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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 106, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272460

RESUMO

Overcoming continuing polarization regarding judicial enforcement of health rights in Latin America requires clarifying divergent normative and political premises, addressing the lack of reliable empirical data, and establishing the conditions for fruitful inter-sectoral, inter-disciplinary dialogue.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Equidade em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Prioridades em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , América Latina , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205694, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Latin American (LA) countries have begun to adopt a variety of regulations targeting sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) for public health reasons. Our objective was to characterize the regulatory strategies designed to reduce SSB consumption over the last decade, and assess the available evidence on their enforcement and impact. METHODS: We searched legal and public health databases for public and private SSBs regulations in 14 LA countries and then conducted a systematic review of the available literature. We tracked comparative variations in the type of body issuing the regulations, their scope, and binding status. We present data following a 5-category framework we named NUTRE that classifies SSBs regulations as: (1) restrictions to SSB availability in schools (N), (2) taxes and other economic incentives to discourage consumption (U), (3) restrictions on advertising and marketing (T), (4) regulations on government procurement and subsidies (R), and (5) product labeling rules (E). RESULTS: Since 2006, 14 LA countries have adopted at least 39 public and private SSB regulatory initiatives across the NUTRE framework. Comprehensive efforts have only been approved by Chile, México and Ecuador, while the rest have comparatively few initiatives. 28 out of the 39 regulatory initiatives were passed by legislative and executive bodies; 11 initiatives represent self-regulatory undertakings by the beverage industries. An 86% (24/28) of public sector regulations are binding; 56% (22/39) contain explicit monitoring or evaluation methods; and 62% (24/39) provide for sanctions. Moreover, 23 regulations specify the body in charge of monitoring the new rules and standards. CONCLUSIONS: LA countries are targeting SSB consumption through a variety of mechanisms, particularly via restrictions to availability in schools and through taxes. Interdisciplinary evidence comparing alternative regulatory strategies is scarce, and few studies offer data on impact and implementation challenges. More evidence and further comparative assessments are needed to support future decision-making.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/economia , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile , Tomada de Decisões , Sacarose na Dieta/economia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Equador , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , México , Política Nutricional/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Edulcorantes/economia , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 135(2): 228-231, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27599600

RESUMO

For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Constituição e Estatutos , Direitos Humanos/tendências , Política , Argentina , Bolívia , Colômbia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Jurisprudência , México , Pessoalidade , Gravidez , Valor da Vida
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