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2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(8): 896-909, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390583

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States, with less than half of patients living >5 years from diagnosis. A major challenge in treating ovarian cancer is that most patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. The best outcomes are observed in patients whose primary treatment includes complete resection of all visible disease plus combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Research efforts are focused on primary neoadjuvant treatments that may improve resectability, as well as systemic therapies providing improved long-term survival. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy recommendations, including the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the role of PARP inhibitors and bevacizumab as maintenance therapy options in select patients who have completed primary chemotherapy.

3.
Cancer ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have reported conflicting findings on survival for advanced-stage ovarian cancer treated with primary debulking surgery (PDS) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy with interval debulking; surgical complications and mortality are higher with PDS. We assessed women's preferences for tradeoffs related to this important clinical decision. METHODS: Ovarian cancer patients were recruited to complete a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) consisting of 8 choice tasks presenting experimentally designed treatment alternatives in terms of treatment order, extent of surgery including risk of ostomy, chance of death from surgical complications (1%-10%), readmission for surgical complications (5%-50%), progression-free survival (1-3 years), and overall survival (3-5 years). Random-parameters logit regression was applied to model participants' choices as a function of attribute levels. RESULTS: A total of 101 ovarian cancer survivors completed the DCE survey; of these participants, 30% were receiving chemotherapy at the time, and 33% had prior recurrence. Overall survival was of greatest importance to participants (36/100), followed by risk of readmission due to complications (23/100), progression-free survival (19/100), surgical mortality (16/100), extent of surgery (4/100), and order of surgery and chemotherapy (2/100). Overall, the participants would tolerate a 15-percentage point increase in risk of major complications (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-29%) or a 4-percentage point increase in the risk of surgical mortality (95% CI, 2%-13%) in order to increase their expected overall survival from 3 to 3.5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients would accept a moderately higher risk of perioperative complications and surgical mortality in exchange for substantial gains in survival. These quantitative findings provide clinicians with a framework to discuss preferences with patients and to incorporate preferences into clinical trial design.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 822-830, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls). RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.

6.
World J Surg Oncol ; 17(1): 80, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) for nodal recurrence and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) following surgical staging that included adequate lymph node sampling. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of patients undergoing surgical staging for FIGO stage I endometrioid EC between 1998 and 2015 were performed using an institutional database and the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Using the institutional database, logistic regression modeling identified predictors of nodal recurrence; Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict progression-free survival (PFS). Utilizing NCDB, Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Among 275 institutional cases, LVSI was present in 48 (17.5%). There were 11 nodal recurrences: 18.8% (9/48) of cases with LVSI had a nodal recurrence compared to 0.88% (2/227) of those without LVSI. In multivariate analysis of institutional data, LVSI was the only significant predictor of nodal recurrence (p = 0.002). Among 28,076 NCDB cases, LVSI was present in 3766 (13.5%). In multivariate analysis of NCDB, grade 3, LVSI, and depth of invasion (all p <  0.001) were prognostic for OS after adjusting for adjuvant radiation. CONCLUSION: LVSI is an independent prognostic factor for nodal recurrence in stage I endometrial cancer with lymph node assessment. LVSI is associated with lower OS in NCDB. Given these findings, adjuvant therapy could be considered in these patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma Endometrioide/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Linfonodos/patologia , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 19(6): 339-348, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076661

