Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 44
Filtrar
1.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 51(1): 94-109, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897066

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: This comprehensive review discusses the adverse effects known today about marijuana, for either medical or recreational use. It reviews the role of cannabis in the treatment of chronic pain, cognitive and neurological adverse effects, special cases and addiction. Recent Findings: Cannabinoids work through the endocannabinoids system and inhibit the release of GABA and glutamate in the brain, impact neuromodulation, as well as dopamine, acetylcholine and norepinephrine release. They affect reward, learning and pain. The use of cannabis is increasing nationally and world-wide for both recreational and medicinal purposes, however, there is relatively only low quality evidence to the efficacy and adverse effects of this. Cannabis and its derivatives may be used for treatment of chronic pain. They are via CB1 receptors that are thought to modulate nociceptive signals in the brain. CB2 receptors in the DRG likely affect pain integration in the afferent pathways, and peripherally CB2 also affects noradrenergic pathways influencing pain. A large proportion of users may see more than 50% of chronic pain alleviation compared with placebo. Cannabis affects cognition, most notably executive function, memory and attention, and may deteriorate the boundary between emotional and executive processing. Cannabis impairs memory in the short run, which become more significant with chronic use, and may also be accompanied by poorer effort, slower processing and impacted attention. It is generally believed that long-term use and earlier age are risk factor for neurocognitive deficits; neuroimaging studies have shown reduced hippocampal volume and density. Executive functions and memory are worse in adolescent users versus adults. Cannabis addiction is different and likely less common than other addictive substances, but up to 10% of users meet criteria for lifetime cannabis dependence. Addiction patterns may be linked to genetic and epigenetic differences. It is still unclear whether abstinence reverses patterns of addiction, and more research is required into this topic. Summary: Cannabis use has become more abundant for both medical and recreational use. It carries likely benefits in the form of analgesia, anti-emesis and improved appetite in chronic patients. The evidence reviewing adverse effects of this use are still limited, however, exiting data points to a clear link with neurocognitive deterioration, backed by loss of brain volume and density. Addiction is likely complex and variable, and no good data exists to support treatment at this point. It is becoming clear that use in earlier ages carries a higher risk for long-term deficits. As with any other drug, these risks should be considered alongside benefits prior to a decision on cannabis use.

3.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 13, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630172

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive review of the superior hypogastric block for the management of chronic pelvic pain. It reviews the background, including etiology, epidemiology, and current treatment available for chronic pelvic pain. It then presents the superior hypogastric block and reviews the seminal and most recent evidence about its use in chronic pelvic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Several definitions exist for chronic pelvic pain (CPP), making the diagnosis more challenging for the clinician; however, they commonly describe continuous pain lasting 6 months in the pelvis, with an overwhelming majority of patients being reproductive-aged women. This pain is often one of mechanical, inflammatory, or neuropathic. It is generally underdiagnosed and affects anywhere between 5 and 26% of women. The diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain is clinical, consisting of mainly of a thorough history and physical and ruling out other causes. The pathophysiology is often endometriosis (70%) and also includes PID, adhesions, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, chronic processes of the GI and urinary tracts, as well as pelvic-intrinsic musculoskeletal causes. Treatment includes physical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and oral and parenteral opioids. Interventional techniques provide an added tier of treatment and may help to reduce the requirement for chronic opioid use. Superior hypogastric plexus block is one of the available interventional techniques; first described in 1990, it has been shown to provide long-lasting relief in 50-70% of patients who underwent the procedure. Two approaches described so far, both under fluoroscopy, have seen similar results. More recently, ultrasound and CT-guided procedures have also been described with similar success. The injectate includes local anesthetic, steroids, and neurolytic agents such as phenol or ethanol. CPP is a common debilitating condition. It is diagnosed clinically and is underdiagnosed globally. Current treatments can be helpful at times but may fall short of satisfactory pain relief. Interventional techniques provide an added layer of treatment as well as reduce the requirement for opioids. Superior hypogastric plexus block provides long-lasting relief in many patients, regardless of approach. Evidence level is limited, and further RCTs could help provide better tools for evaluation and patient selection.

