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1.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 44(2): 131-137, mar.-abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-150660

RESUMO

Background: Parents’/caregivers’ quality of life is an important aspect to consider when handling paediatric asthma, but there is a paucity of valid and reliable instruments to measure it. The Family Impact of Childhood Bronchial Asthma (IFABI-R) is a recently developed questionnaire to facilitate the assessment of asthma-related parents’/caregivers’ quality of life. This study researches the psychometric properties of IFABI-R. Methods: Parents/main caregivers of 462 children between 4 and 14 years of age with active asthma were included in the sample. IFABI-R was administered on two different occasions and a number of other variables related to the parents’/caregivers’ quality of life were measured: child's asthma control, family functioning, and parents’/caregivers’ perception of asthma symptoms in the child. IFABI-R evaluative and discriminative properties were analysed, and the minimal important change in the IFABI-R score was identified. Results: IFABI-R showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.941), cross-sectional construct validity (correlation with the degree of child's asthma control, family functioning and parent/caregiver perception of the child's asthma symptoms), longitudinal construct validity (correlation of changes in the IFABI-R with changes in asthma control and changes in the perception of symptoms), sensitivity to change and test–retest reliability. An absolute change of 0.3 units in IFABI-R related to a minimal significant change in the parents’/caregivers’ quality of life. Conclusions: IFABI-R is a reliable and valid instrument to study the quality of life of parents/caregivers of children with asthma (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Impactos na Saúde , Saúde da Família , Psicometria , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 44(2): 131-7, 2016 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents'/caregivers' quality of life is an important aspect to consider when handling paediatric asthma, but there is a paucity of valid and reliable instruments to measure it. The Family Impact of Childhood Bronchial Asthma (IFABI-R) is a recently developed questionnaire to facilitate the assessment of asthma-related parents'/caregivers' quality of life. This study researches the psychometric properties of IFABI-R. METHODS: Parents/main caregivers of 462 children between 4 and 14 years of age with active asthma were included in the sample. IFABI-R was administered on two different occasions and a number of other variables related to the parents'/caregivers' quality of life were measured: child's asthma control, family functioning, and parents'/caregivers' perception of asthma symptoms in the child. IFABI-R evaluative and discriminative properties were analysed, and the minimal important change in the IFABI-R score was identified. RESULTS: IFABI-R showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.941), cross-sectional construct validity (correlation with the degree of child's asthma control, family functioning and parent/caregiver perception of the child's asthma symptoms), longitudinal construct validity (correlation of changes in the IFABI-R with changes in asthma control and changes in the perception of symptoms), sensitivity to change and test-retest reliability. An absolute change of 0.3 units in IFABI-R related to a minimal significant change in the parents'/caregivers' quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: IFABI-R is a reliable and valid instrument to study the quality of life of parents/caregivers of children with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
3.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 43(6): 543-552, nov-dic. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-145499

