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1.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(2): 72-81, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-3069

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de autocuidados en la población con diabetes y determinar el riesgo de padecer lesiones de pie diabético mediante el uso de 3 sistemas de estratificación, así como establecer el grado de concordancia entre estos sistemas. Método: Estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo realizado en la Zona básica de salud de Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria, Islas Canarias, España) en personas diagnosticadas de diabetes (DM tipo 1/DM tipo 2) (n = 182). Se realizaron entrevista, exploración física, revisión de la historia clínica y cumplimentación del cuestionario Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga. Tras ello se calculó la estratificación del riesgo con 3 sistemas (sistema del National Institute for Health Care Excellence, clasificación del International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot y High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© 2012). Se calculó el índice kappa para estudiar la concordancia entre sistemas, se estimaron el riesgo relativo de screening negativo de un método frente a otro y el test exacto de Fisher para establecer si existían diferencias. Resultados: Un 30,2% de los diabéticos tenían un nivel bajo de autocuidados, un 45,1% un nivel medio y un 24,7% nivel alto. Los niveles de riesgo calculados fueron: fueron clasificación National Institute for Health Care Excellence (riesgo negativo 71,4%; riesgo positivo 28,6%), clasificación del International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (riesgo negativo 67,0%; riesgo positivo 33,0%) y High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© (riesgo negativo 62,6%; riesgo positivo 37,4%). Conclusiones: Los 3 sistemas poseen una buena concordancia entre sí. El High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© solo distingue 2 niveles de riesgo pero detecta mayor porcentaje de personas en situación de riesgo. El cuestionario Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga puede ser útil en el contexto de Atención Primaria para evaluar el nivel de autocuidados de las personas con diabetes


Objective: To assess the level of self-care in the population with diabetes and determine the risk of diabetic foot lesions through the use of 3 stratification systems as well as to establish the degree of concordance between these systems. Method: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out in the Basic Health Area of Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria-Canary Islands-Spain) in people diagnosed with diabetes (DM Type 1/DM Type 2) (n = 182). Interview, physical examination, review of clinical history and completion of the Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga were carried out. The risk stratification was then calculated using 3systems (System of the National Institute for Health Care Excellence, Classification of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©-2012). The Kappa index was calculated to study the concordance between systems, the relative risk of negative screening of one method against another was estimated and the exact Fisher test to establish whether there were differences. Results: 30.2% of diabetics had a low level of self-care, 45.1% a medium level and 24.7% a high level. The risk levels calculated were: National Institute for Health Care Excellence Classification (Negative Risk 71.4%-Positive Risk 28.6%), International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot Classification (Negative Risk 67.0%-Positive Risk 33.0%) and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© (Negative Risk 62.6%-Positive Risk 37.4%). Conclusions: All 3 systems have good concordance with each other. The High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© only distinguishes 2 levels of risk but detects a higher percentage of people at risk. The Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga may be useful in the context of Primary Care to assess the level of self-care of people with diabetes

2.
Enferm Clin ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of self-care in the population with diabetes and determine the risk of diabetic foot lesions through the use of 3stratification systems as well as to establish the degree of concordance between these systems. METHOD: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out in the Basic Health Area of Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria-Canary Islands-Spain) in people diagnosed with diabetes (DM Type 1/DM Type 2) (n=182). Interview, physical examination, review of clinical history and completion of the Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga were carried out. The risk stratification was then calculated using 3systems (System of the National Institute for Health Care Excellence, Classification of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©-2012). The Kappa index was calculated to study the concordance between systems, the relative risk of negative screening of one method against another was estimated and the exact Fisher test to establish whether there were differences. RESULTS: 30.2% of diabetics had a low level of self-care, 45.1% a medium level and 24.7% a high level. The risk levels calculated were: National Institute for Health Care Excellence Classification (Negative Risk 71.4%-Positive Risk 28.6%), International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot Classification (Negative Risk 67.0%-Positive Risk 33.0%) and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© (Negative Risk 62.6%-Positive Risk 37.4%). CONCLUSIONS: All 3systems have good concordance with each other. The High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© only distinguishes 2levels of risk but detects a higher percentage of people at risk. The Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga may be useful in the context of Primary Care to assess the level of self-care of people with diabetes.

