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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973142

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our understanding of inborn errors of immunity is increasing; however, their contribution to pediatric sepsis is unknown. METHODS: We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to characterize variants in genes related to monogenic immunologic disorders in 330 children admitted to intensive care for severe sepsis. We defined candidate variants as rare variants classified as pathogenic or potentially pathogenic in QIAGEN's Human Gene Mutation Database or novel null variants in a disease-consistent inheritance pattern. We investigated variant correlation with infection and inflammatory phenotype. RESULTS: More than one in two children overall and three of four African American children had immunodeficiency-associated variants. Children with variants had increased odds of isolating a blood or urinary pathogen (blood: OR 2.82, 95% CI: 1.12-7.10, p = 0.023, urine: OR: 8.23, 95% CI: 1.06-64.11, p = 0.016) and demonstrating increased inflammation with hyperferritinemia (ferritin [Formula: see text] ng/mL, OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.28-3.66, p = 0.004), lymphopenia (lymphocyte count < 1000/µL, OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.06 - 2.60, p = 0.027), thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150,000/µL, OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.76, p = 0.013), and CRP greater than 10 mg/dl (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.10-2.68, p = 0.017). They also had increased odds of requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, OR: 4.19, 95% CI: 1.21-14.5, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Herein, we describe the genetic findings in this severe pediatric sepsis cohort and their microbiologic and immunologic significance, providing evidence for the phenotypic effect of these variants and rationale for screening children with life-threatening infections for potential inborn errors of immunity.

2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 176-183, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for depth of chest compressions in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are based on sparse evidence. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the performance of the two most widely recommended chest compression depth levels for pediatric CPR (1.5 in. and 1/3 the anterior-posterior diameter- APd) in a controlled swine model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. METHODS: We executed a 2-group, randomized laboratory study with an adaptive design allowing early termination for overwhelming injury or benefit. Forty mixed-breed domestic swine (mean weight = 26 kg) were sedated, anesthetized and paralyzed along with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Asphyxial cardiac arrest was induced with fentanyl overdose. Animals were untreated for 9 min followed by mechanical CPR with a target depth of 1.5 in. or 1/3 the APd. Advanced life support drugs were administered IV after 4 min of basic resuscitation followed by defibrillation at 14 min. The primary outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), hemodynamics and CPR-related injury severity. RESULTS: Enrollment in the 1/3 APd group was stopped early due to overwhelming differences in injury. Twenty-three animals were assigned to the 1.5 in. group and 15 assigned to the 1/3 APd group, per an adaptive group design. The 1/3 APd group had increased frequency of rib fracture (6.7 vs 1.7, p < 0.001) and higher proportions of several anatomic injury markers than the 1.5 in. group, including sternal fracture, hemothorax and blood in the endotracheal tube (p < 0.001). ROSC and hemodynamic measures were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: In this pediatric model of cardiac arrest, chest compressions to 1/3APd were more harmful without a concurrent benefit for resuscitation outcomes compared to the 1.5 in. compression group.

5.
J Palliat Med ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612728

RESUMO

Background: Although bereaved parents suffer greatly, some may experience positive change referred to as post-traumatic growth. Objective: Explore the extent to which parents perceive post-traumatic growth after their child's death in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and associated factors. Design: Longitudinal parent survey conducted 6 and 13 months after a child's death. Surveys included the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form (PTGI-SF), a 10-item measure with range of 0-50 where higher scores indicate more post-traumatic growth. Surveys also included the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) for depression, the Short Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview (SPRINT), a single item on perceived overall health, and sociodemographics. Setting/Subjects: One hundred fifty-seven parents of 104 children who died in 1 of 8 PICUs affiliated with the U.S. Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Results: Of participating parents, 62.4% were female, 71.6% White, 82.7% married, and 89.2% had at least a high school education. Mean PTGI-SF scores were 27.5 ± 12.52 (range 5-50) at 6 months and 28.6 ± 11.52 (range 2-49) at 13 months (p = 0.181). On multivariate modeling, higher education (compared with those not completing high school) and higher 6-month ICG scores (reflecting more complicated grief symptoms) were associated with lower 13-month PTGI-SF scores (p = 0.005 and 0.033, respectively). Conclusion: Parents bereaved by their child's PICU death perceive a moderate degree of post-traumatic growth in the first 13 months after the death however variability is wide. Education level and complicated grief symptoms may influence parents' perception of post-traumatic growth.

