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1.
J Mass Spectrom ; : e4580, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677757

RESUMO

Methionine (Met) cationized with Zn2+ , forming Zn (Met-H)+ (ACN) where ACN = acetonitrile, Zn (Met-H)+ , and ZnCl+ (Met), as well as Cd2+ , forming CdCl+ (Met), were examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy using light generated from the FELIX free electron laser. A series of low-energy conformers for each complex was found using quantum-chemical calculations in order to identify the structures formed experimentally. For all four complexes, spectral comparison indicated that the main binding motif observed is a charge solvated, tridentate structure where the metal center binds to the backbone amino group nitrogen, backbone carbonyl oxygen (where the carboxylic acid is deprotonated in two of the Zn2+ complexes), and side-chain sulfur. For all species, the predicted ground structures reproduce the experimental spectra well, although low-lying conformers characterized by similar binding motifs may also contribute in each system. The current work provides valuable information regarding the binding interaction between Met and biologically relevant metals. Further, the comparison between the current work and previous analyses involving alkali metal cationized Met as well as cysteine (the other sulfur containing amino acid) cationized with Zn2+ and Cd2+ allows for the elucidation of important metal dependent trends associated with physiologically important metal-sulfur binding.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(27): 15716-15722, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618970

RESUMO

Microspheres containing radioactive 166holmium-acetylacetonate are employed in emerging radionuclide therapies for the treatment of malignancies. At the molecular level, details on the coordination geometries of the Ho complexes are however elusive. Infrared ion spectroscopy (IRIS) was used to characterize several 165Ho-acetylacetonate complexes derived from non-radioactive microspheres. The coordination geometry of four distinct ionic complexes were fully assigned by comparison of their measured IR spectra with spectra calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level. The coordination of each acetylacetonate ligand is dependent on the presence of other ligands, revealing an asymmetric chelation motif in some of the complexes. A fifth, previously unknown constituent of the microspheres was identified as a coordination complex containing an acetic acid ligand. These results pave the way for IRIS-based identification of microsphere constituents upon neutron activation of the metal center.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(23): 13084-13091, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490449

RESUMO

We report herein the first detailed study of the mechanism of redox reactions occurring during the gas-phase dissociative electron transfer of prototypical ternary [CuII(dien)M]˙2+ complexes (M, peptide). The two final products are (i) the oxidized non-zwitterionic π-centered [M]˙+ species with both the charge and spin densities delocalized over the indole ring of the tryptophan residue and with a C-terminal COOH group intact, and (ii) the complementary ion [CuI(dien)]+. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments, in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, revealed the structural details of the mass-isolated precursor and product cations. Our experimental and theoretical results indicate that the doubly positively charged precursor [CuII(dien)M]˙2+ features electrostatic coordination through the anionic carboxylate end of the zwitterionic M moiety. An additional interaction exists between the indole ring of the tryptophan residue and one of the primary amino groups of the dien ligand; the DFT calculations provided the structures of the precursor ion, intermediates, and products, and enabled us to keep track of the locations of the charge and unpaired electron. The dissociative one-electron transfer reaction is initiated by a gradual transition of the M tripeptide from the zwitterionic form in [CuII(dien)M]˙2+ to the non-zwitterionic M intermediate, through a cascade of conformational changes and proton transfers. In the next step, the highest energy intermediate is formed; here, the copper center is 5-coordinate with coordination from both the carboxylic acid group and the indole ring. A subsequent switch back to 4-coordination to an intermediate IM1, where attachment to GGW occurs through the indole ring only, creates the structure that ultimately undergoes dissociation.

4.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 31(6): 1205-1211, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383378

RESUMO

Hydroxyproline is a common variation of proline, with diverse biological roles. The hydroxylation of proline gives rise to several (natural and/or synthetic) isomeric forms, including both positional isomers and stereoisomers. While mass spectrometry is widely touted as a very selective analytical technique, the identification of closely related isomers often poses a challenge. In these cases, allied technologies become helpful in providing full characterization. Here, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy is used to differentiate between three isomers, namely cis-3-hydroxyproline, cis-4-hydroxyproline, and trans-4-hydroxyproline. In contrast to the protonated species which show only minor variations in their IRMPD spectra, lithiated species were found to display significant spectral differences, making their differentiation more straightforward. The conformational origin of these spectral differences was investigated by complementary quantum-chemical calculations.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2664, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471982

RESUMO

Controlling the chemical glycosylation reaction remains the major challenge in the synthesis of oligosaccharides. Though 1,2-trans glycosidic linkages can be installed using neighboring group participation, the construction of 1,2-cis linkages is difficult and has no general solution. Long-range participation (LRP) by distal acyl groups may steer the stereoselectivity, but contradictory results have been reported on the role and strength of this stereoelectronic effect. It has been exceedingly difficult to study the bridging dioxolenium ion intermediates because of their high reactivity and fleeting nature. Here we report an integrated approach, using infrared ion spectroscopy, DFT computations, and a systematic series of glycosylation reactions to probe these ions in detail. Our study reveals how distal acyl groups can play a decisive role in shaping the stereochemical outcome of a glycosylation reaction, and opens new avenues to exploit these species in the assembly of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates to fuel biological research.

