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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219660

RESUMO

Previous research suggests a deleterious impact on dietary quality when people immigrate to the United States and that children influence immigrant parent's decisions to serve traditional and/or non-traditional foods. Interviews (n = 75) were conducted with Hmong, Somali, and Latino parents of 5-7 year old children about the foods they serve to their children and how the child influences these food decisions. A racially/ethnically diverse team coded interviews using a mixed inductive/deductive approach. Most Latino and Somali parents reported serving mostly traditional foods at home. Regarding feeding decisions, parents reported: (1) allowing children non-traditional foods when requested; (2) "Americanizing" traditional foods; and (3) that children prefer traditional foods. Some Hmong parents reported serving their children non-traditional foods at meals while parents ate traditional foods. Results offer guidance to providers working with immigrant parents of young children regarding maintaining healthful diets when children request potentially unhealthy non-traditional foods.

2.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(3): 414-423, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has related child participation in organized activities to health and academic benefits; however, participation may interfere with family meals. OBJECTIVE: Examine whether parents perceive child participation in organized activities to interfere with family meals and how perceptions are related to the household eating environment. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis was completed using survey data collected in 2015-2016 as part of the Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Survey participants were originally recruited in Minneapolis-St Paul schools in 1998-1999. The analytic subsample of parents (one per household, n=389, 69% female, 31% nonwhite race, mean age=31) had one or more children involved in an organized activity. Approximately 33% of households included a child aged 2 to 5 and no older child; two thirds of households included school-aged children (6 to 18 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents reported family meal frequency, family meal scheduling difficulties, frequency of at-home meal preparation, and their own intake of fast food, fruit, and vegetables. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Analyses compared household environment characteristics reported by parents who perceived low interference between organized activities and family meals to characteristics reported by parents who perceived moderate to high interference from at least one form of activity. Regression models included a dichotomous indicator of interference as the independent variable and were adjusted for parental and household characteristics. RESULTS: Among parents with children at any age, moderate to high interference was associated with lower family meal frequency, greater difficulty scheduling family meals, and more fast-food intake (all P≤0.01). The perception of moderate to high interference was more common among parents who reported involvement in both sport and nonsport activities (P<0.001) and those with a school-aged child (P<0.001) vs those with only preschool-aged children. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up research, including qualitative studies, is needed to identify the specific aspects of child participation in organized activities (eg, scheduled time of day) that may interfere with family meals.

3.
Appetite ; 145: 104497, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669580

RESUMO

Children consume nearly one-third of their daily energy intake as snacks (i.e., eating occasions that occur between meals); thus there is a growing interest in understanding what snacking occasions look like in the homes of young children. This study makes use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to 1) examine differences in the contextual factors, including location, food preparation style, people present, presence of media devices, and overall atmosphere, between meal and snack occasions; and 2) explore differences in the context of snacking occasions across children's gender and weight status. Data for the current study came from the Family Matters Study, which included 150 families with children aged 5-7 years old (n = 25 from each of the following groups: Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White). Parents completed an 8-day EMA observation period, during which they were surveyed after each eating occasion with the study child; questions explored contextual factors including location, food preparation style, people present, presence of media devices, and the overall atmosphere of each eating occasion. Differences between meals and snacks were observed; a smaller percentage of snacks (compared to meals) were prepared by the parent, consisted of only homemade food, and were planned ahead of time, as opposed to being served in response to a child's request. Snacks were more likely than other meals to be eaten on the couch and in the presence of a screen. Furthermore, important differences in snacking context were observed by child gender and weight status. Findings illuminate opportunities to improve children's overall dietary intake via interventions focused on improving the quality of foods served during snacks, as well as the contextual environment in which snacks are eaten.