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of wheezing during the first year of life in Cantabria, Spain and its associated risk factors. Methodology: A cross-sectional, multicentre, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in a representative sample of 958 infants in the first year of life, born in Cantabria. A previously validated and standardised written questionnaire was completed by the parents of infants seen between 12 and 15 months of age in the Primary Care Centres. Results: The prevalence of wheezing was 32.7%. A relationship was found with male gender (OR 1.38, 95%CI [1.05–1.81]), the presence of a sibling (OR 2.43 [1.38–3.98]), attending nursery school (OR 2.40 [1.71–3.35]), exclusive breastfeeding for <3 months (OR 1.47 [1.12–1.93]), a first cold at ≤3 months (OR 2.07 [1.56–2.74]), asthma in siblings (OR 2.17 [1.25–3.77]), parental allergic rhinitis (OR 1.62 [1.10–2.37]) and paracetamol use >1 a week (OR 2.49 [1.31–4.73]), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 2.18 [1.51–3.15]). The prevalence of recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) was 14.3%. Significant associations were observed with the male gender (OR 1.79 [1.23–2.60]), attending nursery school (OR 2.92 [1.96–4.35]), first cold at ≤3 months (OR 2.11 [1.46–3.04]), eczema (OR 1.92 [1.21–3.04]), maternal asthma (OR 1.77 [1.00–3.14]), exclusive breastfeeding for <3 months (OR 1.53 [1.06–2.22]), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.53 [1.05–2.22]). Conclusions: One third of the infants experienced wheezing during the first year of life; those who were less exclusively breastfed, attended nursery school, presented eczema, family asthma or allergic rhinitis, and maternal smoking during pregnancy (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Fatores Sexuais , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Asma/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Espanha , Prevalência , Escolas de Enfermagem , Aleitamento Materno , Fumar/efeitos adversos
4.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 43(6): 543-52, 2015 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25796305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of wheezing during the first year of life in Cantabria, Spain and its associated risk factors. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, multicentre, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in a representative sample of 958 infants in the first year of life, born in Cantabria. A previously validated and standardised written questionnaire was completed by the parents of infants seen between 12 and 15 months of age in the Primary Care Centres. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing was 32.7%. A relationship was found with male gender (OR 1.38, 95%CI [1.05-1.81]), the presence of a sibling (OR 2.43 [1.38-3.98]), attending nursery school (OR 2.40 [1.71-3.35]), exclusive breastfeeding for <3 months (OR 1.47 [1.12-1.93]), a first cold at ≤3 months (OR 2.07 [1.56-2.74]), asthma in siblings (OR 2.17 [1.25-3.77]), parental allergic rhinitis (OR 1.62 [1.10-2.37]) and paracetamol use >1 a week (OR 2.49 [1.31-4.73]), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 2.18 [1.51-3.15]). The prevalence of recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) was 14.3%. Significant associations were observed with the male gender (OR 1.79 [1.23-2.60]), attending nursery school (OR 2.92 [1.96-4.35]), first cold at ≤3 months (OR 2.11 [1.46-3.04]), eczema (OR 1.92 [1.21-3.04]), maternal asthma (OR 1.77 [1.00-3.14]), exclusive breastfeeding for <3 months (OR 1.53 [1.06-2.22]), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.53 [1.05-2.22]). CONCLUSIONS: One third of the infants experienced wheezing during the first year of life; those who were less exclusively breastfed, attended nursery school, presented eczema, family asthma or allergic rhinitis, and maternal smoking during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Asma/complicações , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Escolas Maternais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espanha
7.
Bol. pediatr ; 49(209): 248-258, jul.-sept. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-87459

RESUMO

Aunque el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica pediátrica más prevalente, son pocos los estudios basados en la historia clínica de Atención Primaria (AP). En este sentido, conocer sus características clínicas ayudará a conocer la verdadera magnitud que el asma representa en AP. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal de prevalencia de asma diagnosticado en niños adscritos a cuatro cupos de pediatría de AP de Cantabria (2478 niños de 6 a 15 años) con descripción del perfil clínico, epidemiológico y alérgico de los niños asmáticos (295 niños) encontrados a partir de los datos de sus historias clínicas hasta septiembre de 2008. Resultados: La prevalencia de asma diagnosticada fue del 11,90% (295 niños) con variaciones desde un 14,4% hasta el 7,4% dependiendo del cupo estudiado. La prevalencia de asma activo con crisis de asma en el último año fue del 8,3% (206 niños). El 59% de los asmáticos fueron varones. Como antecedentes familiares destacaban la presencia de asma en alguno de los padres en el 30,5%, de rinitis alérgica en el 40,3%, de dermatitis atópica en el 27,1% y de tabaquismo en el 52,9%, con un 55,3% de niños asmáticos afectados de tabaquismo pasivo. Un 55,3% de los pacientes habían presentado bronquiolitis. El 61% de los asmáticos asociaron rinitis alérgica y 48,8% dermatitis atópica. El nivel de gravedad del asma fue un 68,5% asma episódico ocasional, 18,7% asma episódico frecuente, 12,5% asma persistente moderado y 0,3% asma persistente grave. Un 24,7% de los niños asmáticos requirieron acudir a urgencias en el último año. Los meses con más crisis de asma fueron septiembre y octubre con otro pico también en el mes de mayo. Un 59,6% no tenían tratamiento de base, 16,9% usaban corticoides inhalados, 22% tratamiento combinado (β2 de acción larga y corticoide inhalado), 2,4% montelukast y un 10,5% inmunoterapia. El 78,3% de los pacientes estudiados fueron atópicos con un predominio de alergia a ácaros del polvo (68,5%) y del polen de las gramí- neas (34,6%). La duración de la lactancia materna en la población estudiada fue de 90 días, siendo mayor la duración a mayor gravedad del asma (120 días en el asma persistente frente a 60 días en el asma episódico ocasional), (p=0,08). Solamente el 29,2% de los niños asmáticos tenían realizada la espirometría y un 9,5% se derivaron a neumología frente al 30,5% a alergología. El nivel de gravedad del asma se asoció con la presencia de asma en el padre (OR=2,65, p=0,03), asma en los hermanos (OR=3,88, p<0,001) y el antecedente de haber padecido bronquiolitis (OR=1,75, p=0,05). Así mismo, la menor edad de los niños fue el único factor encontrado que predecía el acudir a urgencias (OR=1,12, p=0,03). Conclusiones: El conocimiento del perfil clínico-epidemiológico del asma en AP permitirá mejorar el manejo de esta enfermedad, conocer mejor su impacto real, así como valorar su tendencia futura y gravedad. Se confirma la existencia de una prevalencia alta de asma bronquial por diagnóstico médico de forma similar a las encontradas en el norte de España (AU)


