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1.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2200037, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several uncommon genomic alterations beyond RAS and BRAFV600E mutations drive primary resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Our PRESSING panel (including PIK3CA exon 20/AKT1/PTEN mutations, ERBB2/MET amplifications, gene fusions, and microsatellite instability-high status) represented a paradigm of negative hyperselection with more precise tailoring of EGFR blockade. However, a modest proportion of hyperselected mCRC has intrinsic resistance potentially driven by even rarer genomic alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective data set at three Italian Academic Hospitals included 650 patients with mCRC with comprehensive genomic profiling by FoundationOne CDx and treated with anti-EGFRs. PRESSING2 panel alterations were selected on the basis of previous clinico-biologic studies and included NTRKs, ERBB3, NF1, MAP2K1/2/4, AKT2 pathogenic mutations; PTEN/NF1 loss; ERBB3, FGFR2, IGF1R, KRAS, ARAF, and AKT1-2 amplification; and EGFR rearrangements. These were collectively associated with outcomes in patients with hyperselected disease, ie, RAS/BRAF wild-type, PRESSING-negative, and microsatellite stable. RESULTS: Among 162 hyperselected patients, 24 (15%) had PRESSING2 alterations, which were mutually exclusive except in two samples and were numerically higher in right-sided versus left-sided cancers (28% v 13%; P = .149). Independently of sidedness and other factors, patients with PRESSING2-positive status had significantly worse progression-free survival and overall survival compared with PRESSING2-negative ones (median progression-free survival 6.4 v 12.8 months, adjusted hazard ratio 4.19 [95% CI, 2.58 to 6.79]; median overall survival: 22.6 v 49.9 months, adjusted hazard ratio 2.98 [95% CI, 1.49 to 5.96]). The combined analysis of primary tumor sidedness and PRESSING2 status allowed us to better stratify outcomes. CONCLUSION: Negative ultraselection warrants further investigation with the aim of maximizing the benefit of EGFR blockade strategies in patients with RAS and BRAF wild-type, microsatellite stable mCRC.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 81-91, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed a cohort of patients with cancer and Sars-Cov-2 infection from the Veneto Oncology Network registry across two pandemic time periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 761 patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. RESULTS: 198 patients were diagnosed during the first pandemic time period (TP1; February 2020 September 2020), 494 during TP2 before the vaccination campaign (TP2/pre-vaccination; September 2020-21 February 2021) and 69 in TP2/post-vaccination (22 February 2021-15 May 2021). TP2 vs TP1 patients were younger (p = 0.004), showed more frequently a good performance status (p < 0.001) and <2 comorbidities (p = 0.002), were more likely to be on active anticancer therapy (p = 0.006). Significantly fewer patients in TP2 (3-4%) vs TP1 (22%) had an in-hospital potential source of infection (p < 0.001). TP2 patients were more frequently asymptomatic (p = 0.003). Significantly fewer patients from TP2 were hospitalized (p < 0.001) or admitted to intensive care unit (p = 0.006). All-cause mortality decreased from 30.3% in TP1, to 8.9% and 8.7% in the two TP2 periods (p < 0.001), reflected by a significant reduction in Sars-Cov-2-related mortality (15.2%, 7.5% and 5.8% in the three consecutive time periods, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in clinical characteristics and features of Sars-Cov-2 infection between TP1 and TP2 reflect the effects of protective measures and increased testing capacity. The lower mortality in TP2 is in line with a less frail population. However, the vast majority of death events in TP2 were related to COVID-19, reinforcing the priority to protect cancer patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of development and recurrence of colorectal cancer. The role of obesity in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (pts) is still unclear, especially in those treated with triplet plus bevacizumab (bev). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of BMI in metastatic colorectal cancer pts treated with FOLFOXIRI plus bev or FOLFIRI/FOLFOX plus bev in the TRIBE and TRIBE-2 trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1160 pts enrolled in TRIBE and TRIBE-2 trials were included. Baseline height and weight were used to assign pts to one of the following BMI categories: underweight (group A = BMI <18.5 kg/m2; 52 pts), normal (group B = BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2; 952 pts) and obese (group C > 30 kg/m2; 156 pts). RESULTS: In our population, no differences in terms of PFS (P = .43) or OS (P = .99) resulted between 3 groups. No interaction effect between treatment arm and BMI was evident in terms of PFS (Group A HR: 0.65 [95%CI: 0.36-1.16]; Group B HR: 0.77 [95%CI: 0.67-0.88]; Group C HR: 0.67 [95%CI: 0.48-0.93]; P for interaction = .75) or OS (Group A HR: 0.57 [95%CI: 0.29-1.12]; Group B HR: 0.85 [95%CI: 0.73-0.99];Group C HR: 0.69 [95%CI: 0.48-1.01] P for interaction = .36). No statistically significant difference in terms of dose reductions due to toxicities were found according to BMI in the overall population (P = .48) and in pts treated with FOLFOXIRI plus bev (P = .57). CONCLUSION: BMI was neither prognostic or predictive for PFS and OS in our population. Our analyses showed that the advantage of FOLFOXIRI plus bev versus FOLFIRI/FOLFOX plus bev was independent from BMI.