6.
Shock ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of and outcomes related to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in septic children across multiple centers. We performed propensity-adjusted secondary analyses of the Biomarker Phenotyping of Pediatric Sepsis and Multiple Organ Failure (PHENOMS) study to test the hypothesis that early RBC transfusion is associated with fewer organ failure-free days in pediatric severe sepsis. METHODS: 401 children were enrolled in the parent study. Children were excluded from these analyses if they received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 22) or died (n = 1) before sepsis day 2. Propensity-adjusted analyses compared children who received RBC transfusion on or before sepsis day 2 (early RBC transfusion) with those who did not. Logistic regression was used to model the propensity to receive early RBC transfusion. A weighted cohort was constructed using stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights. Variables in the weighted cohort with absolute standardized differences > 0.15 were added to final multivariable models. RESULTS: 50% of children received at least one RBC transfusion. The majority (68%) of first transfusions were on or before sepsis day 2. Early RBC transfusion was not independently associated with organ failure-free (-0.34 [95%CI: - 2, 1.3] days) or PICU-free days (-0.63 [-2.3, 1.1]), but was associated with the secondary outcome of higher mortality (aOR 2.9 [1.1, 7.9]). CONCLUSIONS: RBC transfusion is common in pediatric severe sepsis and may be associated with adverse outcomes. Future studies are needed to clarify these associations, to understand patient-specific transfusion risks, and to develop more precise transfusion strategies.

7.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 233, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retaining participants over time is a frequent challenge in research studies evaluating long-term health outcomes. This study's objective was to compare the impact of prepaid and postpaid incentives on response to a six-month follow-up survey. METHODS: We conducted an experiment to compare response between participants randomized to receive either prepaid or postpaid cash card incentives within a multisite study of children under 15 years in age who were hospitalized for a serious, severe, or critical injury. Participants were parents or guardians of enrolled children. The primary outcome was survey response. We also examined whether demographic characteristics were associated with response and if incentive timing influenced the relationship between demographic characteristics and response. We evaluated whether incentive timing was associated with the number of calls needed for contact. RESULTS: The study enrolled 427 children, and parents of 420 children were included in this analysis. Follow-up survey response did not differ according to the assigned treatment arm, with the percentage of parents responding to the survey being 68.1% for the prepaid incentive and 66.7% with the postpaid incentive. Likelihood of response varied by demographics. Spanish-speaking parents and parents with lower income and lower educational attainment were less likely to respond. Parents of Hispanic/Latino children and children with Medicaid insurance were also less likely to respond. We found no relationship between the assigned incentive treatment and the demographics of respondents compared to non-respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Prepaid and postpaid incentives can obtain similar participation in longitudinal pediatric critical care outcomes research. Incentives alone do not ensure retention of all demographic subgroups. Strategies for improving representation of hard-to-reach populations are needed to address health disparities and ensure the generalizability of studies using these results.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pais , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Respir Care ; 66(10): 1549-1559, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is used to treat hypoxic respiratory failure without clear evidence of benefit. Future trials to evaluate its use will be designed based on an understanding of the populations in which this therapy is provided and with outcomes based on patient characteristics, for example, a history of premature birth. METHODS: This was a multi-center prospective observational study that evaluated subjects in the pediatric ICU who were treated with INO for a respiratory indication, excluding those treated in the neonatal ICU or treated for birth-related disease. We used logistic regression to evaluate characteristics associated with mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. Specifically, we compared subjects born early preterm (<32 weeks post-conceptual age), late preterm (32-37 weeks post-conceptual age), and full term. RESULTS: A total of 163 children (median age [interquartile range], 1.8 [0.7-6.0] y) were included, 41 (25.2%) had a history of preterm birth (18 born early preterm and 23 born late preterm). INO was initiated for less-severe lung disease in the early preterm versus late preterm versus full-term subjects (median mean airway pressures, 16 vs 19 vs 19 cm H2O; P = .03), although the oxygenation index and oxygenation saturation index did not differ. The early preterm subjects had more ventilator-free days (median, 18.0, 7.0, 4.5 d; P = .02) and lower 28-d mortality (0, 26.1, 32.0%; P = .007). Lower respiratory tract disease, but not a history of prematurity, was independently associated with lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: INO was used differently in early preterm subjects. Clinical trials that evaluate INO use should have standardized oxygenation deficit thresholds for initiation of therapy and should consider stratifying by early preterm status.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Insuficiência Respiratória , Administração por Inalação , Criança , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores
10.
Resuscitation ; 168: 52-57, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536558