Although bronchial asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease, there are few studies based on the medical history of Primary Health Care (PHC). In this sense, knowing its clinical features will help to know the real magnitude asthma has in PHC. Methods: Prevalence study of all the children who were diagnosed with asthma (295 children) assigned to four pediatric consultations of PHC in Cantabria (Northern Spain, 2478 children) and where clinical, allergic and epidemiological profile, taken from the data of their medical histories until September 2008, are shown. Results: It was found a prevalence of diagnosed asthma of 11.90% (295 children), with variations from 14.4% to 7.4% depending on the pediatric consultations studied. The active asthma prevalence (asthma crisis during the last year) was of 8.3% (206 children). 59% of all asthmatic children were men. Concerning family antecedents, we must take into account that in some of the children´s parents we have found the presence of asthma in 30.5%, of allergic rhinitis in 40.3%, atopic dermatitis in 27.1% and habit smoking in 52.9%, with 55.3% of asthmatic children affected by passive smoking. 55.3% of the patients had suffered from bronchiolitis. 61% of the asthmatic ones associated allergic rhinitis and a 48.8% atopic dermatitis. Regarding the severity of asthma we found that 68.5% were occasional episodic asthma, 18.7% frequent episodic asthma, 12.5% moderate persistent asthma and 0.3% severe persistent asthma. 24.7% of the asthmatic children required emergency services during last year. September and October are the months with a higher prevalence of asthma attacks and we find another rise of asthma attacks in May. 59.6% did not have base treatment, 16.9% used inhaled corticoids, 22% combined treatment (‚2 of long action and inhaled corticoid), 2.4% montelukast and a 10.5% inmmunotherapy. 78.3% of the studied patients were atopics, 68.5% were allergic to dust mites and a 34.6% to grass pollen. Breastfeeding period of time of the population studied was of 90 days, the more the breastfeeding lasts, the more severe asthma was (120 days of persistent asthma against 60 days of occasional episodic asthma), (p=0,08). Only a 29.2% of the asthmatic children had made the spirometry and a 9.5% were sent to pneumology against the 30.5% who were sent to allergology The level of severity of asthma was associated with the presence of asthma in the father (OR=2,65, p=0,03), asthma in the brothers (OR=3,88, p< 0.001) and the antecedent of to have suffered bronquiolitis (OR=1,75, p=0,05). Also, the smaller age of the children was the only found factor that it predicted going to urgencies (OR=1,12, p=0,03). Conclusions: The knowledge of the clinical-epidemiological profile of asthma in PHC will allow to improve the handling of this disease, to know its real impact, as well as to value its future tendency and severity. The existence of high prevalence of bronchial asthma by medical diagnosis of form similar to the ones found in the north of Spain is confirmed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Asma/etiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Alérgenos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Risco
8.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 63(6): 516-25, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16324618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. RESULTS: All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p < 0.001). The average age at which teenagers had the first mobile phone was 13 years old. Expenditure on mobile phones amounted to 15 3 a month in girls and 10 3 a month in boys, and mobiles were mainly used for sending messages. Nearly half the teenagers (46.4 %) took their mobile phones to high school and reported they had an average of three mobile phones at home. Most (82.1 %) surfed the net but boys preferred surfing and downloading games and girls preferred chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of boys versus 7.7 % of girls; p < 0.001). Nearly two-thirds of teenagers (71.5 %) had a video console, especially boys (87 % of boys versus 57.2 % of girls; p < 0.001) and they started playing with them at an average age of 8.8 years. Boys preferred video games with shooting, fights, sports and driving, while girls preferred adventure video games. Nearly a quarter (22.2 %) spent money on video games and cybercafés (an average of 27.06 3 a month in boys and 16.81 3 a month in girls) with no significant differences between sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Society as a whole and especially health professionals should increase health education on mass media consumption, by stimulating reasonable use of mass media and teaching teenagers to be critical. Parents should set a limit of less than 2 hours/day to the use of mass media and should avoid their presence in teenagers' bedrooms. Prepay mobile phone should be used and switched off in inappropriate places. Parents should supervise and educate teenagers about video games, Internet access and e-mail usage in adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Telecomunicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 63(6): 516-525, dic. 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-043142