5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103647, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248712

RESUMO

Advances in molecular biology have markedly increased our understanding of the heterogeneous molecular landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC). Up to 15% of CRCs harbor the BRAF p.V600E somatic mutation (BRAFmt), a well-established negative prognostic marker in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). The BEACON CRC trial set a new standard of care in patients with progressive BRAFmt cancers, consisting of the combination of encorafenib and cetuximab. On these bases, BRAF mutational testing is now recommended in patients with mCRC. However, efforts are needed to further stratify patients carrying this mutation. Here, we discuss the heterogeneous pathologic and molecular landscape of BRAFmt CRCs, focusing on the promises and pitfalls of molecular diagnostics, on novel biomarkers to improve patients' stratification and on the current diagnostic scenario for CRC. We believe that a better stratification based on histopathological features and novel molecular biomarkers should be performed to optimize patient management and therapeutic decision-making.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
6.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(14): 1562-1573, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This is a multicenter, single-arm phase II trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of an immune-sensitizing strategy with temozolomide priming followed by a combination of low-dose ipilimumab and nivolumab in patients with microsatellite-stable (MSS) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-silenced metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pretreated mCRC were centrally prescreened for MSS status and MGMT silencing (ie, lack of MGMT expression by immunohistochemistry plus MGMT methylation by pyrosequencing). Eligible patients received two priming cycles of oral temozolomide 150 mg/sqm once daily, days 1-5, once every 4 weeks (first treatment part) followed, in absence of progression, by its combination with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg once every 8 weeks and nivolumab 480 mg once every 4 weeks (second treatment part). The primary end point was the 8-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate calculated from enrollment in patients who started the second treatment part, with ≥ 4 out of 27 subjects progression-free by the 8-month time point as decision rule. RESULTS: Among 716 prescreened patients, 204 (29%) were molecularly eligible and 135 started the first treatment part. Among these, 102 (76%) were discontinued because of death or disease progression on temozolomide priming, whereas 33 patients (24%) who achieved disease control started the second treatment part and represented the final study population. After a median follow-up of 23.1 months (interquartile range, 14.9-24.6 months), 8-month PFS rate was 36%. Median PFS and overall survival were 7.0 and 18.4 months, respectively, and overall response rate was 45%. Grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events were skin rash (6%), colitis (3%), and hypophysitis (3%). No unexpected adverse events or treatment-related deaths were reported. CONCLUSION: The MAYA study provided proof-of-concept that a sequence of temozolomide priming followed by a combination of low-dose ipilimumab and nivolumab may induce durable clinical benefit in MSS and MGMT-silenced mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Repetições de Microssatélites , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/genética , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 166: 165-175, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303508