4.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(2): 11, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547511

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding post-surgical cutaneous nerve entrapment, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation. It focuses mainly on nerve entrapment leading to chronic pain and the available therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Cutaneous nerve entrapment is not an uncommon result (up to 30% of patients) of surgery and could lead to significant, difficult to treat chronic pain. Untreated, entrapment can lead to neuropathy and damage to enervated structures and musculature, and significant morbidity and financial loss. Nerve entrapment is defined as pressure neuropathy from chronic compression. It causes changes to all layers of the nerve tissue. It is most significantly associated with hernia repair and other procedures employing a Pfannenstiel incision. The initial insult is usually incising of the nerve, followed by formation of a neuroma, incorporation of the nerve during closing, or constriction from adhesions. The three most commonly involved nerves are the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and genitofemoral nerves. Cutaneous abdominal nerve entrapment could occur during thoracoabdominal surgery. The presentation of nerve entrapment usually involved post-surgical pain in the territory innervated by the trapped nerve, possibly with radiation that tracks the nerve course. Once a suspected neuropathy is identified, it can be diagnosed with relief in pain after a nerve block has been instilled. Treatment is usually started with pharmaceutical solutions, topical first and oral if those fail. Most patients require escalation to a second line of treatment and see good result with injection therapy. Those that require further escalation can choose between ablation and surgical therapies. Post-surgical nerve entrapment is not uncommon and causes serious morbidity and financial loss. It is underdiagnosed and thus undertreated. Preventing nerve entrapment is the best treatment; when it does occur, options include topical and oral analgesics, nerve blocks, ablation therapy, and repeat surgery.

7.
Pain Physician ; 24(1): E45-E50, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twelfth rib syndrome, or slipping of the 12th rib, is an often overlooked cause for chronic chest, back, flank, and abdominal pain from irritation of the 12th intercostal nerve. Diagnosis is clinical and follows the exclusion of other causes of pain. This syndrome is usually accompanied by long-suffering, consequent psychiatric comorbidities, and increased health care costs, which are secondary to the delayed diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript is a review of twelfth rib syndrome and its management options. The review provides etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of twelfth rib syndrome. Additionally, diagnosis and current options for treatment and management are presented. STUDY DESIGN: This is a narrative review of twelfth rib syndrome. SETTING: A database review. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to ascertain seminal literature regarding twelfth rib syndrome. RESULTS: Conservative treatment is usually the first line, including local heat or ice packs, rest, and oral over-the-counter analgesics. Transcutaneous stimulation and 12th intercostal nerve cryotherapy have also been described with some success. Nerve blocks can additionally be tried and are usually effective in the immediate term; there is a paucity of evidence to suggest long-term efficacy. Surgical removal of all or part of the 12th rib and possibly the 11th rib, as well as the next line of therapy, may provide long-lasting relief of pain. LIMITATIONS: Further large scale clinical studies are needed to assess the most effective management of twelfth rib syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Twelfth rib syndrome is usually diagnosed late and causes significant morbidity and suffering. The actual epidemiology is unclear given the difficulty of diagnosis. Nerve blocks and surgical rib resection appear to be effective in treating this syndrome, however, further evidence is required to properly evaluate them. Familiarity with this syndrome is crucial in reaching a prompter diagnosis.

8.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(1): 2, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443607

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This evidence-based systematic review will focus on the use of acupuncture and its role in the treatment of low back pain to help better guide physicians in their practice. It will cover the background and the burden of low back pain and present the current options for treatment and weigh the evidence that is available to support acupuncture as a treatment modality for low back pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Low back pain (LBP), defined as a disorder of the lumbosacral spine and categorized as acute, subacute, or chronic, can be a debilitating condition for many patients. Chronic LBP is more typically defined by its chronicity with pain persisting > 12 weeks in duration. Conventional treatment for chronic LBP includes both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options. First-line pharmacologic therapy involves the use of NSAIDs, then SNRI/TCA/skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiepileptics. Surgery is usually not recommended for chronic non-specific LBP patients. According to the 2016 CDC Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain and the 2017 American College of Physicians (ACP) clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain, non-pharmacologic interventions, acupuncture can be a first-line treatment for patients suffering from chronic low back pain. Many studies have been done, and most show promising results for acupuncture as an alternative treatment for low back pain. Due to non-standardized methods for acupuncture with many variations, standardization remains a challenge.