RESUMO

Objetivos: Describir la utilización de distintos medios de comunicación en los adolescentes (televisión, móvil, ordenador, internet y videojuegos) y analizar la influencia en su salud y desarrollo. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal realizado mediante la cumplimentación de una encuesta por parte de 884 adolescentes de 14 a 18 años de Cantabria, que cursaban 3.º y 4.º de ESO en los institutos pertenecientes a seis poblaciones de Cantabria en junio de 2003. El análisis estadístico consistió en una estadística descriptiva univariable y bivariable. Resultados: Todos los adolescentes tenían televisor en su domicilio, y el 24 % de las familias, cuatro o más. La presencia de los distintos medios de comunicación en la habitación del adolescente fue del 52,5 % para la TV, el 57,8 % para el ordenador, el 52 % para el internet y el 38,7 % para la videoconsola. El radiocasete y el reproductor de CD son los más presentes en el dormitorio, con el 76,8 y el 67,4 %, respectivamente. Los adolescentes ven una media de 3 h/día de televisión entre semana y 3,2 h/día el fin de semana; usan la videoconsola entre semana una media de 0,69 h/día (41 min), y una media de 1,09 h/día (65 min) el fin de semana. En el caso de internet entre semana, lo utilizan una media de 0,83 h/día (49 min), y una media de 1,15 h/día (69 min) el fin de semana. El 87,2 % de los adolescentes tienen móvil, y son las mujeres adolescentes las que más disponen del mismo (91,6 % frente al 82,4 %; p < 0,001); la media de edad para tener el primer móvil es de 13 años. El gasto en teléfono móvil es de 15 3/mes en las mujeres y 10 3/mes en los varones, y lo utilizan sobre todo para enviar mensajes. El 46,4 % de los adolescentes llevan móvil al instituto y refieren que hay una media de tres móviles por familia. El 82,1 % de los adolescentes navega solo en internet y de forma significativa los varones prefieren navegar y descargarse juegos de la red, mientras que las mujeres chatean y envían más correos electrónicos. El 62 % de los adolescentes han acudido a una ciberteca, y el 40,8 % ha visitado una página pornográfica en internet, aunque son los varones los que más las visitan (33,1 % de varones frente al 7,7 % de mujeres; p < 000,1). El 71,5 % de los adolescentes tienen videoconsola, y son los varones los que más la usan (87 % frente al 57,2 % de las mujeres; p < 0,001), y juegan desde una media de edad de 8,8 años. Los videojuegos de disparos y lucha, deporte y conducción son preferidos de manera significativa por los varones, mientras que las chicas adolescentes eligen los videojuegos de aventuras. El 22,2 % de los adolescentes tienen un gasto en videojuegos, incluyendo cibersalas, de 27,06 3/mes los varones y de 16,81 3/mes las mujeres, sin diferencias significativas por sexo. Conclusiones: La sociedad en general y los profesionales sanitarios en particular deben realizar una mayor educación sanitaria respecto al consumo de los diferentes medios de comunicación, estimulando una utilización racional de los mismos, y enseñándoles a ser críticos. Los padres deben limitar el consumo acumulativo de los distintos medios de comunicación a menos de 2 h diarias, evitar su presencia en las habitaciones de los adolescentes, utilizar móviles de tarjeta prepago, con desconexión del aparato en lugares que resulten inapropiados, supervisar y orientar sobre el contenido de los videojuegos, las páginas de acceso a internet y el uso del correo electrónico entre los adolescentes


