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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(79): 11860-11863, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528890

RESUMO

An easy to synthesize azobenzene based amphiphile spontaneously self-assembles into monodisperse nanoaggregates in water. The large difference in the critical aggregation concentration between the E and Z stereoisomeric forms enables photocontrol of its aggregation state over a wide concentration range: light-triggered release and uptake of lipophilic molecules is achieved in aqueous solution.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Luz , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Estereoisomerismo , Água/química
2.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(9): 2180-2190, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816403

RESUMO

The one-photon (1P) and two-photon (2P) absorption properties of three quadrupolar dyes, featuring thiophene as a donor and acceptors of varying strengths, are determined by a combination of experimental and computational methods employing the density functional theory (DFT). The emission shifts in different solvents are well reproduced by time-dependent DFT calculations with the linear response and state specific approaches in the framework of the polarizable continuum model. The calculations show that the energies of both 1P- and 2P-active states decrease with an increase of the strength of the acceptor. The 2P absorption cross-sections predicted by the response theory are accounted for by considering just one intermediate state (S1) in the sum-over-states formulation. For the chromophore featuring the stronger acceptor, the energetic positions of the 1P- and 2P-active states prevent the exploitation of the theoretically predicted very high 2P activity due to the competing 1P absorption into the S1 state.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 48(12): 3815-3818, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785170

RESUMO

Hexakis(phenylthio)benzene compounds carrying six carboxylic acid groups at their periphery combine aggregation-induced phosphorescence, water-solubility and metal-binding properties: the para-isomer is a selective and sensitive turn-on phosphorescent sensor of Pb2+ ions in water.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 47(26): 8507-8508, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915844
5.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(1)2018 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597992

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been significant research on integrated microfluidic devices. Microfluidics offer an advantageous platform for the parallel laminar flow of adjacent solvents of potential use in modern chemistry and biology. To reach that aim, we worked towards the realization of a buried microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip which enables the separation of the two components by exploiting the non-mixing properties of laminar flow. To fabricate the aforementioned chip, we employed a femtosecond laser irradiation technique followed by chemical etching. To optimize the configuration of the chip, several geometrical and structural parameters were taken into account. The diffusive mass transfer between the two fluids was estimated and the optimal chip configuration for low diffusion rate of the components was defined.

6.
Chem ; 2(4): 550-560, 2017 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966989

RESUMO

Silicon nanocrystals of the average diameter of 5 nm, functionalized with 4,7-di(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole chromophores (TBT) and dodecyl chains, exhibit near-infrared emission upon one-photon (1P) excitation at 515 nm and two-photon (2P) excitation at 960 nm. By using TBT chromophores as an antenna we were able to enhance both 1P and 2P absorption cross-sections of the silicon nanocrystals to more efficiently excite their long-lived luminescence. These results chart a path to two-photon-excitable imaging probes with long-lived oxygen-independent luminescence - a rare combination of properties that should allow for a substantial increase in imaging contrast.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(42): 12820-12821, 2017 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857385

RESUMO

The photocatalytic mechanism reported in a recent Communication to produce the radical anion of pyrenes postulates a highly endergonic electron transfer process. An analysis of the thermodynamics is reported together with the proposal of an alternative thermodynamically feasible mechanism.

8.
Chemistry ; 23(26): 6380-6390, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263437

RESUMO

A shape-persistent molecule, featuring four bipyridinium units, has been synthesized that upon reduction undergoes intermolecular pimerization because of the rigid architecture of the molecule. The pimerization process has been investigated by a variety of techniques, such as absorption measurements, EPR spectroscopy, as well as gamma and pulse radiolysis, and compared with the behavior of a model compound. Computational studies have also been performed to support the experimental data. The most interesting feature of the tetramer is that pimerization occurs only above a threshold concentration of monoreduced species, on the contrary to the model compound. Furthermore, there is an increase of the apparent pimerization constant by increasing the concentration of reduced bipyridinium units. These results have been interpreted by the fact that pimerization is favored in the tetrahedrally shaped molecule because of a cooperative mechanism. Each multiply reduced molecule can indeed undergo multiple intermolecular interactions that enhance the stabilization of the system, also leading to hierarchical supramolecular growth. The resulting supramolecular system formed by such intermolecular pimerization should exhibit a diamond-like structure, as suggested by a simplified modeling approach. The intermolecular nature of the pimerization process occurring in the tetramer has been demonstrated by measuring the corresponding bimolecular rate constant by pulsed radiolysis experiments.