6.
Anal Chem ; 92(10): 7282-7288, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286052

RESUMO

Infrared ion spectroscopy (IRIS), a mass-spectrometry-based technique exploiting resonant infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD), has been applied for the identification of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Identification of the precise isomeric forms of NPS is of significant forensic relevance since legal controls are dependent on even minor molecular differences such as a single ring-substituent position. Using three isomers of fluoroamphetamine and two ring-isomers of both MDA and MDMA, we demonstrate the ability of IRIS to distinguish closely related NPS. Computationally predicted infrared (IR) spectra are shown to correspond with experimental spectra and could explain the molecular origins of their distinctive IR absorption bands. IRIS was then used to investigate a confiscated street sample containing two unknown substances. One substance could easily be identified by comparison to the IR spectra of reference standards. For the other substance, however, this approach proved inconclusive due to incomplete mass spectral databases as well as a lack of available reference compounds, two common analytical limitations resulting from the rapid development of NPS. Most excitingly, the second unknown substance could nevertheless be identified by using computationally predicted IR spectra of several potential candidate structures instead of their experimental reference spectra.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(15): 2919-2930, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208697

RESUMO

Avobenzone (AB) is a widely used UVA filter known to undergo irreversible photodegradation. Here, we investigate the detailed pathways by which AB photodegrades by applying UV laser-interfaced mass spectrometry to protonated AB ions. Gas-phase infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra obtained with the free electron laser for infrared experiments, FELIX, (600-1800 cm-1) are also presented to confirm the geometric structures. The UV gas-phase absorption spectrum (2.5-5 eV) of protonated AB contains bands that correspond to selective excitation of either the enol or diketo forms, allowing us to probe the resulting, tautomer-dependent photochemistry. Numerous photofragments (i.e., photodegradants) are directly identified for the first time, with m/z 135 and 161 dominating, and m/z 146 and 177 also appearing prominently. Analysis of the production spectra of these photofragments reveals that that strong enol to keto photoisomerism is occurring, and that protonation significantly disrupts the stability of the enol (UVA active) tautomer. Close comparison of fragment ion yields with the TD-DFT-calculated absorption spectra give detailed information on the location and identity of the dissociative excited state surfaces, and thus provide new insight into the photodegradation pathways of avobenzone, and photoisomerization of the wider class of ß-diketone containing molecules.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119552

RESUMO

Experimental IR spectra in the 500-1850 cm-1 fingerprint frequency range are presented for the isolated, gaseous redox pair ions [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]+, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine. Spectra are obtained using the FELIX free-electron laser and a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The 2+ complex is generated by electrospray ionization and the charge-reduced radical cation is produced by gas-phase one-electron reduction in an ion-ion reaction with the fluoranthene radical anion. Experimental spectra are compared against computed spectra predicted by density functional theory (DFT) using different levels of theory. For the closed-shell [Ru(bpy)3]2+ ion, the match between experimental and computed IR spectra is very good; however, this is not the case for the charge-reduced [Ru(bpy)3]+ ion, which demands additional theoretical investigation. When using the hybrid B3LYP functional, we observe that better agreement with experiment is obtained upon reduction of the Hartree-Fock exact-exchange contribution from 20% to about 14%. Additionally, calculations using the M06 functional appear to be promising in terms of the prediction of IR spectra; however, it is unclear if the correct electronic structure is obtained. The M06 and B3LYP functionals indicate that the added electron in [Ru(bpy)3]+ is delocalized over the three bpy ligands, while the long-range corrected LC-BLYP and the CAM-B3LYP functionals show it to be more localized on a single bpy ligand. Although these latter levels of theory fail to reproduce the experimentally observed IR frequencies, one may argue that the unusually large bandwidths observed in the spectrum are due to the fluxional character of a complex with the added electron not symmetrically distributed over the ligands. The experimental IR spectra presented here can serve as benchmark for further theoretical investigations.