Objectives: To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. Material and methods: We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. Results: All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p < 0.001). The average age at which teenagers had the first mobile phone was 13 years old. Expenditure on mobile phones amounted to 15 3 a month in girls and 10 3 a month in boys, and mobiles were mainly used for sending messages. Nearly half the teenagers (46.4 %) took their mobile phones to high school and reported they had an average of three mobile phones at home. Most (82.1 %) surfed the net but boys preferred surfing and downloading games and girls preferred chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of boys versus 7.7 % of girls; p < 0.001). Nearly two-thirds of teenagers (71.5 %) had a video console, especially boys (87 % of boys versus 57.2 % of girls; p < 0.001) and they started playing with them at an average age of 8.8 years. Boys preferred video games with shooting, fights, sports and driving, while girls preferred adventure video games. Nearly a quarter (22.2 %) spent money on video games and cybercafés (an average of 27.06 3 a month in boys and 16.81 3 a month in girls) with no significant differences between sexes. Conclusions: Society as a whole and especially health professionals should increase health education on mass media consumption, by stimulating reasonable use of mass media and teaching teenagers to be critical. Parents should set a limit of less than 2 hours/day to the use of mass media and should avoid their presence in teenagers' bedrooms. Prepay mobile phone should be used and switched off in inappropriate places. Parents should supervise and educate teenagers about video games, Internet access and e-mail usage in adolescence


Assuntos
Adolescente , Humanos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Meios de Comunicação , Telecomunicações , Telefone Celular , Estudos Transversais , Internet , Espanha/epidemiologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Bol. pediatr ; 44(187): 9-9, ene.-mar. 2004. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-37648

RESUMO

Introducción: El asma bronquial, la rinitis alérgica y la dermatitis atópica son las patologías infantiles más frecuentes en los países desarrollados, con una morbilidad y prevalencia que ha aumentado en las últimas décadas. El estudio ISAAC (International Study o f Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), ha establecido un método de cuestionario que permite la comparación de la prevalencia y gravedad de estas enfermedades entre las diferentes comunidades. En España, se ha demostrado una gran variabilidad geográfica entre los centros participantes, con resultados de prevalencia que en el caso del asma oscila entre el 5,5 y el 14,6 por ciento. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal de prevalencia y gravedad de asma bronquial, rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica mediante cuestionario escrito y videocuestionario del estudio ISAAC, a 1.813 adolescentes de 13-14 años de edad escolarizados en las ciudades de Santander y Torrelavega. Resultados: El número total de encuestas validadas fue de 1.813 adolescentes que representó el 80,5 por ciento de la población de estudio (n = 2.253). La prevalencia acumulada de asma fue del 24,9 por ciento y la prevalencia actual de asma (asma en el último año) del 16,7 por ciento [IC-95 por ciento:15,0 por ciento-18,5 por ciento]. Un 16,8 por ciento de los adolescentes refieren haber sido diagnosticados de asmáticos. Un 21,1 por ciento refieren asma inducido por el ejercicio. La prevalencia acumulada de asma medida con el videocuestionario es de un 27,2 por ciento y la prevalencia actual de asma es de un 14,4 por ciento. El 9,9 por ciento de los adolescentes se identificaron con la escena de ataque severo de asma del videocuestionario. No se encontraron diferencias significativas según el sexo y entre ambas ciudades en las prevalencias acumulada y actual de asma bronquial. El 55,1 por ciento de los adolescentes manifestaron historia previa de síntomas relacionados con rinitis y el 44,3 por ciento [IC 95 por ciento: 42,0-46,6 por ciento], refirieron síntomas en el último año (prevalencia actual). Un 12 por ciento asociaron síntomas de rinoconjuntivitis en el último año, y los meses primaverales fueron cuando presentaron con más frecuencia síntomas nasales. Un 16,8 por ciento de los adolescentes refieren haber sido diagnosticados de rinitis alérgica o fiebre del heno y solo al 6 por ciento de ellos, los problemas nasales les impidió realizar las actividades diarias de vez en cuando o muchas veces. El 10,5 por ciento de los encuestados tuvo alguna vez dermatitis atópica, y el 7,3 por ciento [IC 95 por ciento: 6,2-8,6 por ciento], presentaron dermatitis atópica en el último año. Las formas severas de dermatitis atópica que alteraban el sueño fueron infrecuentes (1,5 por ciento), y un 15,2 por ciento de los adolescentes refieren haber sido diagnosticados de eczema o dermatitis atópica. Conclusiones: La elevada prevalencia de síntomas relacionados con asma bronquial, rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica en los adolescentes de 13-14 años estudiados en Cantabria es concordante con la referida en otras zonas geográficas de nuestro país con metodología semejante, siendo la prevalencia de asma bronquial la más alta de las publicadas. El conocimiento de estos resultados contribuirá a no infravalorar la sintomatología alérgica nasal y cutánea en la infancia y a un mejor control de los factores predisponentes (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica Perene/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Epidemiológicos
12.
Acta pediatr. esp ; 61(1): 38-40, ene. 2003. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-111022