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) among children with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and its association with survival. METHODS: Children (<18 years) admitted to ICUs participating in the Virtual Pediatric Systems multicenter registry between January 2011 and December 2017 who had an IHCA during their hospitalization were included. Patients were classified by whether they had a documented diagnosis of PH at the time of IHCA. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without PH. After propensity score matching, conditional logistic regression within the matched cohort determined the association between PH and survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Of 18,575 children with IHCA during the study period, 1,590 (8.6%) had a pre-arrest diagnosis of PH. Patients with PH were more likely to be 29 days to 2 years of age, female, Black/African American, and American Indian/Alaskan Native, and to be treated in a cardiac ICU or mixed PICU/cardiac ICU. At ICU admission, PH patients had a lower probability of death as determined by the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM-2) score. Patients with PH were more likely to be receiving inhaled nitric oxide (13.0% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001). Propensity score matching successfully matched 1,302 PH patients with 3,604 non-PH patients. Patients with PH were less likely to survive to hospital discharge (aOR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.95; p = 0.01) than non-PH patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter study, 8.6% of children with IHCA had pre-existing documented PH. These children were less likely to survive to hospital discharge than those without PH.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Criança , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente
11.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 675374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490155

RESUMO

Background: Although some pediatric sepsis survivors experience worsening health-related quality of life (HRQL), many return to their pre-illness HRQL. Whether children can improve beyond baseline is not known. We examined a cohort of pediatric sepsis survivors to determine if those with baseline HRQL scores below the population mean could exhibit ≥10% improvement and evaluated factors associated with improvement. Methods: In this secondary analysis of the Life After Pediatric Sepsis Evaluation prospective study, children aged 1 month to 18 years admitted to 12 academic PICUs in the United States with community-acquired septic shock who survived to 3 months and had baseline HRQL scores ≤ 80 (i.e., excluding those with good baseline HRQL to allow for potential improvement) were included. HRQL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory or Stein-Jessop Functional Status Scale. Findings: One hundred and seventeen children were eligible. Sixty-one (52%) had ≥ 10% improvement in HRQL by 3 months. Lower pre-sepsis HRQL was associated with increased odds of improvement at 3 months [aOR = 1.08, 95% CI (1.04-1.11), p < 0.001] and 12 months [OR = 1.05, 95% CI (1.02-1.11), p = 0.005]. Improvement in HRQL was most prevalent at 3 month follow-up; at 12 month follow-up, improvement was more sustained among children without severe developmental delay compared to children with severe developmental delay. Interpretation: More than half of these children with community acquired septic shock experienced at least a 10% improvement in HRQL from baseline to 3 months. Children with severe developmental delay did not sustain this improvement at 12 month follow-up.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(10): 1042-1052, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data regarding the benefit of compression-only bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CO-CPR) compared with CPR with rescue breathing (RB-CPR) after pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the hypothesis that RB-CPR is associated with improved neurologically favorable survival compared with CO-CPR following pediatric OHCA, and to characterize age-stratified outcomes with CPR type compared with no bystander CPR (NO-CPR). METHODS: Analysis of the CARES registry (Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival) for nontraumatic pediatric OHCAs (patients aged ≤18 years) from 2013-2019 was performed. Age groups included infants (<1 year), children (1 to 11 years), and adolescents (≥12 years). The primary outcome was neurologically favorable survival at hospital discharge. RESULTS: Of 13,060 pediatric OHCAs, 46.5% received bystander CPR. CO-CPR was the most common bystander CPR type. In the overall cohort, neurologically favorable survival was associated with RB-CPR (adjusted OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.78-2.62) and CO-CPR (adjusted OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.34-1.94) compared with NO-CPR. RB-CPR was associated with a higher odds of neurologically favorable survival compared with CO-CPR (adjusted OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.10-1.68). In age-stratified analysis, RB-CPR was associated with better neurologically favorable survival versus NO-CPR in all age groups. CO-CPR was associated with better neurologically favorable survival compared with NO-CPR in children and adolescents, but not in infants. CONCLUSIONS: CO-CPR was the most common type of bystander CPR in pediatric OHCA. RB-CPR was associated with better outcomes compared with CO-CPR. These results support present guidelines for RB-CPR as the preferred CPR modality for pediatric OHCA.

