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1.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(7): 449-458, sept. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175953

RESUMO

Introducción: Desde la descripción hace 5 décadas de la hidrocefalia crónica del adulto idiopática (HCAi), su fisiopatología ha sido considerada básicamente relacionada con el efecto que la dilatación ventricular ejerce sobre las estructuras adyacentes al sistema ventricular. Sin embargo, las alteraciones en el flujo sanguíneo cerebral (FSC) y, sobre todo, la reducción en el recambio licuoral parecen emerger como componentes fisiopatológicos principales de esta enfermedad. Desarrollo: En la HCAi se observa una compresión del tracto piramidal, de los circuitos cortico-subcorticales fronto-estriatales y fronto-reticulares, y de las fibras profundas del fascículo longitudinal superior. En el cuerpo calloso se objetiva un descenso en el número de fibras comisurales, que son reemplazadas por gliosis. El FSC se encuentra alterado, con un patrón de última pradera en la región subcortical adyacente a los ventrículos, correspondiente a la intersección entre las arterias subependimarias y las arterias perforantes dependientes de los grandes troncos arteriales de la circulación anterior. El recambio diario del LCR se ve disminuido en un 75%, lo que conlleva una reducción del aclaramiento de neurotóxicos y la interrupción de las señalizaciones neuroendocrinas y paracrinas que ocurren a través del LCR. Conclusiones: La HCAi emerge como una entidad nosológica compleja, en la que los efectos de la microangiopatía subcortical y la disminución del recambio de LCR desempeñan un papel fundamental. Esta base fisiopatológica aleja la HCAi del concepto clásico de hidrocefalia y la acerca al perfil de otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas, como la enfermedad de Alzheimer o la enfermedad de Binswanger


Introduction: Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease. Development: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH. At the level of the corpus callosum, gliosis replaces a number of commissural tracts. Cerebral blood flow is also altered, showing a periventricular watershed region limited by the subependymal arteries and the perforating branches of the major arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation. The CSF turnover rate is decreased by 75%, leading to the reduced clearance of neurotoxins and the interruption of neuroendocrine and paracrine signalling in the CSF. Conclusions: iCAH presents as a complex nosological entity, in which the effects of subcortical microangiopathy and reduced CSF turnover play a key role. According to its pathophysiology, it is simpler to think of iCAH more as a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer disease or Binswanger disease than as the classical concept of hydrocephalus


Assuntos
Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico
2.
Neurologia ; 16(9): 408-17, 2001 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11742621

RESUMO

This is a document prepared by the Spanish Society of Neurology (SEN), which was given to the President of Spain (Mr. José María Aznar) last September with the main aim of examining the current situation of Neurology in our country. It analyses the present and future of Neurology in clinical assistance, teaching and research. To prepare this document the criteria of patients' associations has been considered, including the Declaration of Madrid which has been subscribed by thirty of these associations. In spite of its relevant development in the previous decades, the current situation of Neurology in Spain is far from the ideal. To reach the recommendable menber of 3 or 4 neurologists per 100,000 inhabitants it is necessary to duplicate the present number of neurologists which has been estimated around 2/100,000; this situation is especially urgent in some Autonomous Communities. The most important problems in neurological assistance are: inadequate follow-up of the chronic outpatients, low numbers of neurological beds and of duties of Neurology, as well as of neurological case of patients with urgent neurological disorders. It is also necessary to increase the number of professors of Neurology to adequately cover pregraduate teaching; again there are important differences in teaching positions among Autonomous Communities. Neurology residence should be prolonged from 4 to 5 years. Finally, it is necessary to support the appearance of superespecialised units and to promote a coordinated research with other close specialities including basic neuroscience.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Neurologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Neurologia/educação , Neurologia/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Pesquisa , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha , Recursos Humanos
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