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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824584

RESUMO

Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of developing lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) and suffering PAD-related morbidity and mortality. However, the effect and burden of COPD on patients with PAD is less well defined. This post hoc analysis from EUCLID aimed to analyze the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE) in patients with PAD and concomitant COPD compared with those without COPD, and to describe the adverse events specific to patients with COPD. Methods: EUCLID randomized 13,885 patients with symptomatic PAD to monotherapy with either ticagrelor or clopidogrel for the prevention of MACE. In this analysis, MACE, MALE, mortality, and adverse events were compared between groups with and without COPD using unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of the 13,883 patients with COPD status available at baseline, 11% (n=1538) had COPD. Patients with COPD had a higher risk of MACE (6.02 vs 4.29 events/100 patient-years; p<0.001) due to a significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (3.55 vs 1.85 events/100 patient-years; p<0.001) when compared with patients without COPD. These risks persisted after adjustment (MACE: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.52; p<0.001; MI: aHR 1.45, 95% CI 1.18-1.77; p<0.001). However, patients with COPD did not have an increased risk of MALE or major bleeding. Patients with COPD were more frequently hospitalized for dyspnea and pneumonia (2.66 vs 0.9 events/100 patient-years; aHR 2.77, 95% CI 2.12-3.63; p<0.001) and more frequently discontinued study drug prematurely (19.36 vs 12.54 events/100 patient-years; p<0.001; aHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22-1.47; p<0.001). Conclusion: In patients with comorbid PAD and COPD, the risks of MACE, respiratory-related adverse events, and premature study drug discontinuation were higher when compared with patients without COPD. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01732822.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(13): 1670-1680, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795041

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 2% to 3% of the U.S. population. The immune response in psoriasis includes enhanced activation of T cells and myeloid cells, platelet activation, and up-regulation of interferons, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukins (ILs) IL-23, IL-17, and IL-6, which are linked to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis development. Patients with psoriasis are up to 50% more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CV) disease, and this CV risk increases with skin severity. Major society guidelines now advocate incorporating a psoriasis diagnosis into CV risk prediction and prevention strategies. Although registry data suggest treatment targeting psoriasis skin disease reduces vascular inflammation and coronary plaque burden, and may reduce CV risk, randomized placebo-controlled trials are inconclusive to date. Further studies are required to define traditional CV risk factor goals, the optimal role of lipid-lowering and antiplatelet therapy, and targeted psoriasis therapies on CV risk.

3.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current evidence indicates that the pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban is not significantly impacted by body weight. However, real-world data are needed to better assess the potential clinical benefits and risks associated with rivaroxaban in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with obesity. Thus, our objectives were to assess the real-world effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among NVAF patients with obesity in the US nationally representative commercially-insured population. METHODS: Health insurance claims data from the IQVIA PharMetrics Plus database (January 2010-September 2019) were used to identify NVAF patients with obesity (based on diagnosis codes) initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to adjust for imbalances between groups. Study outcomes of interest were evaluated up to 36 months post-treatment initiation and included the composite of stroke or systemic embolism (stroke/SE) and major bleeding. Outcomes were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression models with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 10,555 patients were initiated on rivaroxaban and 5080 patients on warfarin. Following IPTW, the risk of stroke/SE was 26% lower among patients prescribed rivaroxaban relative to warfarin (HR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.91, p = .004) at 36 months. Rivaroxaban-initiated patients had a risk of major bleeding similar to that of warfarin-initiated patients (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.02, p = .085). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rivaroxaban is an effective and safe treatment option among NVAF patients with obesity in a commercially-insured US population.

4.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a mainstay of therapy in the treatment of SLE. The effect of HCQ on platelets and vascular health is uncertain. We investigated the relationship between HCQ use and dose with platelet activity, platelet transcriptomics and vascular health in patients with SLE. METHODS: Platelet aggregation, platelet mRNA expression and vascular health (sublingual capillary perfused boundary region (PBR), red blood cell filling (RBCF) and brachial artery reactivity testing) were analysed by HCQ use and dose. RESULTS: Among 132 subjects with SLE (age: 39.7±12.9 years, 97% female), 108 were on HCQ. SLE disease activity was similar between subjects on and off HCQ. Platelet aggregation in response to multiple agonists was significantly lower in patients on HCQ. There were inverse relationships between HCQ dose and gene expression pathways of platelet activity. Gene expression of P-selectin (SELP) was inversely correlated with HCQ dose (r=-0.41, p=0.003), which was validated at the protein level. Subjects on HCQ had improved vascular function correlating with HCQ dose as measured by lower PBR (r=-0.52, p=0.007), higher RBCF (r=0.55, p=0.004) and greater brachial artery reactivity (r=0.43, p=0.056). CONCLUSION: HCQ use was associated with decreased platelet activation and activation-related transcripts and improved vascular health in SLE.