9.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(1): 6, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495883

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS) is rare and seldom diagnosed, yet it has a particularly significant impact on those affected. This is a review of the latest and seminal evidence of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of LPHS and presents the typical clinical presentation and treatment options available. RECENT FINDINGS: LPHS is typically found in young women with characteristic symptoms, including severe recurrent flank pain and gross or microscopic hematuria. The majority of patients will experience crippling pain for many years without effective therapy, often requiring frequent use of narcotic medication. However, the lack of conclusive pathophysiology, in conjunction with the rarity of LPHS, has prohibited the development and trial of definitive treatment options. Nevertheless, in order to combat this rare but severe disease, management strategies have continued to evolve, ranging from conservative measures to invasive procedures. This review presents an overview of the current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of LPHS in addition to summarizing the management strategies that have been utilized. Only 30% of LPHS patients will experience spontaneous resolution, whereas the majority will continue to face chronic, crippling pain. Several methods of treatment, including invasive and non-invasive, may provide an improved outcome to these patients. Treatment should be individually tailored and multi-disciplinary in nature. Further research is required to further elucidate the pathophysiology and develop new, specific, treatment options.

10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(3): 844-850, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375990

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most prevalent cancer in women in the modern world. Despite a relatively high chance of surgical cure, for patients with advanced or recurrent disease there are few therapeutic options. Angiogenesis has been extensively studied ever since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was discovered in the 1980s. Several clinical trials of anti-angiogenic therapy in endometrial carcinoma have been conducted, with mixed results, and many researchers have tried to determine prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. Recent trials, which shed new light on possible treatment biomarkers and efficacious combination therapies, are reviewed in this text. While we are still far from effectively tailoring anti-angiogenic treatment to each patient, these data have provided valuable insight and have put us on track for the discovery of novel opportunities for angiogenesis therapy in endometrial carcinoma.

11.
Neurol Int ; 12(3): 109-129, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302331

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to significant morbidity and disability. PD is caused by a loss of dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and peripherally; the syndromic parkinsonism symptoms of movement disorder, gait disorder, rigidity and tremor are mostly driven by the loss of these neurons in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients taking levodopa, the standard of care treatment for PD, will begin to experience a decrease in effectiveness at varying times. These periods, referred to as "off episodes", are characterized by increased symptoms and have a detrimental effect on quality of life and disability. Istradefylline, a novel adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is indicated as a treatment addition to levodopa/carbidopa in patients experiencing "off episodes". It promotes dopaminergic activity by antagonizing adenosine in the basal ganglia. This review will discuss istradefylline as a treatment for PD patients with off episodes.

13.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150555

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major contributor to societal disease burden and years lived with disability. Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is attributed to physical and psychosocial factors, including lifestyle factors, obesity, and depression. Mechanical low back pain occurs related to repeated trauma to or overuse of the spine, intervertebral disks, and surrounding tissues. This causes disc herniation, vertebral compression fractures, lumbar spondylosis, spondylolisthesis, and lumbosacral muscle strain. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and two clinical trials registry databases up to 24 June 2015 were included in this review. Search terms included: low back pain, over the counter, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), CLBP, ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen, disk herniation, lumbar spondylosis, vertebral compression fractures, spondylolisthesis, and lumbosacral muscle strain. Over-the-counter analgesics are the most frequently used first-line medication for LBP, and current guidelines indicate that over-the-counter medications should be the first prescribed treatment for non-specific LBP. Current literature suggests that NSAIDs and acetaminophen as well as antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and opioids are effective treatments for CLBP. Recent randomized controlled trials also evaluate the benefit of buprenorphine, tramadol, and strong opioids such as oxycodone. This systematic review discusses current evidence pertaining to non-prescription treatment options for chronic low back pain.