9.
Chemistry ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724235

RESUMO

Invited for the cover of this issue is Valentine P. Ananikkov and co-workers. The image depicts the dynamic behaviour of a Pd/NHC catalytic system with easy transition from molecular to ionic complex. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201903221.

10.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(44): 9343-9354, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604374

RESUMO

Complexes of threonine (Thr) cationized with Zn2+ and Cd2+ were examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy using light generated from a free electron laser. Low-energy conformers for Zn(Thr-H)+(ACN) (where ACN = acetonitrile), Zn(Gly-H)+(ACN) (formed via CO2-laser irradiation of intact Zn(Thr-H)+(ACN)), and CdCl+(Thr) complexes were found using quantum chemical calculations in order to identify the structures formed experimentally. For all species, the predicted ground structures reproduce the experimental spectra well, where tridentate [N, CO, OHs] binding motifs were dominantly observed for the intact Zn(Thr-H)+(ACN) and CdCl+(Thr) complexes. In both of these cases, the metal center binds to the backbone amino group (N), carbonyl oxygen (CO, where this site is deprotonated in the Zn2+ complex), and side-chain hydroxyl oxygen (OHs). For the Zn2+ system, there also appears to be a population of a higher-energy species in which the side chain is deprotonated, either [N, Os-, CO] or [N, Os-, OH]. CO2-laser irradiation of Zn(Thr-H)+(ACN) leads to loss of its side chain via elimination of acetaldehyde, yielding a bidentate Zn(Gly-H)+[N, CO-](ACN) complex. Overall, this work explores the binding interactions between Thr and biologically relevant metals in a prototypical environment. Comparison of current work with previous analyses allows for the elucidation of important metal dependent trends associated with physiologically important metal-amino acid binding.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(38): 8226-8233, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490692

RESUMO

Gas-phase infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra are recorded for the protonated dye molecules indigo and isoindigo by using a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer coupled to the free electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX). From their fingerprint IR spectra (600-1800 cm-1) and comparison with quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional level of theory (B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p)), we derive their structures. We focus particularly on the question of whether trans-to-cis isomerization occurs upon protonation and transfer to the gas phase. The trans-configuration is energetically favored in the neutral forms of the dyes in solution and in the gas phase. Instead, the cis-isomer is lower in energy for the protonated forms of both species, but indigo is also notorious for not undergoing double-bond trans-to-cis isomerization, in contrast to many other conjugated systems. The IR spectra suggest that protoisomerization from trans to cis indeed occurs for both dyes. To estimate the extent of isomerization, on-resonance kinetics are measured on diagnostic and common vibrational frequencies to determine the ratio of cis-to-trans isomers. We find ratios of 65-70% cis and 30-35% trans for indigo versus 75-80% cis and 20-25% trans for isoindigo. Transition-state calculations for the isomerization reactions have been carried out, which indeed suggest a lower barrier for protonated isoindigo, qualitatively explaining the more efficient isomerization.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414806

RESUMO

The side group of the amino acid arginine is typically in its guanidinium protonated form under physiological conditions, and participates in a broad range of ligand binding and charge transfer processes of proteins. The recognition of phosphate moieties by guanidinium plays a particularly key role in the interactions of proteins with ATP and nucleic acids. Moreover, it has been recently identified as the driving force for the inhibition of kinase phosphorilation activity by guanidinium derivatives devised as potential anticancer agents. We report on a fundamental investigation of the interactions and coordination arrangements formed by guanidinium with phosphoric, phosphate and pyrophosphate groups. Action vibrational spectroscopy and $ab$ $initio$ quantum chemical computations are employed to characterize the conformations of benchmark positively-charged complexes isolated in an ion trap. The multidentate structure of guanidinium and of the phosphate groups gives rise to a rich conformational landscape with a particular relevance of tweezer-like configurations, where phosphate is effectively trapped by two guanidinium cations. The pyrophosphate complex incorporates a Na+ cation, which serves to compare the interactions associated with the localized versus diffuse charge distributions of the alkali cation and guanidinium, respectively, within a common supramolecular framework.