RESUMO

AIM: FGFR2 rearrangements have been identified as a novel therapeutic target of biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, reliable prevalence estimates of this molecular alteration and its prognostic role have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: A retrospective mono-institutional series of 286 patients affected by locally advanced or metastatic BTC (183 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 67 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 36 gallbladder carcinomas) was profiled by means of targeted DNA/RNA next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridisation for FGFR2/3, ERBB2, NTRK alterations, IDH1/2 and BRAF mutations and DNA mismatch repair complex proteins alterations/microsatellite instability. RESULTS: FGFR2 rearrangements, amplifications and point mutations were detected in 15 (5.2%), 1 and 3 cases, respectively. FGFR3 alterations were observed in 5 (1.7%) cases. IDH1/2 were mutated in 35/223 cases (15.7%). A total of 9/258 (3.5%) and 6/260 (2.3%) BTCs had ERBB2 and BRAF gene alterations, respectively. Two cases (2/242; 0.8%) had NTRK1 amplifications but no rearrangement was found. A deficit of mismatch repair protein expression was identified in 9/237 cases (3.8%). At multivariate analysis, age, ECOG performance status, number of metastatic sites, tumour stage, FGFR2/3 alterations and IDH1/2 mutations were prognostic factors of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a strong proof - challenged with a robust and detailed multivariate model - that FGFR2/3 aberrations (including FGFR2 rearrangements) and IDH1/2 mutations can be prognostic for better survival in patients with BTC . The recognition and the measurement of their prognostic impact could be of primary importance for the correct interpretation of currently available data and in the design of new therapeutic trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Colangiocarcinoma , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Oncologist ; 27(1): e29-e36, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), growing evidence supports anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) retreatment, whereas little is known on the outcomes of anti-EGFR-based reinduction therapy during the upfront strategy. METHODS: We included patients enrolled in the Valentino study who had disease progression and received at least one dose of post-progression therapy. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression were used for the survival analysis. When comparing the outcomes of anti-EGFR-based reinduction versus any second line, a propensity score-based matching was used. RESULTS: Liver-limited/single site of disease (P < .001 and P = .002), left-sidedness (P = .029), surgery of metastases (P = .003), early tumor shrinkage, and deeper responses (P = .018 and P = .036) were associated with the use of anti-EGFR-based reinduction versus any other second line. All patients treated with reinduction had an anti-EGFR-free interval of at least 3 months. In the propensity score-matched population, progression-free survival (PFS) was similar in the 2 treatment groups, the overall survival (OS) was significantly longer for patients treated with reinduction (P = .029), and the response rate was higher in patients treated with reinduction (P = .033). An oxaliplatin-free interval ≥12 months, left-sidedness, and molecular hyperselection beyond RAS/BRAF were associated with significantly better outcomes after anti-EGFR-based reinduction. CONCLUSIONS: Reinduction strategies with anti-EGFR-based regimens are commonly used in clinical practice. Our data highlight the importance of clinical-molecular selection for re-treatments and the need for prospective strategy trials in selected populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite unprecedented benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with mismatch repair deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) advanced gastrointestinal cancers, a relevant proportion of patients shows primary resistance or short-term disease control. Since malignant effusions represent an immune-suppressed niche, we investigated whether peritoneal involvement with or without ascites is a poor prognostic factor in patients with dMMR/MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and gastric cancer (mGC) receiving ICIs. METHODS: We conducted a global multicohort study at Tertiary Cancer Centers and collected clinic-pathological data from a cohort of patients with dMMR/MSI-H mCRC treated with anti-PD-(L)1 ±anti-CTLA-4 agents at 12 institutions (developing set). A cohort of patients with dMMR/MSI-high mGC treated with anti-PD-1 agents±chemotherapy at five institutions was used as validating dataset. RESULTS: The mCRC cohort included 502 patients. After a median follow-up of 31.2 months, patients without peritoneal metastases and those with peritoneal metastases and no ascites had similar outcomes (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.15, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.56 for progression-free survival (PFS); aHR 0.96, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.42 for overall survival (OS)), whereas inferior outcomes were observed in patients with peritoneal metastases and ascites (aHR 2.90, 95% CI 1.70 to 4.94; aHR 3.33, 95% CI 1.88 to 5.91) compared with patients without peritoneal involvement. The mGC cohort included 59 patients. After a median follow-up of 17.4 months, inferior PFS and OS were reported in patients with peritoneal metastases and ascites (aHR 3.83, 95% CI 1.68 to 8.72; aHR 3.44, 95% CI 1.39 to 8.53, respectively), but not in patients with only peritoneal metastases (aHR 1.87, 95% CI 0.64 to 5.46; aHR 2.15, 95% CI 0.64 to 7.27) when compared with patients without peritoneal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dMMR/MSI-H gastrointestinal cancers with peritoneal metastases and ascites should be considered as a peculiar subgroup with highly unfavorable outcomes to current ICI-based therapies. Novel strategies to target the immune-suppressive niche in malignant effusions should be investigated, as well as next-generation ICIs or intraperitoneal approaches.