RESUMO

Research into factors affecting treatment response or survival in patients with cancer frequently involves cohorts that span the most common range of clinical outcomes, as such patients are most readily available for study. However, attention has turned to highly unusual patients who have exceptionally favourable or atypically poor responses to treatment and/or overall survival, with the expectation that patients at the extremes may provide insights that could ultimately improve the outcome of individuals with more typical disease trajectories. While clinicians can often recount surprising patients whose clinical journey was very unusual, given known clinical characteristics and prognostic indicators, there is a lack of consensus among researchers on how best to define exceptional patients, and little has been proposed for the optimal design of studies to identify factors that dictate unusual outcome. In this Opinion article, we review different approaches to identifying exceptional patients with cancer and possible study designs to investigate extraordinary clinical outcomes. We discuss pitfalls with finding these rare patients, including challenges associated with accrual of patients across different treatment centres and time periods. We describe recent molecular and immunological factors that have been identified as contributing to unusual patient outcome and make recommendations for future studies on these intriguing patients.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(1): 199-206, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endocrine therapy is often considered as a treatment for hormone-responsive gynecologic malignancies. In breast cancer, activating mutations in the estrogen receptor (mutESR1) contribute to therapeutic resistance to endocrine therapy, especially aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical relevance of ESR1 genomic alterations in gynecologic malignancies. METHODS: DNA from FFPE tumor tissue obtained during routine clinical care for 9645 gynecologic malignancies (ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulvar, and placenta) was analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations (base substitutions (muts), insertions, deletions, rearrangements, and amplifications) in ESR1 by hybrid capture next generation sequencing. A subset of alterations was characterized in laboratory-based transcription assays for response to endocrine therapies. RESULTS: A total of 295 ESR1 genomic alterations were identified in 285 (3.0%) cases. mutESR1 were present in 86 (0.9%) cases and were more common in uterine compared to other cancers (2.0% vs <1%, respectively p < 0.001). mutESR1 were enriched in carcinomas with endometrioid versus serous histology (4.4% vs 0.2% respectively, p < 0.0001 in uterine and 3.5% vs 0.3% respectively, p = 0.0004 in ovarian carcinomas). In three of four patients with serial sampling, mutESR1 emerged under the selective pressure of AI therapy. Despite decreased potency of estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists in transcriptional assays, clinical benefit was observed following treatment with selective ER-targeted therapy, in one case lasting >48 months. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of ESR1 mutations in gynecologic malignancies is low, there are significant clinical implications useful in guiding therapeutic approaches for these cancers.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/genética , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 399-404, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to pilot the use of an objective measurement technique to prospectively evaluate the incidence of lower extremity lymphedema (LEL) after minimally invasive staging surgery for endometrial cancer. Secondary objectives included observation of changes in lower extremity function and quality of life in this patient population. METHODS: A prospective evaluation of LEL was performed in 97 women who underwent minimally invasive staging surgery for endometrial cancer using comparative circumferential volume measurements. Postoperative changes in lower extremity function and global quality of life were also assessed using patient-reported outcome measures. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were included for lymphedema analysis. The rate of LEL was 25% at 4-6 weeks, 19% at 6-9 months, and 27% at 12-18 months postoperatively. The presence of LEL was associated with a significant worsening from baseline Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) scores at 4-6 weeks (-27.0% vs -3.7%, p = 0.02) and 6-9 months (-13.0% vs 0%, p = 0.01). LEL was not associated with a change in patient-reported global quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Up to one in four women experience lymphedema following surgical staging for endometrial cancer, and its presence is associated with diminished lower extremity function. Larger, prospective trials using the objective methodology piloted in this study should better clarify risk factors and long-term outcomes of this morbidity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Linfedema/etnologia , Linfedema/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Linfedema/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
13.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499236

RESUMO

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), this study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9,971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs never) and rs13255292 (P-value = 3.48 x 10-4 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI=0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI=0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 151(1): 53-60, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major changes in the classification of ovarian carcinoma histotypes occurred over the last two decades, resulting in the current 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria that recognize five principal histotypes: high-grade serous, low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. We assessed the impact of these guidelines and use of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on classification of ovarian carcinomas in existing population-based studies. METHODS: We evaluated histotype classification for 2361 ovarian carcinomas diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 from two case-control studies using three approaches: 1. pre-2014 WHO ("historic") histotype; 2. Standardized review of pathology slides using the 2014 WHO criteria alone; and 3. An integrated IHC assessment along with the 2014 WHO criteria. We used Kappa statistics to assess agreement between approaches, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate mortality. RESULTS: Compared to the standardized pathologic review histotype, agreement across approaches was high (kappa = 0.892 for historic, and 0.849 for IHC integrated histotype), but the IHC integrated histotype identified more low-grade serous carcinomas and a subset of endometrioid carcinomas that were assigned as high-grade serous (n = 25). No substantial differences in histotype-specific mortality were observed across approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that histotype assignment is fairly consistent regardless of classification approach, but that progressive improvements in classification accuracy for some less common histotypes are achieved with pathologic review using the 2014 WHO criteria and with IHC integration. We additionally recommend a classification scheme to fit historic data into the 2014 WHO categories to answer histotype-specific research questions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/classificação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718305