13.
Resusc Plus ; 6: 100124, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223382

RESUMO

Objective: Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is a key mediator of neurologic injury following cardiac arrest (CA) and is regulated by the balance of fusion and fission (mitochondrial dynamics). Under stress, fission can decrease mitochondrial mass and signal apoptosis, while fusion promotes oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. This study evaluates mitochondrial dynamics and content in brain tissue 24 h after CA between two cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategies. Interventions: Piglets (1 month), previously randomized to three groups: (1) Std-CPR (n = 5); (2) HD-CPR (n = 5; goal systolic blood pressure 90 mmHg, goal coronary perfusion pressure 20 mmHg); (3) Shams (n = 7). Std-CPR and HD-CPR groups underwent 7 min of asphyxia, 10 min of CPR, and standardized post-resuscitation care. Primary outcomes: (1) cerebral cortical mitochondrial protein expression for fusion (OPA1, OPA1 long to short chain ratio, MFN2) and fission (DRP1, FIS1), and (2) mitochondrial mass by citrate synthase activity. Secondary outcomes: (1) intra-arrest haemodynamics and (2) cerebral performance category (CPC) at 24 h. Results: HD-CPR subjects had higher total OPA1 expression compared to Std-CPR (1.52; IQR 1.02-1.69 vs 0.67; IQR 0.54-0.88, p = 0.001) and higher OPA1 long to short chain ratio than both Std-CPR (0.63; IQR 0.46-0.92 vs 0.26; IQR 0.26-0.31, p = 0.016) and shams. Citrate synthase activity was lower in Std-CPR than sham (11.0; IQR 10.15-12.29 vs 13.4; IQR 12.28-15.66, p = 0.047), but preserved in HD-CPR. HD-CPR subjects had improved intra-arrest haemodynamics and CPC scores at 24 h compared to Std-CPR. Conclusions: Following asphyxia-associated CA, HD-CPR exhibits increased pro-mitochondrial fusion protein expression, preservation of mitochondrial mass, improved haemodynamics and superior neurologic scoring compared to Std-CPR. Institutional protocol number: IAC 16-001023.

14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1375-1388, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259654

RESUMO

The history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the Society of Critical Care Medicine have much in common, as many of the founders of the Society of Critical Care Medicine focused on understanding and improving outcomes from cardiac arrest. We review the history, the current, and future state of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/história , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/tendências , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , História do Século XX , Humanos
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(8): 977-985, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265230

RESUMO

Rationale: Animal studies of cardiac arrest suggest that shorter epinephrine dosing intervals than currently recommended (every 3-5 min) may be beneficial in select circumstances. Objectives: To evaluate the association between epinephrine dosing intervals and pediatric cardiac arrest outcomes. Methods: Single-center retrospective cohort study of children (<18 years of age) who received ⩾1 minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and ⩾2 doses of epinephrine for an index in-hospital cardiac arrest. Exposure was epinephrine dosing interval ⩽2 minutes (frequent epinephrine) versus >2 minutes. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with a favorable neurobehavioral outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score 1-2 or unchanged). Logistic regression evaluated the association between dosing interval and outcomes; additional analyses explored duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as a mediator. In a subgroup, the effect of dosing interval on diastolic blood pressure was investigated. Measurements and Main Results: Between January 2011 and December 2018, 125 patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria; 33 (26%) received frequent epinephrine. Frequent epinephrine was associated with increased odds of survival with favorable neurobehavioral outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-6.14; P = 0.036), with 66% of the association mediated by CPR duration. Delta diastolic blood pressure was greater after the second dose of epinephrine among patients who received frequent epinephrine (median [interquartile range], 6.3 [4.1 to 16.9] vs. 0.13 [-2.3 to 1.9] mm Hg; P = 0.034). Conclusions: In patients who received at least two doses of epinephrine, dosing intervals ⩽2 minutes were associated with improved neurobehavioral outcomes compared with dosing intervals >2 minutes. Mediation analysis suggests that improved outcomes are largely due to frequent epinephrine shortening duration of CPR.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Parada Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
16.
Resuscitation ; 167: 282-288, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237356