4.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(2): 270-279, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in low-income and minority populations are at risk for poor dietary quality. At least one-third of the calories consumed by children are eaten between meals (ie, snacks). The contribution of snacking to diet quality among children is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined associations between snacking and children's diet quality along with differences across ethnicity or race, sex, and weight status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data came from Phase I of the Family Matters Study, an observational study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: This study included 150 families with children aged 5 to 7 years old from six ethnic or racial groups (n=25 from each: African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, non-Hispanic white); data were collected in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, MN in 2017-2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total daily energy (kilocalories), overall diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), and food group intakes (eg, fruit, vegetables, refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB]) were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Conditional fixed effects estimators (within-child variation) were used in regression analyses to characterize the relationship between daily snacking and dietary intake relative to dietary intake at all other daily meal occasions. Mean (±standard deviation) overall dietary intake including all meals and snacks was compared with mean (±standard deviation) intake of meals only. RESULTS: Among boys, snacking was found to contribute positively to HEI-2010 scores (HEI-2010=57.6, HEI-2010 without snacks=55.0; effect size [ES]=0.28, P=0.03). Snacking was an important source of fruit (ES=0.71) and dairy (ES=0.53), but also contributed to children's consumption of refined grains (ES=0.68) and SSB (ES=0.31). Very few vegetables were consumed as snacks. Furthermore, snacks contributed more to the overall diet quality (HEI-2010) of Native American (ES=0.30) and Somali (ES=0.35) youth as compared with youth from other ethnic or racial backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that snacks have the potential to improve diet quality in children. Future research should examine influences on children's food choices at snack times and barriers to serving more healthful foods as snacks that are faced by ethnically or racially diverse families.

5.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(5): 690-697, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500945

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify whether parent encouragement to diet as an adolescent predicts subsequent encouragement to diet from significant others/romantic partners as an adult and examine longitudinal associations between cumulative encouragement to diet from close relationships (i.e., parent and significant other) and later weight, weight-related, and psychosocial well-being outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: Data from Project EAT I-IV, a 15-year longitudinal population-based study of socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents followed into adulthood (n = 1,116; mean age = 31.1 years; 61% female), were used for this study. Surveys and anthropometric measures were completed at school by adolescents in 1998-1999, and follow-up mailed and online surveys were completed at approximately 5-year intervals between 2003 and 2016. RESULTS: Adolescents who experienced encouragement to diet from their parents were more likely to have a significant other as an adult who also encouraged them to diet. In addition, there was a significant (p < .05) cumulative effect of encouragement to diet, such that experiencing more encouragement to diet from both a parent(s) and significant other was associated with higher weight status, more unhealthy weight-control behaviors (e.g., dieting, binge eating, and unhealthy weight control behaviors), and lower psychosocial well-being (e.g., lower body satisfaction and self-esteem and higher depressive symptoms) as a young adult. CONCLUSIONS: Encouragement to diet tracked from one close relationship to another and had a cumulative effect on adult weight, weight-related, and psychosocial well-being outcomes. Future interventions, clinical work, and research should be aware of these patterns and cumulative effects of encouragement to diet to target key relationships to reduce these harmful interpersonal patterns.

6.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(9): 1113-1120, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors associated with television (TV) watching during family meals. METHODS: Parents of racially and ethnically diverse 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 150) completed 8 days of ecological momentary assessment surveys. After each meal they shared with their child, parents answered meal-related questions (eg, who was present). Adjusted generalized estimating equations were used to estimate probabilities of watching TV during family meals for individual predictors. RESULTS: Number of adults present, location, outside influences (eg, planned meal, stress), and time to prepare the meal were independently predictive of TV watching during the meal (P < .001). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Results of the current study suggest that families may need assistance in addressing predictors (eg, stress) associated with watching TV during family meals, given prior research has shown watching TV during family meals is associated with negative dietary outcomes. Future research might investigate other factors that may also influence watching TV at family meals.

7.
Clin Obes ; 9(4): e12314, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115182

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between family functioning and youth overweight and obesity in a sample of primary care paediatric patients. Specially, we hypothesize that caregivers of youth with an overweight/obese weight status will report more impaired family functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 329 caregivers of youth ages 2 to 18 seen in paediatric primary care. Caregivers completed the Family Assessment Device General Functioning Scale and clinical demographics, including parent-reported youth height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI). Family functioning was used as a continuous total variable, and as a dichotomous variable based on clinically impaired or healthy family functioning. Analyses included descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and independent t tests. Caregivers who reported impaired family functioning based on the clinical cutoff score were more likely to report that their youth had a higher BMI and BMI z-score. Caregivers with impaired family functioning and who identified as being in two-parent families, with at least a Bachelor's degree, and a moderate to high family income were more likely to report their youth was a higher weight status. Further screening and assessment of family functioning in combination with youth weight status among a larger diverse sample of primary care paediatric patients over time will provide insight into what aspects of family functioning may contribute to maintaining a healthy lifestyle or adopting new health behaviours to prevent and/or treat obesity in youth.