RESUMO

La coartación aórtica es una cardiopatía congénita frecuente en la edad pediátrica cuya detección tardía se asocia con una enfermedad cardiovascular prematura en la edad adulta. Presentamos el caso clínico de una niña de 6 años de edad en la que, a pesar de presentar los tres signos clásicos de la coartación aórtica como son: la hipertensión arterial de las extremidades superiores, la ausencia de palpación de los pulsos femorales y la existencia de un soplo sistólico en borde esternal izquierdo y foco aórtico, no fue diagnosticada hasta esa edad. Se realizó angioplastia percutánea con balón de la coartación y se instauró tratamiento con captopril para el control de la hipertensión. Resaltamos la importancia de medir la presión arterial de forma habitual y la palpación sistemática de los pulsos periféricos en todos los controles de salud, así como la necesidad de incorporar como una determinación más la toma de la presión arterial en brazos y piernas durante al menos un examen físico después del periodo de recién nacido (AU)


Aortic coarctation is a common congenital heart disease in children whose late detection is associated with premature cardiovascular disease in adult life. We present the case report of a 6-year-old girl in whom, despite the presence of the three classical signs of aortic coarctation (arterial hypertension of upper extremities, absence of femoral pulses, and existence of a systolic murmur at left sterna border and aorta), the disease was not diagnosed until that age. Balloon angioplasty was carried out to treat the coarctation, accompanied by captopril therapy to control the hypertension. We stress the importance of routine monitoring of arterial blood pressure and systematic palpation of peripheral pulses in all follow-up examinations. Furthermore, we recommend the determination of blood pressure in arms and legs at least once after the newborn period (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Coartação Aórtica/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde
13.
An Esp Pediatr ; 54(1): 44-52, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11181194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine television viewing habits in Cantabrian children and the influence of these habits on their health and development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A transversal survey was carried out in the parents of 796 children aged 2-13 years old with the help of 47 primary care pediatricians. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests as well as multiple regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Children aged 2-5 years old watched television for 9 hours/week, those aged 6-9 years watched 12.5 hours/ week and those aged 10-13 years watched 14.6 hours/week. Nineteen percent of the families had three or more televisions in their homes. The presence of a television, computer or video games in the child's room increased with age and was 15%, 9% and 10%, respectively. Girls aged 10-13 years were more likely to have computers in their rooms (20% versus 9% of boys of the same age),while boys aged 10-13 were more likely to have video games than girls (22% versus 12%, respectively). Twenty-seven percent of the children watched television alone, 29% watched it while having breakfast and 36% while having lunch or dinner. Fifty-eight percent of the children never ate sweets while watching television and only 1% habitually did so. Obese children and those with a chronic illness watched television more (4.5 and 3 hours/week, respectively) than healthy children. Children with lower school performance watched more television (2.85 hours/week) p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should carry out health education on the number of hours children should spend in front of the television, advising a limit of less than 2 hours/day (the ideal time would be less than 1 hour/day). Parents should watch television with their children, discuss the programs with them and teach them to be critical. The presence of television sets in children's rooms should be avoided and television should not be used as a nanny.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
An. esp. pediatr. (Ed. impr) ; 54(1): 44-52, ene. 2001.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-1729