9.
ACS Nano ; 11(2): 1991-1999, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152312

RESUMO

We describe the preparation of poly(3-hexylthiophene-S,S-dioxide) nanoparticles using Rozen's reagent, HOF·CH3CN, either on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or on preformed P3HT nanoparticles (P3HT-NPs). In the latter case, core-shell nanoparticles (P3HT@PTDO-NPs) are formed, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, indicating the presence of oxygen on the outer shell. The different preparation modalities lead to a fine-tuning of the chemical-physical properties of the nanoparticles. We show that absorption and photoluminescence features, electrochemical properties, size, and stability of colloidal solutions can be finely modulated by controlling the amount of oxygen present. Atomic force microscopy measurements on the nanoparticles obtained by a nanoprecipitation method from preoxidized P3HT (PTDO-NPs) display spherical morphology and dimensions down to 5 nm. Finally, Kelvin probe measurements show that the coexistence of p- and n-type charge carriers in all types of oxygenated nanoparticles makes them capable of generating and separating charge under illumination. Furthermore, in core-shell nanoparticles, the nanosegregation of the two materials, in different regions of the nanoparticles, allows a more efficient charge separation.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(13): 2081-2093, 2017 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28111647

RESUMO

Phosphorescent materials are mostly based on metal complexes. Metal-free organic molecules usually display phosphorescence only in a rigid matrix at 77 K. In the last few years, there has been increasing interest in the design of organic molecules displaying long-lived and highly intense room-temperature phosphorescence, an extremely difficult task since these two properties are generally conflicting. This review reports the most recent and tutorial examples of molecules that are weakly or non-phosphorescent in deaerated fluid solution and whose room temperature phosphorescence is switched on upon aggregation. The examples are divided into two classes according to the mechanism responsible for switching on phosphorescence: (i) rigidification by crystallization or by encapsulation in a polymeric matrix and (ii) interaction with other molecules of the same type (self-aggregation) or a different type by taking advantage of heavy-atom effects.

11.
Chem Rec ; 17(7): 700-712, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054435

RESUMO

The development of nanoscale systems capable to perform specific functions under external control is a challenging task and a fascinating objective in Chemistry. Photochromic compounds undergo radical changes in their physico-chemical properties upon light excitation, for this reason they are valuable building blocks for the construction of photo-controllable molecular devices, machines and materials. The E-Z photoisomerization of azobenzene has been known for almost 80 years and - owing to its high efficiency and excellent reversibility - has been widely employed to introduce an element of photo-control in a large variety of compounds, biomolecules, nanosystems and materials. Here we present some of our research results highlighting how this outstanding photochrome can be utilized to develop systems with light-induced functionalities.

12.
Chemistry ; 23(10): 2363-2378, 2017 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27897357

RESUMO

The synthesis of O-doped polyaromatic hydro- carbons in which two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sub units are bridged through one or two O atoms has been achieved. This includes high-yield ring-closure key steps that, depending on the reaction conditions, result in the formation of furanyl or pyranopyranyl linkages through intramolecular C-O bond formation. Comprehensive photophysical measurements in solution showed that these compounds have exceptionally high emission yields and tunable absorption properties throughout the UV/Vis spectral region. Electrochemical investigations showed that in all cases O annulation increases the electron-donor capabilities by raising the HOMO energy level, whereas the LUMO energy level is less affected. Moreover, third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements on solutions or thin films containing the dyes showed very good values of the second hyperpolarizability. Importantly, poly(methyl methacrylate) films containing the pyranopyranyl derivatives exhibited weak linear absorption and NLO absorption compared to the nonlinearity and NLO refraction, respectively, and thus revealed them to be exceptional organic materials for photonic devices.

13.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 374(4): 53, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27573405

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) nanocrystals are relatively strong light emitters, but are weak light absorbers as a result of their indirect band gap. One way to enhance light absorption is to functionalize the nanocrystals with chromophores that are strong light absorbers. By designing systems that enable efficient energy transfer from the chromophore to the Si nanocrystal, the brightness of the nanocrystals can be significantly increased. There have now been a few experimental systems in which covalent attachment of chromophores, efficient energy transfer and significantly increased brightness have been demonstrated. This review discusses progress on these systems and the remaining challenges.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(39): 11320-37, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26333145

RESUMO

See the light of day: Light is the fastest way of transferring energy and information through space, and in chemistry it can perform the dual role of reactant and product. Sunlight, a really unique reactant, represents our ultimate energy source. Chemists are engaged in designing systems for the conversion of light into electrical or chemical energy and vice versa to create a more sustainable way of life.

15.
Faraday Discuss ; 185: 481-95, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26399301

RESUMO

Silicon nanocrystals functionalized with tetraphenylporphyrin Zn(II) chromophores at the periphery perform as light harvesting antennae: excitation of the porphyrin units in the visible spectral region yields sensitized emission of the silicon nanocrystal core in the near infrared with a long lifetime (λ(max) = 905 nm, τ = 130 µs). This result demonstrates that this hybrid material has a potential application as a luminescent probe for bioimaging.