13.
J Phys Chem B ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449420

RESUMO

The side group of the amino acid arginine is typically in its guanidinium protonated form under physiological conditions and participates in a broad range of ligand binding and charge transfer processes of proteins. The recognition of phosphate moieties by guanidinium plays a particularly key role in the interactions of proteins with ATP and nucleic acids. Moreover, it has been recently identified as the driving force for the inhibition of kinase phosphorilation activity by guanidinium derivatives devised as potential anticancer agents. We report on a fundamental investigation of the interactions and coordination arrangements formed by guanidinium with phosphoric, phosphate, and pyrophosphate groups. Action vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio quantum chemical computations are employed to characterize the conformations of benchmark positively charged complexes isolated in an ion trap. The multidentate structure of guanidinium and of the phosphate groups gives rise to a rich conformational landscape with a particular relevance of tweezer-like configurations, where phosphate is effectively trapped by two guanidinium cations. The pyrophosphate complex incorporates a Na+ cation, which serves to compare the interactions associated with the localized versus diffuse charge distributions of the alkali cation and guanidinium, respectively, within a common supramolecular framework.

14.
Chemistry ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461192

RESUMO

N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are ubiquitously utilized in catalysis. A common catalyst design model assumes strong M-NHC binding in this metal-ligand framework. In contrast to this common assumption, we demonstrate here that lability and controlled cleavage of the M-NHC bond (rather than its stabilization) could be more important for high-performance catalysis at low catalyst concentrations. The present study reveals a dynamic stabilization mechanism with labile metal-NHC binding and [PdX3 ]- [NHC-R]+ ion pair formation. Access to reactive anionic palladium intermediates formed by dissociation of the NHC ligands and plausible stabilization of the molecular catalyst in solution by interaction with the [NHC-R]+ azolium ion is of particular importance for an efficient and recyclable catalyst. These ionic Pd/NHC complexes allowed for the first time the recycling of the complex in a well-defined form with isolation at each cycle. Computational investigation of the reaction mechanism confirms a facile formation of NHC-free anionic Pd in polar media through either Ph-NHC coupling or reversible H-NHC coupling. The present study formulates novel ideas for M/NHC catalyst design.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(30): 16591-16600, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317140

RESUMO

A charge-tagged phenyl pyruvic acid derivative was investigated by tandem-MS, infrared (IR) ion spectroscopy and theory. The tailor-made precursor ions efficiently lose CO2 in collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments, offering access to study the secondary decay reactions of the product ions. IR ion spectroscopy provides evidence for the formation of an enol acid precursor ion structure in the gas phase and indicates the presence of enol products formed after CO2 loss. Extensive DFT computations however, suggest intermediate generation of hydroxycarbene products, which in turn rearrange in a secondary process to the enol ions detected by IR ion spectroscopy. Quantum mechanical tunneling of the hydroxycarbene can be excluded since no evidence for aldehyde product ion formation could be found. This finding is in contrast to the behavior of methylhydroxycarbene, which cleanly penetrates the energy barrier to form exclusively acetaldehyde at cryogenic temperatures in an argon matrix via quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling. The results presented here are attributed to the highly excited energy levels of the product ions formed by CID in combination with different barrier heights of the competing reaction channels, which allow exclusive access over one energy barrier leading to the formation of the enol tautomer ions observed.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(13): 7604-7612, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184875

RESUMO

Characterizing the chemical composition of organic aerosols can elucidate aging mechanisms as well as the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol. However, the high chemical complexity and often low atmospheric abundance present a difficult analytical challenge. Milligrams or more of material may be needed for speciated spectroscopic analysis. In contrast, mass spectrometry provides a very sensitive platform but limited structural information. Here, we combine the strengths of mass spectrometry and infrared (IR) action spectroscopy to generate characteristic IR spectra of individual, mass-isolated ion populations. Soft ionization combined with in situ infrared ion spectroscopy, using the tunable free-electron laser FELIX, provides detailed information on molecular structures and functional groups. We apply this technique, along with quantum mechanical modeling, to characterize organic molecules in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the ozonolysis of α-pinene. Spectral overlap with a standard is used to identify cis-pinonic acid. We also demonstrate the characterization of isomers for multiple SOA products using both quantum mechanical computations and analyses of fragment ion spectra. These results demonstrate the detailed structural information on isolated ions obtained by combining mass spectrometry with fingerprint IR spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monoterpenos , Aerossóis , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Íons , Espectrometria de Massas
17.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(9): 1565-1577, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183839