14.
Neurol Ther ; 9(2): 403-417, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010021

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive review of the current literature on the usage of galcanezumab for migraine treatment. It reviews the biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and conventional treatment of migraines, then compares the literature available for galcanezumab with historical treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Migraine is a common headache disorder and constitutes a significant source of distress from both a personal and societal perspective. Conventional treatment includes abortive and preventive treatment. Treatment options are limited and may be only partially or minimally effective in some of the population. Recent evidence points to metabolic changes in the brain as possible causes of migraine, via reduced available energy or a spiking need for it, resulting in a relative insufficiency. This leads to trigeminocervical complex (TCC) activation and a headache episode, modulated by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Galcanezumab (Emgality) is a monoclonal antibody targeting CGRP that is given in a monthly injection for the prevention of migraines. Its safety was previously shown in phase 1 and 2 trials, and recent phase 3 trials showed efficacy, with up to 50% reduction in monthly migraine days and improved functional capacity in migraineurs. Studies show that the drug is well tolerated and safe. Migraine headache is a common neurological syndrome that causes great pain and suffering. Treatment options today are limited. Galcanezumab does not prevent migraines, but it is effective in decreasing their frequency and length. It is also much better tolerated than the currently existing therapies. While it is unlikely to provide monotherapy for migraines, it is a novel therapy that may be added for cases of severe or frequent migraines.

15.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 583-602, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004169

RESUMO

Lateral epicondylitis (LE), also known as tennis elbow, is the most common cause of elbow pain in adults, with approximately 1-3% of the general population being afflicted. Although the condition is usually self-limiting, pain can be a major hindrance, limiting daily activity and the work capacity of patients. As a result, many treatment options have become available with the aim to shorten the duration of the disease and increase the quality of life. Steroid injections, NSAIDs, topical creams, platelet-rich plasma, physical therapy, and kinesiotaping are considered conservative treatments, while surgical options are last-resort treatments reserved for refractory LE. In this review, we will provide a brief summary of LE and focus on addressing conservative and minimally invasive interventional options for the treatment of LE.

16.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 617-631, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004171

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia is a complex disease process that is as prevalent as it is poorly understood. Research into the pathophysiology is ongoing, and findings will likely assist in identifying new therapeutic options to augment those in existence today that are still insufficient for the care of a large population of patients. Recent evidence describes the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of fibromyalgia. This study provides a systematic, thorough review of the evidence alongside a review of the seminal data regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current treatment options. Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread chronic pain, fatigue, and depressive episodes without an organic diagnosis, which may be prevalent in up to 10% of the population and carries a significant cost in healthcare utilization, morbidity, a reduced quality of life, and productivity. It is frequently associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The diagnosis is clinical and usually prolonged, and diagnostic criteria continue to evolve. Some therapies have been previously described, including neuropathic medications, milnacipran, and antidepressants. Despite some level of efficacy, only physical exercise has strong evidence to support it. Cannabis has been used historically to treat different pain conditions since ancient times. Recent advances allowed for the isolation of the active substances in cannabis and the production of cannabinoid products that are nearly devoid of psychoactive influence and provide pain relief and alleviation of other symptoms. Many of these, as well as cannabis itself, are approved for use in chronic pain conditions. Evidence supporting cannabis in chronic pain conditions is plentiful; however, in fibromyalgia, they are mostly limited. Only a handful of randomized trials exists, and their objectivity has been questioned. However, many retrospective trials and patient surveys suggest the significant alleviation of pain, improvement in sleep, and abatement of associated symptoms. Evidence supporting the use of cannabis in chronic pain and specifically in fibromyalgia is being gathered as the use of cannabis increases with current global trends. While the current evidence is still limited, emerging data do suggest a positive effect of cannabis in fibromyalgia. Cannabis use is not without risks, including psychiatric, cognitive, and developmental as well as the risks of addiction. As such, clinical judgment is warranted to weigh these risks and prescribe to patients who are more likely to benefit from this treatment. Further research is required to define appropriate patient selection and treatment regimens.