RESUMO

AIMS: Assessment of brain injury severity early after cardiac arrest (CA) may guide therapeutic interventions and help clinicians counsel families regarding neurologic prognosis. We aimed to determine whether adding EEG features to predictive models including clinical variables and examination signs increased the accuracy of short-term neurobehavioral outcome prediction. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, single-center study of consecutive infants and children resuscitated from CA. Standardized EEG scoring was performed by an electroencephalographer for the initial EEG timepoint after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and each 12-h segment from the time of ROSC up to 48 h. EEG Background Category was scored as: (1) normal; (2) slow-disorganized; (3) discontinuous or burst-suppression; or (4) attenuated-featureless. The primary outcome was neurobehavioral outcome at discharge from the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. To develop the final predictive model, we compared areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) from models with varying combinations of Demographic/Arrest Variables, Examination Signs, and EEG Features. RESULTS: We evaluated 89 infants and children. Initial EEG Background Category was normal in 9 subjects (10%), slow-disorganized in 44 (49%), discontinuous or burst suppression in 22 (25%), and attenuated-featureless in 14 (16%). The final model included Demographic/Arrest Variables (witnessed status, doses of epinephrine, initial lactate after ROSC) and EEG Background Category which achieved AUROC of 0.9 for unfavorable neurobehavioral outcome and 0.83 for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of standardized EEG Background Categories to readily available CA variables significantly improved early stratification of brain injury severity after pediatric CA.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Parada Cardíaca , Encéfalo , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
JAMA Surg ; 156(8): e212058, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076684

RESUMO

Importance: Short- and long-term functional impairment after pediatric injury may be more sensitive for measuring quality of care compared with mortality alone. The characteristics of injured children and adolescents who are at the highest risk for functional impairment are unknown. Objective: To evaluate categories of injuries associated with higher prevalence of impaired functional status at hospital discharge among children and adolescents and to estimate the number of those with injuries in these categories who received treatment at pediatric trauma centers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study (Assessment of Functional Outcomes and Health-Related Quality of Life After Pediatric Trauma) included children and adolescents younger than 15 years who were hospitalized with at least 1 serious injury at 1 of 7 level 1 pediatric trauma centers from March 2018 to February 2020. Exposure: At least 1 serious injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale score, ≥3 [scores range from 1 to 6, with higher scores indicating more severe injury]) classified into 9 categories based on the body region injured and the presence of a severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score <9 or Glasgow Coma Scale motor score <5). Main Outcomes and Measures: New domain morbidity defined as a 2 points or more change in any of 6 domains (mental status, sensory, communication, motor function, feeding, and respiratory) measured using the Functional Status Scale (FSS) (scores range from 1 [normal] to 5 [very severe dysfunction] for each domain) in each injury category at hospital discharge. The estimated prevalence of impairment associated with each injury category was assessed in the population of seriously injured children and adolescents treated at participating sites. Results: This study included a sample of 427 injured children and adolescents (271 [63.5%] male; median age, 7.2 years [interquartile range, 2.5-11.7 years]), 74 (17.3%) of whom had new FSS domain morbidity at discharge. The proportion of new FSS domain morbidity was highest among those with multiple injured body regions and severe head injury (20 of 24 [83.3%]) and lowest among those with an isolated head injury of mild or moderate severity (1 of 84 [1.2%]). After adjusting for oversampling of specific injuries in the study sample, 749 of 5195 seriously injured children and adolescents (14.4%) were estimated to have functional impairment at hospital discharge. Children and adolescents with extremity injuries (302 of 749 [40.3%]) and those with severe traumatic brain injuries (258 of 749 [34.4%]) comprised the largest proportions of those estimated to have impairment at discharge. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, most injured children and adolescents returned to baseline functional status by hospital discharge. These findings suggest that functional status assessments can be limited to cohorts of injured children and adolescents at the highest risk for impairment.