Assuntos
Ascite/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Ascite/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35160263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), intended as induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by radio-chemotherapy (RCT), has been taking hold in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the role of TNT followed by curative surgery. METHODS: Eligible studies were those reporting on patients with PDAC undergoing curative surgery after TNT. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 1080 patients with PDAC who had undergone TNT were analyzed. The most common IC regimen was Gemcitabine (N 620, 57%). Toxicity during IC varied from 14% to 51%. Disease progression during IC varied from 3% to 25%. 607 (62%) patients underwent curative surgery after IC + CRT. In meta-analysis, the available data on lymph node metastases radicality and 2 years OS had better results in favor of TNT groups (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.20-2.60, p = 0.004 and OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.19-3.47, p = 0.01 and OR 1.64, CI 1.09-2.47, p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, different selection criteria, and non-negligible drop-out rate, TNT demonstrated a potential superiority to NAT without CRT in oncological and pathological outcomes, even if the main differences seem to depend on the IC regimen.

11.
Curr Oncol ; 29(2): 544-550, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200549

RESUMO

PARP inhibitors are largely recognized as active drugs in BRCA-mutated breast and ovarian malignancies. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the PARP inhibitor olaparib has recently been approved as maintenance treatment in patients with germline BRCA mutations reaching disease control after a platinum-based first line chemotherapy, proving significant benefit on progression free survival. On the other hand, little evidence is available regarding olaparib as single agent after progression with standard treatment in BRCA-mutated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A 61-year-old female patient harboring germline BRCA2 mutation was treated at our institution for a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with lung and liver metastases. The patient received three previous lines of treatment with standard therapies, as follows: after the third line treatment failure, we started a further line of treatment with olaparib in off-label prescription. After the first two cycles, a CT scan documented partial response, with complete regression of lung metastases. The response was maintained after four cycles, with further response and clinical benefit. The radiologic and clinical response was maintained for 6 months. This case highlights the potential of olaparib as single agent after progression with standard treatment in BRCA-mutated pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Ftalazinas , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico
12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 103: 102326, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective series suggest that bevacizumab-induced hypertension (HTN) is a prognostic and potentially predictive biomarker of efficacy of the antiangiogenic drug in the upfront treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. The immortal-time bias and the effect of pre-existing HTN might affect these findings. We conducted a pooled, post hoc analysis of 2 prospective randomized trials of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in mCRC, and performed a systematic review of the available literature focusing on how the immortal-time bias was taken into account and how pre-existing HTN potentially requiring the use of antihypertensive drugs was managed. METHODS: The pooled-analysis included patients enrolled in the phase III TRIBE and TRIBE-2 studies that compared upfront FOLFOXIRI + bevacizumab to FOLFIRI or FOLFOX + bevacizumab, respectively. Association between HTN and survival outcomes was assessed by incorporating a time-dependent Cox regression model to consider the time-dependency of the probability of HTN onset during the treatment. The systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: The systematic review retrieved 14 eligible and highly heterogeneous studies. A positive prognostic impact of bevacizumab-induced HTN was reported in the 58% of the analyses reporting Progression Free Survival (PFS) and in the 54% of the analyses reporting Overall Survival (OS) data. Immortal-time bias was incorporated in 4 studies (28%). In TRIBE and TRIBE-2 study populations (N = 1175), patients experiencing ≥ G2 HTN during first-line bevacizumab administration showed longer PFS (median: 14.7 versus 10.3 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median: 31.7 versus 24.2 months, p < 0.001). The association with OS retained statistical significance after correction for time-dependency (p = 0.003) and was confirmed in the multivariable model including HTN as a time-dependent variable (p = 0.02). Moreover, in patients with pre-existing HTN, no difference in terms of PFS and OS was observed compared with the subgroup of patients who never experienced ≥G2 HTN (HR 1.01, p = 0.86 and HR 1.02, p = 0.78 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab-induced HTN during the first-line treatment of mCRC is an independent prognostic factor, also adopting a time-dependency correction. Toxicity should be interpreted as a time-dependent variable when exploring its association with clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Virchows Arch ; 480(4): 939-944, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537878