RESUMO

Infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy was performed on the AlaOrn b2+ and AlaAlaOrn b3+ fragment ions from ornithine-containing tetrapeptides. Infrared spectra were obtained in the fingerprint region (1000-2000 cm-1) using the infrared free electron lasers at the Centre Laser Infrarouge d'Orsay (CLIO) facility in Orsay, France, and the free electron lasers for infrared experiments (FELIX) facility in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. A novel terminal ornithine lactam AO+ b2+ structure was synthesized for experimental comparison and spectroscopy confirms that the b2+ fragment ion from AOAA forms a lactam structure. Comparison of experimental spectra with scaled harmonic frequencies at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory shows that AO+ b2+ forms a terminal lactam protonated either on the lactam carbonyl oxygen or the N-terminal nitrogen atom. Several low-lying conformers of these isomers are likely populated following IRMPD dissociation. Similarly, a comparison of the experimental IRMPD spectrum with calculated spectra shows that AAO+ b3+-ions also adopt a lactam structure, again with multiple different protonation sites, during fragmentation. This study provides spectroscopic confirmation for the lactam cyclization proposed for the "ornithine effect" and represents an alternative bn+ structure to the oxazolone and diketopiperazine/macrocycle structures most often formed.

18.
Faraday Discuss ; 217: 172-202, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062783

RESUMO

The combination of a 4 K 22-pole ion trap instrument, FELion, with the widely tunable free electron lasers at the FELIX Laboratory is described in detail. It allows for wide-range infrared vibrational spectroscopy of molecular ions. In this study, the apparatus is used for infrared vibrational predissociation (IR-PD) measurements of the simple alcohol cations of methanol and ethanol as well as their protonated forms. Spectra are taken by tagging the cold molecular ions with He atoms. The infrared spectrum of protonated methanol is recorded for the first time, and the wavelength coverage for all other species is substantially extended. The bands of all spectra are analysed by comparison to ab initio calculation results at different levels of theory. Vibrational bands of different isomers and conformers (rotamers) are discussed and identified in the experimental spectra. Besides the measurement of IR-PD spectra, the method of infrared multiple photon dissociation IR-MPD is applied for some cases. Spectral narrowing due to the cold environment is observed and rotational band contours are simulated. This will help in identifying more complex species using the IR-MPD method in future measurements. Overall the IR-PD spectra reveal more bands than are observed for the IR-MPD spectra. In particular, many new bands are observed in the fingerprint region. Depletion saturation of the finite number of trapped ions is observed for the IR-PD spectra of the ethanol cation and the presence of only one isomeric species is concluded. This special feature of ion trapping spectroscopy may be used in future studies for addressing specific isomers or cleaning the ion cloud from specific isomers or conformers. In addition, the results of this study can be used as a basis to obtain high-resolution infrared vibrational and THz rotational spectra of alcohol ions in order to detect them in space.

19.
Front Chem ; 7: 143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968013

RESUMO

The supramolecular networks derived from the complexation of polyazamacrocycles with halide anions constitute fundamental building blocks of a broad range of modern materials. This study provides insights into the conformational framework that supports the binding of protonated cyclen macrocyles (1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane) by chloride anions through NHδ+···Cl- interactions. The isolated complex comprised of two cyclen hosts linked by one Cl- anion is characterized by means of infrared action spectroscopy and ion mobility mass spectrometry, in combination with quantum chemical computations. The Cl- anion is found to act as a hinge that bridges the protonated NH 2 + moieties of the two macrocycles leading to a molecular tweezer configuration. Different types of conformations emerge, depending on whether the trimer adopts an open arrangement, with significant freedom for internal rotation of the cyclen moieties, or it locks in a folded conformation with intermolecular H-bonds between the two cyclen backbones. The ion mobility collision cross section supports that folded configurations of the complex are dominant under isolated conditions in the gas phase. The IRMPD spectroscopy experiments suggest that two qualitatively different families of folded conformations coexist at room temperature, featuring either peripheral or inner positions of the anion with respect to the macrocycle cavities, These findings should have implications in the growth of extended networks in the nanoscale and in sensing applications.

20.
Faraday Discuss ; 217(0): 434-452, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012451

RESUMO

The molecular structures of six open-shell z3-ions resulting from electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (ETD MS) were investigated using infrared ion spectroscopy in the 800-1850 and 3200-3700 cm-1 spectral ranges in combination with density functional theory and molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics calculations. We assess in particular the question of whether the radical remains at the Cα-site of the backbone cleavage, or whether it migrates by H-atom transfer to another, energetically more favorable position. Calculations performed herein as well as by others show that radical migration to an amino acid side chain or to an α-carbon along the peptide backbone can lead to structures that are more stable, by up to 33 kJ mol-1 for the systems investigated here, by virtue of resonance stabilization of the radical in these alternative positions. Nonetheless, for four out of the six z3-ions considered here, our results quite clearly indicate that radical migration does not occur, suggesting that the radical is kinetically trapped at the site of ETD cleavage. For the two remaining systems, a structural assignment is less secure and we suggest that a mixture of migrated and unmigrated structures may be formed.

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