Assuntos
Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cuidadores/educação , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Pediatria , Adulto Jovem
8.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(17): 3189-3199, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe snacking characteristics and patterns in children and examine associations with diet quality and BMI. DESIGN: Children's weight and height were measured. Participants/adult proxies completed multiple 24 h dietary recalls. Snack occasions were self-identified. Snack patterns were derived for each sample using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of snacking characteristics and patterns with Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score and BMI were examined using multivariable linear regression models. SETTING: Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium, USA: NET-Works, GROW, GOALS and IMPACT studies. PARTICIPANTS: Predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minorities: NET-Works (n 534, 2-4-year-olds); GROW (n 610, 3-5-year-olds); GOALS (n 241, 7-11-year-olds); IMPACT (n 360, 10-13-year-olds). RESULTS: Two snack patterns were derived for three studies: a meal-like pattern and a beverage pattern. The IMPACT study had a similar meal-like pattern and a dairy/grains pattern. A positive association was observed between meal-like pattern adherence and HEI-2010 score (P for trend < 0⋅01) and snack occasion frequency and HEI-2010 score (ß coefficient (95 % CI): NET-Works, 0⋅14 (0⋅04, 0⋅23); GROW, 0⋅12 (0⋅02, 0⋅21)) among younger children. A preference for snacking while using a screen was inversely associated with HEI-2010 score in all studies except IMPACT (ß coefficient (95 % CI): NET-Works, -3⋅15 (-5⋅37, -0⋅92); GROW, -2⋅44 (-4⋅27, -0⋅61); GOALS, -5⋅80 (-8⋅74, -2⋅86)). Associations with BMI were almost all null. CONCLUSIONS: Meal-like and beverage patterns described most children's snack intake, although patterns for non-Hispanic Blacks or adolescents may differ. Diets of 2-5-year-olds may benefit from frequent meal-like pattern snack consumption and diets of all children may benefit from decreasing screen use during eating occasions.

9.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 119(9): 1462-1469, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Television (TV) watching at family meals has been associated with poorer dietary quality and weight outcomes in children. Most research has been limited to family meals, overlooking the influence of TV at any meal. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses how often children are eating meals at home while watching TV, the association between child dietary intake while watching TV during meals eaten at home and whether the association depends on meal type (eg, breakfast) or child race/ethnicity, and whether the number of meals consumed while watching TV at home is associated with overall child dietary quality or weight status. DESIGN: The Family Matters study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted between 2015 and 2016. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Three 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted on children aged 5 to 7 years (n=150; 25 each from non-Hispanic white, African American, Latino, Native American, Somali, and Hmong households). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcomes of this study were dietary intake at meals, overall dietary quality, and child weight status. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Conditional fixed effects estimators were used to address correlated error terms to model within-person variation between TV and dietary intake and race/ethnicity differences in child dietary outcomes. RESULTS: TV was watched during 30% of meals eaten at home, which differed significantly by race/ethnicity (P<0.001). Although effect sizes were small, TV watching at meals was associated with unhealthier intake of some foods groups (eg, increased sugar-sweetened beverages and chips/crackers and decreased fruits), dependent on the meal occasion (eg, snacks). However, TV watching during meals at home was not significantly associated with dietary intake for other food groups. These associations did not depend on race/ethnicity. An association between number of meals consumed while watching TV with overall dietary quality or weight status was not found. CONCLUSIONS: Although more research is needed, results suggest TV watching while eating meals at home is relatively common, depends on race/ethnicity, and that TV watching at some meal occasions is associated with child intake of certain food groups, with a majority being unhealthy.

10.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(6): 658-676, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe meal characteristics across breakfast, lunch, and dinner family meals in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant/refugee households via ecological momentary assessment; identify real-time meal characteristics associated with family meal frequency; and identify qualitative themes regarding parents' perspectives about meal characteristics and meal types that influence family meal frequency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: In-home visits. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 5-7 years (n = 150) and their families from diverse and low-income households. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Mixed methods. ANALYSIS: Multiple linear regression and hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Quantitative results indicated several similar meal characteristics occurring across weekdays and weekend days and by meal type (eg, parent prepared the meal, food mostly homemade, meal eaten at table) and some significant negative associations (P < .05) between meal characteristics and family meal frequency (eg, fast food for family meals). Eight main qualitative themes with several subthemes supported and expanded the quantitative findings and added depth to interpretation of the findings. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Results identified specific meal characteristics both quantitatively and qualitatively that may inform the development of interventions to increase the frequency of family meals so that more families can benefit from the protective nature of family meals.