3.
Int Wound J ; 16(1): 256-265, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393963

RESUMO

The aims of the study were to describe and analyse the temporal trend of the prevalence and incidence of venous leg ulcers (VLU) over the years 2010 to 2014, to determine healing times and temporal trends in the study period, and to evaluate related aspects such as the use of the Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) in a primary care health centre. This was a retrospective study based on a time series (years 2010-2014) of the prevalence and incidence of VLUs in people aged over 40 years in a primary care centre in Barcelona City. We reviewed 3920 electronic health records selecting patients, per year (2010-2014), with VLUs based on the ICD-10 diagnoses. For prevalence, we took into account any patient with an active VLU in the year of study. For incidence, we took into account patients with a new VLU in the year of study. A descriptive analysis was carried out based on each of the collected variables. The variables were examined according to the years of study (time series) by one-factor analysis of variance (anova) or Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test, as appropriate. A survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test was also performed. A total of 139 patients met the VLU criteria. Among them, only 79.2% were classified as having a VLU and had a correct ICD diagnosis. The prevalence and incidence increased over the years, doubling in patients aged over 65 years. Incidence increased from 0.5 new cases per 1000 people/year in 2010 to 1 new case for every 1000 people/year in 2014. Moreover, the prevalence ranged between 0.8 and 2.2 patients with VLU for every 1000 people/year. During the study period, a total of 84.2% of the VLUs healed (117/139 VLU). Regarding average annual time to healing, the trend indicates that lesions took less time to heal (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.004), ranging between 453,9 weeks in 2005 to 19 weeks in 2014. The use of ABPI also evolved and was found to be increasingly performed prior to the appearance of the lesion. The epidemiological profile of people affected by VLUs continues to be, mainly, that of women of an advanced age, over 70 years. The frequency of VLU occurrence rose continually over the years, but healing took less time, and use of ABPI improved. Assigning a reference nurse in the wounds unit and the organisational structure around this problem may have an influence on improving care and the approach to these types of lesions.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Perna/epidemiologia , Úlcera da Perna/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Úlcera Varicosa/epidemiologia , Úlcera Varicosa/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
4.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 29(4): 181-191, dic. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182264

RESUMO

Introducción: Las heridas crónicas representan un problema actual que genera un impacto a muchos niveles y cuyo tratamiento se basa en infinidad de productos disponibles actualmente en el mercado. A medida que avanza la tecnología se desarrollan nuevos dispositivos que mejoran el tratamiento y repercuten en beneficios para los pacientes. La terapia de presión negativa, incluida en las técnicas de curación avanzada, es un ejemplo representativo de ello, pero una correcta utilización de esta requiere de un personal entrenado capaz de hacer un uso adecuado a través de sus conocimientos. Objetivo: El objetivo principal es determinar el nivel actual de conocimientos de los profesionales sanitarios sobre generalidades y manejo de la terapia de presión negativa. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y analítico en el Hospital General Universitario de Alicante. La población a estudio estuvo formada por 65 profesionales del ámbito de la enfermería y la medicina que trabajaban en las unidades donde se encuentran más familiarizados con su uso, y la recogida de datos se realizó mediante un cuestionario tipo ad hoc. Resultados: El 20% de los profesionales muestran un bajo nivel de conocimientos, el 61,5%, un nivel adecuado y el 18,5%, un nivel de conocimientos alto. Por tanto, un 80% de la población estudiada tiene un nivel adecuado o alto de conocimientos. Conclusiones: Una formación específica mediante la asistencia a cursos y jornadas, el tratamiento de un mayor número de heridas con terapia de presión negativa y el hecho de sentirse capacitados se convierten en requisitos indispensables para una correcta utilización del dispositivo. El nivel de conocimientos actual no exime de la necesidad de crear un protocolo que permita la unificación de criterios entre los profesionales y la necesidad de formación para actualizar los conocimientos


Introduction: Chronic wounds represent a current problem that generates an impact on many levels and whose treatment is based on an infinite number of products available on the market nowadays. As technology progresses, new devices are developed improving the treatment and affecting in benefits for patients. Topical Negative Pressure theraphy, included in the advanced healing techniques, is a representative example of this but a correct use of it requires a trained staff able to use it suitably through their knowledge. Aim: The main objective is to determine the current level of health workers' knowledge about generalities and the handling of topical negative pressure therapy. Method: An observational, descriptive and analytical study was conducted at the Hospital General Universitario de Alicante. The study population was made up of 65 professionals in the field of nursing and medicine working in units where they are more familiar with their use, carrying out the collection of data by means of a questionnaire type ad hoc. Results: 20% of professionals show a low level of knowledge, 61.5%, an appropriate level and the 18.5%, a high level of expertise. Therefore, 80% of the studied population has an adequate or high level of expertise. Findings: Specific training through attendance at courses and conferences, the treatment of a greater number of injuries with TNP and the fact of being trained become prerequisites for a correct use of the device. The current level of knowledge does not exempt from the need to create a protocol allowing the unification of criteria between the professionals and the need for training to upgrade the expertise


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/instrumentação , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/enfermagem , Análise de Dados
5.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 29(4): 197-209, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182266