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection characterizes a portion of gastric adenocarcinomas. However, since there is lack of evidence of EBV presence in pre-neoplastic lesions of gastric mucosa, the etiologic role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis is still debated. We report an unusual case of an EBV-associated foveolar gastric dysplasia associated with a focus of EBV-positive low-grade tubular adenocarcinoma, arisen in the context of a lymphocytic-like (EBV-positive) gastritis. The present case offers the unique opportunity to determine whether EBV is an early or late event in gastric cancer development and to evaluate its prevalence in patients with gastric dysplasia. To properly address this question, we investigated EBER expression in a large mono-institutional series of gastric and gastro-esophageal cancers (n = 594) and associated precursor lesions (n = 84). All the selected gastric dysplastic lesions (n = 43) resulted EBV negative. In most cases, EBV is present only in gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas, but not in their precursor lesions. However, the reported case indicates that non-conventional EBV-associated dysplasia may represent a novel histopathological entity in the gastric dysplasia scenario and that EBV could play an early direct role in gastric carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinogênese , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 29(3): 1880-1889, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rectum-preservation for locally advanced rectal cancer has been proposed as an alternative to total mesorectal excision (TME) in patients with major (mCR) or complete clinical response (cCR) after neoadjuvant therapy. The purpose of this study was to report on the short-term outcomes of ReSARCh (Rectal Sparing Approach after preoperative Radio- and/or Chemotherapy) trial, which is a prospective, multicenter, observational trial that investigated the role of transanal local excision (LE) and watch-and-wait (WW) as integrated approaches after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with mid-low rectal cancer who achieved mCR or cCR after neoadjuvant therapy and were fit for major surgery were enrolled. Clinical response was evaluated at 8 and 12 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy. Treatment approach, incidence, and reasons for subsequent TME were recorded. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2019, 160 patients were enrolled; mCR or cCR at 12 weeks was achieved in 64 and 96 of patients, respectively. Overall, 98 patients were managed with LE and 62 with WW. In the LE group, Clavien-Dindo 3+ complications occurred in three patients. The rate of cCR increased from 8- to 12-week restaging. Thirty-three (94.3%) of 35 patients with cCR had ypT0-1 tumor. At a median 24 months follow-up, a tumor regrowth was found in 15 (24.2%) patients undergoing WW. CONCLUSIONS: LE for patients achieving cCR or mCR is safe. A 12-week interval from chemoradiotherapy completion to LE is correlated with an increased cCR rate. The risk of ypT > is reduced when LE is performed after cCR.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Quimiorradioterapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Conduta Expectante
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 161: 90-98, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933155

RESUMO

AIM: To unveil genomic and immunohistochemical expression profiles associated with primary resistance to EGFR/BRAF targeted therapy in patients with BRAF-mutated and microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this multicenter case-control study on patients treated with EGFR/BRAF ± MEK blockade, we compared a primary resistance cohort (N = 20; RECISTv1.1 PD/SD, and progression-free survival [PFS] <16 weeks) versus a sensitive one (N = 19; RECISTv1.1 PR/CR, and PFS ≥16 weeks) in terms of clinical and genomic/expression data by means of comprehensive genomic profiling, tumour mutational burden (TMB), BRAF-mutant transcriptional subtypes (BM) classification and PTEN expression. RESULTS: Left-sided tumours (28% of the total) were enriched in the sensitive versus resistant cohort (53% versus 10%, P = 0.010). Genomic alterations in the PIK3CA/MTOR pathway, BM1 status and PTEN loss were similarly distributed among patients with resistant and sensitive tumours. Amplification of CCND1-3 genes were found only in patients with primary resistance (20% versus 0%, P = 0.106). TMB and prevalence of intermediate TMB (TMB-I 6-20 mutations/Mb) were higher in the resistant versus sensitive cohort (median TMB: 6 [IQR, 3-7.29] versus 3 [IQR, 1.26-3.5]; P = 0.013; TMB-I/H: 60% versus 11%; P = 0.001). Patients with TMB-I had shorter PFS (3.3 versus 5.9 months; HR = 2.19, 95%CI, 1.07-4.47, P = 0.031) and overall survival (6.3 versus 10.5 months; HR = 2.22, 95%CI, 1.02-4.81, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Despite the small sample size, the association of a relatively higher TMB with limited benefit from EGFR/BRAF blockade in patients with MSS and BRAF-mutated mCRC deserves prospective validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Carga Tumoral/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
17.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 23(4): 473-481, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964678

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are rare, highly invasive tumors often diagnosed at an advanced disease stage with an associated poor prognosis. Surgery represents the only chance for curative-intent treatment, but recurrence rates remain high. Neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy are options for patients with resectable CCA to increase recurrence-free survival and overall survival, while palliative chemotherapy represents the treatment for unresectable disease. Global efforts are currently focused on the development of novel more effective therapies. AREAS COVERED: A review was conducted in August 2021 using the PubMed database with the following keywords: 'cholangiocarcinoma,' 'chemotherapy,' and 'therapy.' Manuscripts reporting on first- and second-line chemotherapy, neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment regimens, and targeted therapies currently being tested or employed in the management of CCA were examined. EXPERT OPINION: The prognosis of CCA is negatively affected by several factors including a lack of reliable biomarkers leading to delayed diagnoses, high inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, and few effective chemotherapy regimens. In pursuit of more effective therapies, ongoing trials are testing both conventional and targeted drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Humanos
18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 766500, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970487