RESUMO

Background: The understanding of ovarian cancer pathogenesis has recently shifted to recognize distinct changes in how ovarian cancer histotypes are defined. Using the 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic guidelines, we classified ovarian cancer histotypes in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data and examined survival patterns by histotype and disease stage. Methods: We extracted data on 28 118 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases diagnosed in 2004-2014 from SEER and defined histotype using the 2014 WHO guidelines (high-grade serous, low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, carcinosarcoma, and malignant Brenner tumors). By histotype and disease stage, we estimated Kaplan-Meier survival curves and calculated age-adjusted overall and cause-specific survival estimates. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate histotype-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by disease stage while adjusting for age at diagnosis, region, race/ethnicity, and receipt of surgery. Results: Within two years after diagnosis, localized/regional-stage carcinosarcoma and distant-stage mucinous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma had a higher risk of mortality compared with high-grade serous, with the most pronounced association for localized/regional carcinosarcoma (>1-2-year time period: HR = 3.81, 95% CI = 2.74 to 5.30) and distant-stage mucinous (0-1-year time period: HR = 3.87, 95% CI = 3.45 to 4.34). In the time period more than four to 10 years after diagnosis, hazard ratios for all histotypes relative to high-grade serous, irrespective of disease stage, were less than 1.00. Cumulatively, both localized/regional and distant-stage low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas had the most favorable outcomes. Conclusions: Our large study, which is representative of the United States population and incorporates the most current knowledge of ovarian cancer pathogenesis, highlights the need to recognize ovarian cancer as a set of distinct diseases and not a single entity. Only then will we be able to effectively target the unique features of each histotype to reduce ovarian cancer mortality.

19.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(2): 190-195, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222541

RESUMO

Importance: The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is the largest randomized clinical trial to evaluate screening's impact on ovarian cancer mortality, assigning women to multimodal screening (MMS) with serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) interpreted using a risk algorithm. If the MMS screening method is eventually shown to reduce mortality and be cost-effective, then it may be accepted by the medical community as a feasible screening tool. Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an MMS screening program in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: A Markov simulation model was constructed using data from UKCTOCS to compare MMS with no screening in the United States. Screening would begin at the age of 50 years for women in the general population. Published estimates of the long-term effect of MMS screening on ovarian cancer mortality and the trial's published hazard ratios were used to simulate mortality estimates up to 40 years from start of screening. Base-case costs included CA-125, ultrasound, and false-positive work-up results, in addition to a risk algorithm cost estimate of $100. The utility and costs of ovarian cancer treatment were incorporated into the model. Interventions: Screening strategies varied by costs of the algorithm and treatment for advanced ovarian cancer, rates of screening compliance, ovarian cancer incidence, and extrapolation of ovarian cancer mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and mortality reduction of ovarian cancer screening. Results: Multimodal screening is both more expensive and more effective in reducing ovarian cancer mortality over a lifetime than no screening. After accounting for uncertainty in the underlying parameters, screening women starting at age 50 years with MMS is cost-effective 70% of the time, when decision makers are willing to pay $150 000 per QALY. Screening reduced mortality by 15%, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) ranging from $106 187 (95% CI, $97 496-$127 793) to $155 256 (95% CI, $150 369-$198 567). Conclusions and Relevance: Ovarian cancer screening is potentially cost-effective in the United States depending on final significance of mortality reduction and cost of the CA-125 risk algorithm. These results are limited by uncertainty around the effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality beyond the 11 years of UKCTOCS.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(2): 460-472, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211900

RESUMO

Background: Ovarian cancer incidence differs substantially by race/ethnicity, but the reasons for this are not well understood. Data were pooled from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) and 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to examine racial/ethnic differences in epidemiological characteristics with suspected involvement in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) aetiology. Methods: We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations for 17 reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle characteristics and EOC risk by race/ethnicity among 10 924 women with invasive EOC (8918 Non-Hispanic Whites, 433 Hispanics, 911 Blacks, 662 Asian/Pacific Islanders) and 16 150 controls (13 619 Non-Hispanic Whites, 533 Hispanics, 1233 Blacks, 765 Asian/Pacific Islanders). Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate heterogeneity in the risk factor associations by race/ethnicity. Results: We observed statistically significant racial/ethnic heterogeneity for hysterectomy and EOC risk (P = 0.008), where the largest odds ratio (OR) was observed in Black women [OR = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-2.02] compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Although not statistically significant, the associations for parity, first-degree family history of ovarian or breast cancer, and endometriosis varied by race/ethnicity. Asian/Pacific Islanders had the greatest magnitude of association for parity (≥3 births: OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.28-0.54), and Black women had the largest ORs for family history (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.42-2.21) and endometriosis (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.65-3.55). Conclusions: Although racial/ethnic heterogeneity was observed for hysterectomy, our findings support the validity of EOC risk factors across all racial/ethnic groups, and further suggest that any racial/ethnic population with a higher prevalence of a modifiable risk factor should be targeted to disseminate information about prevention.

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