RESUMO

Introducción: Se han publicado diversos sistemas de clasificación para las lesiones de pie diabético, si bien ninguno de los propuestos ha sido asumido por la comunidad científica como el sistema a utilizar por todos, y esto es debido a múltiples razones. Objetivos: Dar visibilidad a los nuevos sistemas de clasificación de pie diabético surgidos en los últimos años, además de poder contrastarlos con los sistemas ya conocidos anteriormente. Material y método: Búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos SCOPUS, PubMed/Medline, WOS, CINHAL, Cochrane y CUIDEN. La ecuación de búsqueda utilizada fue la combinación booleana de los términos MeSH "diabetic foot AND classification". La búsqueda se realizó entre el 1 febrero de 2018 y el 30 marzo de 2018. Resultados: Existen 25 sistemas de clasificación de úlceras de pie diabético, que se pueden dividir en sistemas de clasificación-severidad de la lesión o sistemas de predicción de curación-amputación. Muy pocos sistemas han sido validados adecuadamente. Conclusiones: La elección del sistema de pie diabético a utilizar va a estar condicionada por aspectos como el ámbito asistencial, los recursos disponibles o los objetivos que se persiguen. En los últimos años se prefiere el uso de sistemas con enfoque predictivo frente a los sistemas con enfoque descriptivo


Introduction: Various classification systems have been published for diabetic foot ulcers, although none of the proposed systems has been accepted by the scientific community as the system to be used by all, and this is due to multiple reasons. Objectives: To give visibility to the new systems of diabetic foot classification that have emerged in recent years, as well as to compare them with the systems already known previously. Methods: Bibliographic search in the SCOPUS, Pubmed/Medline, WOS, CINHAL, Cochrane and CUIDEN databases. The search equation used was the boolean combination of the MeSH terms "diabetic foot AND classification". The search was conducted between 1 February 2018 and 30 March 2018. Results: There are 25 classification systems for diabetic foot ulcers, which can be divided into classification-severity systems or healing-amputation prediction systems. Very few systems have been properly validated. Conclusions: The choice of the diabetic foot system to be used will be conditioned by aspects such as the assistencial scene, the available resources or the objectives pursued. In recent years, the use of systems with a predictive approach has been preferred over systems with a descriptive approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/classificação , Cicatrização , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Úlcera do Pé/classificação , Úlcera do Pé/terapia , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Pé Diabético/cirurgia
6.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 29(2): 92-99, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175039

RESUMO

Objetivo: El objetivo que se plantea en este trabajo de revisión es responder a la pregunta: ¿Son los cambios posturales efectivos en la prevención de las úlceras por presión? Metodología: Revisión integrativa de la literatura mediante la identificación de documentos en las principales bases de datos relacionadas con las ciencias de la salud: MEDLINE, CINAHL, sciELO, Cochrane y CUIDEN, y mediante búsqueda inversa en los artículos identificados. Se incluyeron estudios prospectivos, revisiones sistemáticas u otro tipo de estudios, que evaluaran la efectividad de los cambios posturales. No hubo restricciones en fechas de publicación hasta diciembre de 2014, pacientes, contexto, estado de la publicación o idioma. Resultados: De 108 artículos, potencialmente relevantes para la revisión, se incluyeron 13: 6 ensayos clínicos, 1 estudio de cohortes, 4 revisiones sistemáticas y una histórica, además de un estudio cualitativo. No se encuentran evidencias sólidas para recomendar los cambios posturales cada 2 horas, pero si hay evidencia que apoya los cambios posturales cada 4 horas combinados con una superficie de apoyo viscoelástica. Conclusiones: No existen estudios que comparen la efectividad, solamente, de los cambios posturales frente a la no realización de estos cambios. La conjunción de una superficie viscoelástica con cambios posturales cada 3-4 horas dispone de la mejor evidencia. Los pacientes en decúbito lateral de 90 grados tienen una tasa casi 4 veces superior de lesiones que los que están a 30 grados. La investigación cualitativa es casi inapreciable en los estudios sobre cambios posturales


Aim: to answer the question: Are repositioning effective in preventing pressure ulcers? Methods: Integrative review of the literature through identification of papers in the main databases related to health sciences: MEDLINE, CINAHL, sciELO, COCHRANE and CUIDEN, and by reverse search on identified articles. We included prospective studies, systematic reviews or other types of studies that evaluated the effectiveness of repositioning. There were no restrictions on publication dates until December 2014, patients, context, publication status or language. Results: From 108 articles, potentially relevant for the review, 13 were included: 6 clinical trials, 1 cohort study, 4 systematic reviews and one historical review, as well as a qualitative study. There is no solid evidence to recommend postural changes every 2 hours. But there is evidence that supports repositioning every 4 hours combined with a viscoelastic support surface. Conclusions: There are no studies that compare the effectiveness of repositioning versus nonrepositioning. The combination of a viscoelastic surface with repositioning every 3-4 hours has the best evidence. Patients in 90 degrees lateral decubitus have a rate almost 4 times higher than those who are at 30 degrees


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Cães , Ratos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Úlcera Cutânea , Postura/fisiologia
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