11.
Appetite ; 139: 8-18, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965046

RESUMO

Food parenting practices and parenting styles are associated with child weight status, dietary intake, and eating behaviors. Although parents maintain a parenting style while also engaging in food parenting practices day-to-day, most studies have examined the separate impact of these two constructs on child outcomes. An examination of both practices and styles will facilitate the identification of how they mutually co-exist and influence child weight and weight-related outcomes. The current study examined the clustering of food parenting practices and parenting styles and evaluated the relationship between these parenting characteristics and child weight status, diet quality and eating behaviors. Children aged 5-7 and their parents (N = 150) from six racial/ethnic groups were recruited through primary care clinics. Latent class analysis classified subgroups based on parenting practices and styles. Regression analyses examined relationships between subgroups and child outcomes. The best-fitting model was two subgroups. Parents in subgroup 1 (n = 37) were more likely to restrict foods, pressure children to eat and less likely to engage in food modeling compared to subgroup 2 (n = 112). Parents in subgroup 1 were more likely to report authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and less likely to report an authoritative parenting style, compared to subgroup 2. Parents in subgroup 1 were more likely to report children who ate to obtain pleasure and who lacked internal cues for hunger than those in subgroup 2. There were no association between subgroups and child weight status, diet quality and other eating behaviors. Future research and interventions should take into consideration how parenting styles and practices mutually influence child weight and weight-related outcomes.

12.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(4): 419-431, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a direct observational approach (ie, interactive family board game) to measure familyfunctioning and parenting behaviors of relevance to child weight and weight-related behaviors and to examine family functioning and parenting factors from multiple family dyads (eg, siblings, parent-child) and their associations with child weight and weight-related behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. SETTING: Two home visits were conducted with families 10days apart with a 7-day observational period between home visits. PARTICIPANTS: Children (n = 150) aged 5-7years and their families from 1 of 6 racial and ethnic or immigrant and refugee groups, including African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, and white, participated in the Family Matters study between 2014 and 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Child weight status and weight-related behaviors (ie, diet quality, physical activity). ANALYSIS: Adjusted logistic and linear regression models with robust SEs were used in analysis. RESULTS: Higher family functioning scores across the majority of family dyads were significantly associated with lower child weight status (P < .05). In addition, some family functioning scores were associated with child diet and physical activity, but not consistently. Parenting behavior scores were inconsistently associated with child weight and weight-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest that the interactive family board game task is a direct observational approach that researchers can use with family members to measure family functioning and parenting behaviors related to childhood obesity. Future interventions may want to consider including multiple family members in both measurement and intervention development to target childhood obesity.

13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 119(5): 818-830, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in initiatives that promote home cooking has been increasing, but no studies have examined whether home cooking is associated with dietary quality using longitudinal data on meals served in a diverse sample of families. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined data on multiple meals per family in diverse households to determine whether home-cooked meals are more likely to contain nutritious ingredients than pre-prepared meals. DESIGN: Data for the study came from the National Institutes of Health-funded Family Matters Study. As part of this study, between 2015 and 2016, 150 families provided ecological momentary assessment data on 3,935 meals over an 8-day observation window. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: In this study, investigators followed 150 families with children aged 5 to 7 years old from six racial/ethnic groups (n=25 each non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Native American, Hmong, and Somali families). Recruitment occurred through primary care clinics serving low-income populations in Minnesota. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcomes were participants' self-reports of whether they served fruits, vegetables, and whole grains at a meal, and reports were made within hours of the meal. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Within-group estimator methods were used to estimate the associations between meal preparation and types of food served. These models held constant time-invariant characteristics of families and adjusted for whether the meal was breakfast, lunch, dinner, or a snack and whether it was a weekend meal. RESULTS: For all racial/ethnic and poverty status groups, meals that were fully or partly home-cooked were more likely to contain fruits and vegetables than pre-prepared meals (P<0.001). Meals that were partly home-cooked were the most likely to contain whole grains (P<0.001). Restaurant meals were more likely to contain vegetables than pre-prepared meals (P<0.001) but were equally likely to contain fruits and/or whole grains as pre-prepared meals. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions or initiatives that encourage fully or partly home-cooked meals may help families incorporate nutritious foods into their diets. In addition, evaluations of potential strategies to increase the likelihood of supplementing pre-prepared and restaurant meals with nutritious meal ingredients warrants further investigation.

