopa, the standard of care treatment for PD, will begin to experience a decrease in effectiveness at varying times. These periods, referred to as "off episodes", are characterized by increased symptoms and have a detrimental effect on quality of life and disability. Istradefylline, a novel adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is indicated as a treatment addition to levodopa/carbidopa in patients experiencing "off episodes". It promotes dopaminergic activity by antagonizing adenosine in the basal ganglia. This review will discuss istradefylline as a treatment for PD patients with off episodes.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 355-368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004153


Reclassification of chronic pain as a disease may be helpful because patients with chronic pain require significant treatment and rehabilitation with a clear diagnosis. This can help address critical factors including suffering, quality of life, participation, and with family and social life, which continue to become more important in evaluating the quality of the health care we give our patients today. During the past decade of the opioid epidemic, methadone was the primary treatment for opioid addiction until buprenorphine was approved. Buprenorphine's high-affinity partial agonist properties make it a good alternative to methadone due to lower abuse potential and safer adverse effect profile while maintaining significant efficacy. Expanded out-patient prescribing options have allowed physician and physician extenders such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners to treat these patients that otherwise would have been required to utilize methadone. With unique pharmacological properties, buprenorphine is a safe and effective analgesic for chronic pain. The literature for buprenorphine shows great potential for its utilization in the treatment of chronic pain.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 493-506, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004161


Chronic pain syndromes cost the US healthcare system over $600 billion per year. A subtype of chronic pain is neuropathic pain (NP), which is defined as "pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system," according to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is very complex, and more research needs to be done to find the exact mechanism. Patients that have preexisting conditions such as cancer and diabetes are at high-risk of developing NP. Many NP patients are misdiagnosed and receive delayed treatment due to a lack of a standardized classification system that allows clinicians to identify, understand, and utilize pain management in these patients. Medications like tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake Inhibitor (SNRIs), and gabapentinoids are first-line treatments followed by opioids, cannabinoids, and other drugs. There are limited studies on the treatment of NP.

Neurol Ther ; 9(2): 301-315, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785879


Hereditary variant transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a rare genetic defect that affects about 5000-10,000 people worldwide, causing amyloidosis secondary to misfolding of mutant transthyretin (TTR) protein fibrils. TTR mutations can cause protein deposits in many extracellular regions of organs, but those deposits in cardiac and axonal cells are the primary cause of this clinical syndrome. Treatment options are limited, but new drugs are being developed. Patisiran, a novel drug, is a liposomal siRNA against TTR that specifically targets this protein, reducing the accumulation of TTR in tissues, with subsequent improvement in both neuropathy and cardiac function. Patisiran is likely to serve as a prototype for the development of further intelligent drug solutions for use in targeted therapy. In this review we summarize the evidence currently available on the treatment of polyneuropathy in people with ATTRv with patisiran. We review the evidence on its efficacy, safety, and indications of use, citing novel and seminal papers on these subjects.

Psychopharmacol Bull ; 50(4 Suppl 1): 163-188, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633424


Migraines are a common form of primary headache, affecting women more than men (17.4% and 5.7% of US population, respectively, a total of 12%) that carry significant morbidity and disability, as well as a hefty healthcare price tag. They are most prevalent in women of reproductive ages and are estimated to be the 6th disease in order of causing global burden. They are estimated to cause 45.1 million years lived with disability, or 2.9% of global years lost to disability. Migraine treatment divides into acute, abortive treatment for relief of an ongoing migraine attack, and prophylactic therapy to reduce the occurrence of migraines, specifically for patients suffering from chronic and frequent episodic migraines. Traditional abortive treatment usually begins with NSAID and non-specific analgesics that are effective in curbing mild to moderate attacks. 5HT1-agonists, such as triptans, are often used for second-line and for severe attacks. Triptans are generally better tolerated in the longterm than NSAIDs and other analgesics, though they carry a significant side-effect profile and are contraindicated in large parts of the population. Prophylactic therapy is usually reserved for patients with frequent recurrence owing to medication side effects and overall poor adherence to the medication schedule. Importantly, medication overuse may actually lead to the development of chronic migraines from previously episodic attacks. Recent research has shed more light on the pathophysiology of migraine and the role of CGRP in the trigeminovascular system. Recent pharmacological advances were made in developing more specific drugs based on this knowledge, including CGRP neutralizing antibodies, receptor antagonists, and the development of ditans. These novel drugs are highly specific to peripheral and central 5-HT1F receptors and effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Binding these receptors reduces the production of CGRP and Glutamate, two important ligands in the nociceptive stimulus involved with the generation and propagation of migraines. Several large clinical studies showed Lasmiditan to be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Importantly, due to its receptor specificity, it lacks the vasoconstriction that is associated with triptans and is thus safer is larger parts of the population, specifically in patients with cardiac and vascular disease. Though more research is required, specifically with aftermarket surveillance to elucidate rare potential side effects, Lasmiditan is a targeted anti-migraine drug that is both safe and effective, and carries an overall superior therapeutic profile to its predecessors. It joins the array of medications that target CGRP signaling, such as gepants and CGRP-antibodies, to establish a new line of care for this common disabling condition.