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: conocer lo hábitos televisivos de los niños de Cantabria y valorar la influencia en su salud del desarrollo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio transversal realizado mediante la cumplimentación de una encuesta por parte de los padres de 796 niños de 2 a 13 años de edad de Cantabria, en la que participaron 47 pediatras de atención primaria. Se han utilizado para el análisis estadístico las pruebas de x2, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis y regresión múltiple. RESULTADOS: los niños y niñas pequeños (25 años) ven una mediana de 9 h/semanales de televisión, los medianos (6-9 años 12,5 h/semanales, y los mayores (10-13 años) 14,6h/semanales. El 19% de las familias tienen tres o más televisores en su casa. La presencia de televisor, ordenador o videoconsola en la habitación del niño aumenta con la edad, siendo de forma general de un 15, 9 y 10%, respectivamente. Las niñas mayores son las que tienen más ordenador en su habitación (20% frente al 9% en los niños de la misma edad), al contrario de lo que ocurre con la videoconsola en la que más niños (22%) que niñas (12%) la tienen. El 27% de los niños ven la televisión solos y el 29% la ven mientras desayunan, el 36% mientras comen y cenan. El 58% de los niños nunca come golosinas viendo la televisión, y sólo un 1% las come habitualmente. Los niños obesos y los que presentan una enfermedad crónica ven 4,5 y 3 h/semanales más de televisión, respectivamente, que los que están sanos. Asimismo, se observó un mayor consumo televisivo (2,85 H/semanales más) en los niños con peor rendimiento escolar P=0,001. CONCLUSIÓN: Los pediatras deben realizar educación sanitaria respecto al consumo televisivo, aconsejando que éste se limite a menos de 2 h/día (lo ideal menos de 1h/día). Los padres deben ver la televisión con sus hijos, comentando los programas y enseñándoles a ser críticos. Hay que evitar la presencia de televisión en la habitación de los niños y ésta no debe utilizarse como canguro (AU)


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Hábitos , Espanha , Televisão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais
15.
An. esp. pediatr. (Ed. impr) ; 53(3): 234-240, sept. 2000.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-2521

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: El pediatra de atención primaria debe ser capaz de detectar las alteraciones de conducta en los niños, ya que estos problemas se hallan presentes en aproximadamente un 50 por ciento de las consultas pediátricas. Para ello es necesario disponer de un instrumento útil y de fácil cumplimentación como es el cuestionario de Eyberg sobre la conducta infantil. OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia de alteraciones de la conducta infantil mediante la utilización del cuestionario de Eyberg y su posible influencia por determinadas variables (edad, sexo, estudios de los padres, televisión, lectura y rendimiento escolar).MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en junio de 1998 mediante cumplimentación por parte de los padres de 796 niños de 2-13 años, de la versión española del cuestionario de Eyberg para el cribado de las alteraciones de conducta en los niños. Todos los niños incluidos procedían de las consultas pediátricas ubicadas en los centros de salud de Cantabria, colaborando 47 pediatras de atención primaria. RESULTADOS: Un 17,2 por ciento de los niños de Cantabria de 2-13 años presenta anomalías de conducta, siendo similar por grupos de edad y sexo, excepto en las niñas mayores (10-13 años), que son las que menos trastornos de conducta manifiestan (p < 0,011). La conducta más frecuentemente referida fue "le cuesta estar quieto un momento" (25,6 por ciento) y la que menos, "pega a los padres" (0,4 por ciento). Se asoció una menor frecuencia de alteraciones de conducta a tener menos edad, ser niña, nivel de formación mayor de los padres y haber comenzado a ver la televisión más tardíamente, mientras que se asoció con mayor frecuencia de conductas alteradas el hecho de un mayor número de horas dedicadas a ver televisión. Hasta 2,84 horas más a la semana ven la televisión los niños con alteraciones de la conducta en comparación con los demás niños, siendo esta diferencia de 4,99 horas más a la semana en los niños de 10-13 años. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de alteraciones de la conducta encontrada en nuestra población hace necesaria la utilización del cuestionario de Eyberg en los controles de salud que realiza el pediatra de atención primaria (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha , Prevalência , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais
17.
An Esp Pediatr ; 49(2): 120-4, 1998 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9773544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Different studies conclude that apoprotein E (Apo E) is a genetic determinant of lipid levels and cardiovascular risk, although these studies have been carried out principally in adults, with scarce and variable results available in children. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between lipid profile and the different Apo E isoforms (E2, E3 and E4) in a group of Spanish children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a transversal study, apo E genotypes and the lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides (TG), Apo A1, apo B and Lp(a)] were determined in 191 children (110 boys and 81 girls) between 8 and 15 years of age. Apo E genotyping was performed by means of polymerase chain reaction and subsequent digestion with the restriction enzyme HhaI. RESULTS: The relative frequency for the E3, E4 and E2 alleles were 0.87, 0.09 and 0.04, respectively. Total cholesterol, LDL-c and Apo B serum levels were highest in the group of individual with the genotypes E3/E4 and lowest in the group E2/E3, while E3/E3 individuals had intermediate levels. When analyzed according to gender, we only found statistical significance in the group of girls (p < 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The apo E genotype was significantly associated with lipid differences observed in the childhood population and this is modulated by gender.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Genótipo , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
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