14.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(7): 1269-1280, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current mixed-methods study explored qualitative accounts of prior childhood experiences and current contextual factors around family meals across three quantitatively informed categories of family meal frequency patterns from adolescence to parenthood: (i) 'maintainers' of family meals across generations; (ii) 'starters' of family meals in the next generation; and (iii) 'inconsistent' family meal patterns across generations. DESIGN: Quantitative survey data collected as part of the first (1998-1999) and fourth (2015-2016) waves of the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study and qualitative interviews conducted with a subset (n 40) of Project EAT parent participants in 2016-2017. SETTING: Surveys were completed in school (Wave 1) and online (Wave 4); qualitative interviews were completed in-person or over the telephone.ParticipantsParents of children of pre-school age (n 40) who had also completed Project EAT surveys at Wave 1 and Wave 4. RESULTS: Findings revealed salient variation within each overarching theme around family meal influences ('early childhood experiences', 'influence of partner', 'household skills' and 'family priorities') across the three intergenerational family meal patterns, in which 'maintainers' had numerous influences that supported the practice of family meals; 'starters' experienced some supports and some challenges; and 'inconsistents' experienced many barriers to making family meals a regular practice. CONCLUSIONS: Family meal interventions should address differences in cooking and planning skills, aim to reach all adults in the home, and seek to help parents who did not eat family meals as a child develop an understanding of how and why they might start this tradition with their family.

15.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 58(2): 226-237, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428705

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to describe parents' preference for how physicians should approach diet and weight-related advice for their child. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents (n = 40) of preschoolers, transcribed verbatim, and double-coded using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Parents identified recommendations for how physicians should approach conversations about weight. Themes included (1) Tone and Approach are Important, (2) Avoid Judgment, (3) Have Regard for Parental Expertise, (4) Consider the Timing of the Discussion with Parents, and (5) Equip Parents with Concrete and Individualized Recommendations. Future research should focus on developing brief, effective communication tools to guide discussions with parents about child nutrition and weight. Opportunities to learn about and practice the use of these brief interventions should be incorporated into medical education with the goal of providing clinicians the learning opportunities, skills/tools, and resources needed to adequately and respectfully discuss weight and diet with parents and children.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Família , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(5): 882-893, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To categorize the home food environment and dietary intake of young children (5-7 years old) from racially/ethnically diverse households using objectively collected data. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: In-home observations in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. SUBJECTS: Families with 5-7-year-old children who identified as Black, White, Hmong, Latino, Native American or Somali. RESULTS: There were many significant differences by race/ethnicity for child dietary intake and for the home food environment, with specific patterns emerging by race/ethnicity. For example, Somali children had high Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores, but low daily intakes of fruits and vegetables. Black children had low HEI-2010 scores and a pattern of low intake of healthful foods and high intake of unhealthful foods. White and Latino families had high levels of both healthful and unhealthful home food availability and children with high HEI-2010 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that the home food environment of young children varies across racial/ethnic group. Study findings also provide new information regarding the home food environment of young children in previously understudied racial/ethnic groups and indicate that interventions working to improve the home food environment and dietary intake of children may want to consider race/ethnicity.