16.
ChemistryOpen ; 4(3): 268-73, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246987

RESUMO

Graphene-metal composites have potential as novel catalysts due to their unique electrical properties. Here, we report the synthesis of a composite material comprised of monodispersed platinum nanoparticles on high-quality graphene obtained by using two different exfoliation techniques. The material, prepared via an easy, low-cost and reproducible procedure, was evaluated as an electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The turnover frequency at zero overpotential (TOF0 in 0.1 m phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) was determined to be approximately 4600 h(-1). This remarkably high value is likely due to the optimal dispersion of the platinum nanoparticles on the graphene substrate, which enables the material to be loaded with only very small amounts of the noble metal (i.e., Pt) despite the very highly active surface. This study provides a new outlook on the design of novel materials for the development of robust and scalable water-splitting devices.

17.
Nat Chem ; 7(8): 634-40, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26201739

RESUMO

The development of solid materials that can be reversibly interconverted by light between forms with different physico-chemical properties is of great interest for separation, catalysis, optoelectronics, holography, mechanical actuation and solar energy conversion. Here, we describe a series of shape-persistent azobenzene tetramers that form porous molecular crystals in their E-configuration, the porosity of which can be tuned by changing the peripheral substituents on the molecule. Efficient E→Z photoisomerization of the azobenzene units takes place in the solid state and converts the crystals into a non-porous amorphous melt phase. Crystallinity and porosity are restored upon Z→E isomerization promoted by visible light irradiation or heating. We demonstrate that the photoisomerization enables reversible on/off switching of optical properties such as birefringence as well as the capture of CO2 from the gas phase. The linear design, structural versatility and synthetic accessibility make this new family of materials potentially interesting for technological applications.

18.
Chemistry ; 21(7): 2936-47, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25538028

RESUMO

The electrochemistry, photophysics, and electrochemically generated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a family of polysulfurated dendrimers with a pyrene core have been thoroughly investigated and complemented by theoretical calculations. The redox and luminescence properties of dendrimers are dependent on the generation number. From low to higher generation it is both easier to reduce and oxidize them and the emission efficiency increases along the family, with respect to the polysulfurated pyrene core. The analysis of such data evidences that the formation of the singlet excited state by cation-anion annihilation is an energy-deficient process and, thus, the ECL has been justified through the triplet-triplet annihilation pathway. The study of the dynamics of the ECL emission was achieved both experimentally and theoretically by molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. It has allowed rationalization of a possible mechanism and the experimental dependence of the transient ECL on the dendrimer generation. The theoretically calculated Marcus electron-transfer rate constant compares very well with that obtained by the finite element simulation of the whole ECL mechanism. This highlights the role played by the thioether dendrons in modulating the redox and photophysical properties, responsible for the occurrence and dynamics of the electron transfer involved in the ECL. Thus, the combination of experimental and computational results allows understanding of the dendrimer size dependence of the ECL transient signal as a result of factors affecting the annihilation electron transfer.

19.
Chemistry ; 20(51): 17011-8, 2014 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25345969

RESUMO

The efficient transformation of the hexadentate bispidinol 1 into carbamate derivatives yields functional bispidines enabling convenient functionalization for targeted imaging. The BODIPY-substituted bispidine 3 combines a coordination site for metal ions, such as radioactive (64) Cu(II) , with a fluorescent unit. Product 3 was thoroughly characterized by standard analytical methods, single crystal X-ray diffraction, radiolabeling, and photophysical analysis. The luminescence of ligand 3 was found to be strongly dependent on metal ion coordination: Cu(II) quenches the BODIPY fluorescence, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions do not affect it. It follows that, in imaging applications with the positron emitter (64) Cu(II) , residues of its origin from enriched (64) Ni and the decay products (64) Ni(II) and (64) Zn(II) , efficiently restore the fluorescence of the ligand. This allows for monitoring of the emitted radiation as well as the fluorescence signal. The stability of the (64) Cu(II) 3 complex is investigated by transmetalation experiments with Zn(II) and Ni(II) , using fluorescence and radioactivity detection, and the results confirm the high stability of (64) Cu(II) 3. In addition, metal complexes of ligand 3 with the lanthanide ions Tb(III) , Eu(III) , and Nd(III) are shown to exhibit emission of the BODIPY ligand and the lanthanide ion, thus enabling dual emission detection.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/síntese química , Quelantes/química , Quelantes/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/síntese química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes
20.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 13(7): 997-1004, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24887701

RESUMO

The investigated multiterpyridine chromophores form a 2D network upon metal ion complexation that causes profound changes to their photophysical properties; the experimental results are complemented by modeling of the electronic properties of isolated monomers as well as the structure of the polymeric network.

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