17.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10211, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033686

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a fatal, universal pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that has directly caused at least 95,235 deaths in the US by May 2020. It has a poor prognosis with a mortality rate as high as 21% in the general population at the height of the pandemic, a rate that is much higher in elderly patients, as well as those requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care. The role of inflammation in symptomatic COVID-19 is being studied, and it is hypothesized that hyper-inflammation is a causative factor in severe COVID-19 disease. Treatment options are limited and mostly rely on supportive care. Icosapent ethyl (IPE) is an Omega-3 fatty acid derivative that has been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular mortality and is used as an adjunct to statin therapy. Though it has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory, it is not currently indicated for that purpose. Here, we describe, for the first time, the successful treatment of a COVID-19 patient with IPE.

18.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9821, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953331

RESUMO

Chronic back pain affects 20% of the adult population in the United States and is a significant source of disability and healthcare expenditure. One of the most common causes of chronic back pain is spondylosis. These changes result from age-related degeneration of the lumbar spine. As a result of this degeneration, spondylolisthesis can develop. Spondylolysis is a fracture of the pars interarticularis. It affects younger patients and is more prevalent in adolescents and elite athletes. It can be a debilitating condition that may force athletes into retirement as well as impair them with chronic pain and disability. Traditional treatment options include conservative management such as medications, rest, physical therapy, and rehabilitation. Surgery is reserved for patients who do not respond to conservative measures. Here we present the case of a 39-year-old mixed martial arts fighter with bilateral L4 pars interarticularis fractures and chronic low back pain. After failing conservative treatment options, this patient finally obtained significant relief with steroid injections at the level of the defect. The patient continues to do well with occasional injections and is able to maintain his mixed martial arts career. This case report provides evidence that injection therapy is a feasible alternative to surgery in patients who fail conservative therapy.

19.
Neurol Ther ; 9(2): 301-315, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785879

RESUMO

Hereditary variant transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a rare genetic defect that affects about 5000-10,000 people worldwide, causing amyloidosis secondary to misfolding of mutant transthyretin (TTR) protein fibrils. TTR mutations can cause protein deposits in many extracellular regions of organs, but those deposits in cardiac and axonal cells are the primary cause of this clinical syndrome. Treatment options are limited, but new drugs are being developed. Patisiran, a novel drug, is a liposomal siRNA against TTR that specifically targets this protein, reducing the accumulation of TTR in tissues, with subsequent improvement in both neuropathy and cardiac function. Patisiran is likely to serve as a prototype for the development of further intelligent drug solutions for use in targeted therapy. In this review we summarize the evidence currently available on the treatment of polyneuropathy in people with ATTRv with patisiran. We review the evidence on its efficacy, safety, and indications of use, citing novel and seminal papers on these subjects.

20.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 50(3): 76-96, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733113

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of Lofexidine for opiate withdrawal symptoms. It covers the background and necessity of withdrawal programs and the management of withdrawal symptoms and then covers the existing evidence of the use of Lofexidine for this purpose. Recent Findings: Opiate abuse leads to significant pain and suffering. However, withdrawal is difficult and often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms and renewed cravings. These symptoms are driven mostly by signaling in the locus coeruleus and the mesolimbic system and a rebound increase in noradrenaline, producing symptoms such as anxiety, gastrointestinal upset, and tension. Lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, can be used to manage acute withdrawal symptoms before starting maintenance treatment with either methadone or buprenorphine. Lofexidine, if FDA approved for management of withdrawal symptoms and has been proved to be both effective and safe. Summary: Opiate addiction is increasing and plaguing the western world and specifically the U.S. It takes a large toll on both a personal and societal level and carries a high cost. Withdrawal is difficult, both related to withdrawal symptoms and renewed cravings. Lofexidine has been shown to be effective in reducing the former and could potentially aid in recovery and withdrawal.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...