18.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 10499091211015913, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents often suffer reduced mental health after their child's death; however, the trajectory and risk factors are not well described. OBJECTIVE: Describe the change in complicated grief, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among parents between 6 and 13 months after their child's death in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and factors associated with 13-month symptoms. METHODS: Parents whose children died in 1 of 8 PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network completed surveys 6 and 13 months after their child's death. Surveys included the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) for depression, and the Short Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview (SPRINT). Parents provided sociodemographics. Charts were reviewed for child characteristics. RESULTS: One-hundred and fifty seven parents of 104 deceased children completed surveys at both time points. Mental health symptoms declined over time (mean (SD)): ICG (33.8 (15.4) vs. 30.5 (15.2), p < 0.001), PHQ-8 (9.0 (6.4) vs. 7.3 (5.8), p < 0.001), and SPRINT (14.1 (8.3) vs. 12.0 (8.2), p < 0.001). After controlling for 6-month scores, higher 13-month ICG was independently associated with sudden unexpected death; higher PHQ-8 with Black race, insecure attachment style, and sudden unexpected death; and higher SPRINT with having a high school level of education (compared to college degree or higher). CONCLUSION: Mental health symptoms improve among parents during the first 13 months after their child's death; however, symptoms persist for many. Black parents and those whose children die suddenly may be high risk for poor adjustment during bereavement.

19.
Neurology ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the variability in pediatric death by neurologic criteria (DNC) protocols between US pediatric institutions and compared to the 2011 DNC guidelines. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of DNC protocols obtained from pediatric institutions in the United States (US) via regional organ procurement organizations. Protocols were evaluated across five domains: general DNC procedures, prerequisites, neurologic examination, apnea testing and ancillary testing. Descriptive statistics compared protocols to each other and the 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty protocols were analyzed with 118 dated after publication of the 2011 guidelines. Of those 118 protocols, identification of a mechanism of irreversible brain injury was required in 97%, while 67% required an observation period after acute brain injury before DNC evaluation. Most protocols required guideline-based prerequisites such as exclusion of hypotension (94%), hypothermia (97%), and metabolic derangements (92%). On neurologic examination, 91% required a lack of responsiveness, 93% no response to noxious stimuli, and 99% loss of brainstem reflexes. 84% of protocols required the guideline-recommened two apnea tests. CO2 targets were consistent with guidelines in 64%. Contrary to guidelines, fifteen percent required ancillary testing for all patients and 15% permitted ancillary studies that are not validated in pediatrics. CONCLUSIONS: and Relevance: Variability exists between pediatric institutional DNC protocols in all domains of DNC determination, especially with respect to apnea and ancillary testing. Better alignment of DNC protocols with national guidelines may improve the consistency and accuracy of DNC determination.

20.
Resuscitation ; 164: 70-78, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Guideline deviations with impact on patient outcomes frequently occur during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, barriers and facilitators for preventing these guideline deviations are understudied. We aimed to characterize challenges occurring during IHCA and identify barriers and facilitators perceived by actual team members immediately following IHCA events. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter clinical study. Following each resuscitation attempt in 6 hospitals over a 4-year period, we immediately sent web-based structured questionnaires to all responding team members, reporting their perceived resuscitation quality, teamwork, and communication and what they perceived as barriers or facilitators. Comments were analyzed using qualitative inductive thematic analysis methodology. RESULTS: We identified 924 resuscitation attempts and 3,698 survey responses were collected including 2,095 qualitative comments (response rate: 65%). Most frequent challenges were overcrowding (27%) and poor ergonomics/choreography of people in the room (17%). Narrative comments aligned into 24 unique barrier and facilitator themes in 4 domains: 6 related to treatment (most prevalent: CPR, rhythm check, equipment), 7 for teamwork (most prevalent: role allocation, crowd control, collaboration with ward staff), 6 for leadership (most prevalent: visible and distinct leader, multiple leaders, leader experience), and 5 for communication (most prevalent: closed loops, atmosphere in room, speaking loud/clear). CONCLUSION: Using novel, immediate after-event survey methodology of individual cardiac arrest team members, we characterized challenges and identified 24 themes within 4 domains that were barriers and facilitators for in-hospital resuscitation teams. We believe this level of detail is necessary to contextualize guidelines and training to facilitate high-quality resuscitation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
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