RESUMO

The NIVACOR trial is a phase II study assessing the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in combination with FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab in first-line setting in patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) RAS/BRAF mutated. We report safety run-in results in the first 10 patients enrolled. Patients received triplet chemotherapy with FOLFOXIRI scheme plus bevacizumab, in association with nivolumab every 2 weeks for 8 cycles (induction phase) followed by bevacizumab plus nivolumab every 2 weeks (maintenance phase), until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicities. The first ten patients were evaluated: 7 experienced at least one adverse event (AE) related to FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab and 2 related to nivolumab. The most frequent grade 1-2 AEs related to FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab were diarrhea and fatigue (71%), nausea and vomiting (57%); 3 (43%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia, and 2 (20%) patients developed grade 1-2 AEs nivolumab related: skin rash and salivary gland infection. Two patients delayed the dose because of serious AEs, proteinuria and salivary gland infection; one patient discontinued experimental treatment due to the ileo-urethral fistula and concurrent Clostridium infection diarrhea. No treatment- related death occurred. The safety run-in analysis of NIVACOR trial reassured using co-administration of FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab and nivolumab was well tolerated with an acceptable toxicity profile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/, (NCT04072198).

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No standard therapies beyond first line are established for advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma (aSCAC). Earlier preliminary data suggest activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition and programmed cell death ligand (PD-(L))1 blockade in patients with previously treated disease. Aim of this study was to explore activity and safety of avelumab with/without cetuximab in patients with aSCAC. METHODS: In this open-label, non-comparative, 'pick the winner', multicenter randomized phase II trial (NCT03944252), patients with aSCAC progressing after one or more lines of treatment were randomized 1:1 to the anti-PD-L1 agent avelumab alone (arm A) or combined with cetuximab (arm B). Overall response rate (ORR) was the primary endpoint. With one-sided α error set at 0.05 and power of 80%, at least 4 responses out of 27 patients per arm had to be observed to declare the study positive. Secondary endpoints were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: Thirty patients per arm were enrolled. Three patients in arm A and five in arm B achieved partial response: primary endpoint was reached in combination arm. ORR was 10% (95% CI 2.1 to 26.5) and 17% (95% CI 5.6 to 34.7) in arms A and B; disease control rate was 50% (95% CI 31.3 to 68.7) in arm A and 57 (95% CI 37.4-74.5) in arm B. At a median follow-up of 26.7 months (IQR 26.5-26.9), median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI 1.8 to 4.0) in arm A and 3.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.6) in arm B. Median OS was 13.9 months (95% CI 7.7 to 19.4) in arm A and 7.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 11.2) in arm B. Acceptable safety profile was observed in both arms. CONCLUSIONS: CARACAS study met its primary endpoint in arm B, documenting promising activity of dual EGFR and PD-L1 blockade in aSCAC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
20.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834447

RESUMO

The tight junction protein claudin-18 (CLDN18), is often expressed in various cancer types including gastric (GC) and gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GECs). In the last years, the isoform CLDN18.2 emerged as a potential drug target in metastatic GCs, leading to the development of monoclonal antibodies against this protein. CLDN18.2 is the dominant isoform of CLDN18 in normal gastric and gastric cancer tissues. In this work, we evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) profile of CLDN18 and its correlation with clinical and histopathological features including p53, E-cadherin, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, HER2, EBER and PD-L1 combined positive score, in a large real-world and mono-institutional series of advanced GCs (n = 280) and GECs (n = 70). The association of IHC results with survival outcomes was also investigated. High membranous CLDN18 expression (2+ and 3+ intensity ≥75%) was found in 117/350 (33.4%) samples analyzed. CLDN18 expression correlated with age <70 (p = 0.0035), positive EBV status (p = 0.002), high stage (III, IV) at diagnosis (p = 0.003), peritoneal involvement (p < 0.001) and lower incidence of liver metastases (p = 0.013). CLDN18 did not correlate with overall survival. The predictive value of response of CLDN18 to targeted agents is under investigation in several clinical trials and further studies will be needed to select patients who could benefit from these therapies.

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