17.
Fam Syst Health ; 36(4): 451-470, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To determine the prevalence of reaching multiple Healthy People 2020 (HP 2020) objectives including nutrition and weight status, sleep health, physical activity, health-related quality of life, social determinants of health, and education among low-income, diverse children and adults. METHODS: Children ages 5- to 7-years-old (n = 150; 47% female) and their parents (mean age = 35; 91% mothers) from 6 racial/ethnic and immigrant/refugee groups (n = 25 from each; African American, Native American, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this cross-sectional mixed-methods study. RESULTS: Overall, the majority of HP 2020 objectives were not being met across this low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant/refugee sample of children and adults. In particular, African American children and parents consistently fell below the majority of the HP 2020 targets, with only 5 of the 24 HP 2020 objectives being met. Additionally, immigrant children and parents met less than 2/3 of the HP 2020 objectives. DISCUSSION: Concerted public health efforts are needed to address the disparities in reaching the HP 2020 objectives and informing the development of the future HP 2030 objectives among low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant children and parents. In order to achieve and assess the current and future HP objectives in these diverse populations, changes may be needed in both interventions and assessment tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Gente Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Minnesota
18.
Am J Public Health ; 108(12): 1695-1706, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention among diverse, low-income preschoolers. METHODS: Parent-child dyads (n = 534) were randomized to the Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthful Kids (NET-Works) intervention or usual care in Minneapolis, MN (2012-2017). The intervention consisted of home visits, parenting classes, and telephone check-ins. The primary outcomes were adjusted 24- and 36-month body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Compared with usual care, the NET-Works intervention showed no significant difference in BMI change at 24 (-0.12 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.44, 0.19) or 36 months (-0.19 kg/m2; 95% CI = -0.64, 0.26). Energy intake was significantly lower in the NET-Works group at 24 (-90 kcal/day; 95% CI = -164, -16) and 36 months (-101 kcal/day; 95% CI = -164, -37). Television viewing was significantly lower in the NET-Works group at 24 (rate ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.75, 0.93) and 36 months (rate ratio = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.99). Children with baseline overweight or obesity had lower BMI in the NET-Works group than those in usual care at 36 months (-0.71 kg/m2; 95% CI = -1.30, -0.12). Hispanic children had lower BMI in the NET-Works group than those in usual care at 36 months (-0.59 kg/m2; 95% CI = -1.14, -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In secondary analyses, NET-Works significantly reduced BMI over 3 years among Hispanic children and children with baseline overweight or obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01606891.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Exercício , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telefone
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(9): 1467-1473, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prospective associations between obesity in adolescence and adult socioeconomic outcomes, and potential mediators, were examined in a contemporary cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal data collected in 1998 to 1999 (Project EAT-I) and 2015 to 2016 (EAT-IV) were analyzed for 1,796 participants who provided data at both time points. Adolescents (mean age = 14.8 years) self-reported demographic and psychosocial variables (EAT-I) and follow-up outcomes (EAT-IV). Body weight and height were directly measured. Bachelor's degree or more education, income ≥ US $50,000, and partnered status at follow-up were examined by baseline obesity (>95th BMI percentile) using logistic regression. Self-esteem, depression, and weight-related teasing were examined as mediators using multivariate probit regressions. All analyses were adjusted for race, baseline age, and parent socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Girls with obesity were significantly less likely to have achieved a bachelor's degree (OR 0.32, 95% CI [0.18, 0.58]; P < 0.001), earn ≥ $50,000 annually (OR 0.57, 95% CI [0.33, 0.99]; P < 0.04), or be partnered (OR 0.45, 95% CI [0.27, 0.75]; P < 0.002) in adulthood. No associations were observed among boys. Among girls, depression mediated 8.5% and 23.6% of the association between adolescent obesity and adult education and income, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent girls with obesity have lower educational attainment and income and are less likely to be partnered in later adulthood. Depression may partly mediate the associations.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Renda/tendências , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Appetite ; 130: 35-44, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059769

RESUMO

Food parenting practices have been identified as a potentially significant correlate of weight status and weight-related behaviors in children. The extent to which food parenting practices fluctuate across time and context is not well known. In particular, situational factors are thought to shape the types of food parenting practices used in the moment, but the nature of those factors remain unclear. In this paper data from interviews with parents (n = 40) of preschoolers was used to: 1) describe parents' day-to-day lived experiences of food parenting within the broad theoretical domains of coercive control, structure and autonomy support; 2) identify salient momentary factors that influence use of these food parenting practices; and 3) understand how these momentary factors impact the use of different types of food parenting practices. The feeding practices described by parents align well with the three overarching themes described within the literature: coercive control, autonomy support, and structure. Parents described using a combination of practices from within each of these domains; they also indicated that their feeding practices were easily influenced by momentary factors that impacted their food parenting within and across eating occasions. For the most part, parents described momentary factors (e.g. schedule changes, parental stress, child behavior) that shifted them away from structure and autonomy support feeding practices, towards indulgent and coercive feeding practices. Researchers should be aware of the likely interplay between different types of feeding practices as well as the potential that momentary factors may shift parents from one type of practice towards another. The use of novel data collection methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, that allow for exploration of food parenting practices as dynamic, rather than static, behaviors should be explored.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho
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