7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576009

RESUMO

AIMS: The population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of tranexamic acid (TXA) have not been studied to prevent postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in pregnant women. It is unclear which TXA dose assures sufficient PPH prevention. This study investigated population PK/PD of TXA in pregnant women who underwent caesarean delivery to determine the optimal prophylactic doses of TXA for future studies. METHODS: We analysed concentration (PK) and maximum lysis (PD) data from 30 pregnant women scheduled for caesarean delivery who received 5, 10 or 15 mg/kg of TXA intravenously using population approach. RESULTS: TXA PK was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination and the following parameters: clearance (between-subject variability) of 9.4 L/h (27.7%), central volume of 10.1 L (47.4%), intercompartmental clearance of 22.4 L/h (66.7%), peripheral volume of 14.0 L (13.1%) and additive error of 1.4 mg/L. The relationship between TXA concentration and maximum lysis was characterized by a sigmoid Emax model with baseline lysis of 97%, maximum inhibition of 89%, IC50 of 6.0 mg/L (65.3%), hill factor of 8.5 (86.3%) and additive error of 7.3%. Simulations demonstrated that 500 and 650 mg of TXA maintained therapeutic targets for 30 minutes and 1 hour, respectively, in 90% of patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first population PK and PD study of TXA in pregnant women undergoing caesarean delivery. Our analysis suggests that a 650 mg dose provides adequate PPH prophylaxis up to 1 hour, which is less than the currently used 1000 mg of TXA in pregnant women.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e019519, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619972

RESUMO

The Go Red for Women movement was initiated by the American Heart Association (AHA) in the early 2000s to raise awareness concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. In 2016, the AHA funded 5 research centers across the United States to advance our knowledge of the risks and presentation of CVD that are specific to women. This report highlights the findings of the centers, showing how insufficient sleep, sedentariness, and pregnancy-related complications may increase CVD risk in women, as well as presentation and factors associated with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. These projects were augmented by collaborative ancillary studies assessing the relationships between various lifestyle behaviors, including nightly fasting duration, mindfulness, and behavioral and anthropometric risk factors and CVD risk, as well as metabolomic profiling of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. The Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network enhanced the evidence base related to heart disease in women, promoting awareness of the female-specific factors that influence CVD.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e018789, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619969

RESUMO

Background Presence of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality. The relationship between a healthy lifestyle and CHIP is unknown. Methods and Results This analysis included 8709 postmenopausal women (mean age, 66.5 years) enrolled in the WHI (Women's Health Initiative), free of cancer or cardiovascular disease, with deep-coverage whole genome sequencing data available. Information on lifestyle factors (body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and diet quality) was obtained, and a healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of healthy criteria met (0 point [least healthy] to 4 points [most healthy]). CHIP was derived on the basis of a prespecified list of leukemogenic driver mutations. The prevalence of CHIP was 8.6%. A higher healthy lifestyle score was not associated with CHIP (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% CI], 0.99 [0.80-1.23] and 1.13 [0.93-1.37]) for the upper (3 or 4 points) and middle category (2 points), respectively, versus referent (0 or 1 point). Across score components, a normal and overweight body mass index compared with obese was significantly associated with a lower odds for CHIP (OR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.57-0.88] and 0.83 [95% CI, 0.68-1.01], respectively; P-trend 0.0015). Having never smoked compared with being a current smoker tended to be associated with lower odds for CHIP. Conclusions A healthy lifestyle, based on a composite score, was not related to CHIP among postmenopausal women. However, across individual lifestyle factors, having a normal body mass index was strongly associated with a lower prevalence of CHIP. These findings support the idea that certain healthy lifestyle factors are associated with a lower frequency of CHIP.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4053, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602977

RESUMO

Thrombosis is a major concern in respiratory infections. Our aim was to investigate the magnitude and duration of risk for arterial and venous thrombosis following discharge after respiratory infection. Patients with respiratory infections were identified using the United States Nationwide Readmission Database from 2012 to 2014. Patients admitted with asthma or cellulitis served as comparators. Readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were evaluated at 30 to 180 days. The likelihood of a first thrombotic event after discharge was compared with a 30-day period prior to hospitalization. Among 5,271,068 patients discharged after a respiratory infection, 0.56% and 0.78% were readmitted within 30-days with MI and VTE, respectively. Relative to asthma and cellulitis, respiratory infection was associated with a greater age and sex-adjusted hazard of 30-day readmission for MI (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.48 [95% CI 1.42-1.54] vs. asthma; aHR 1.36 [95% CI 1.31-1.41] vs. cellulitis) and VTE (aHR 1.28 [95% CI 1.24-1.33] vs. asthma; aHR 1.26, [95% CI 1.22-1.30] vs. cellulitis). Risks of MI and VTE attenuated over time. In a crossover-cohort analysis, the odds of MI (OR 1.68 [95% CI 1.62-1.73]) and VTE (OR 3.30 [95% 3.19-3.41]) were higher in the 30 days following discharge after respiratory infection than during the 30-day baseline period. Hospitalization for respiratory infection was associated with increased risks of thrombosis that were highest in the first 30-days after discharge and declined over time.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systemic inflammatory response is observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, are associated with severe disease in bacterial or viral infections. We aimed to explore associations between CRP concentration at initial hospital presentation and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York healthcare system between 1 March and 8 April 2020 were identified. Patients with measurement of CRP were included. Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE), acute kidney injury (AKI), critical illness, and in-hospital mortality were determined for all patients. Among 2782 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 2601 (93.5%) had a CRP measurement [median 108 mg/L, interquartile range (IQR) 53-169]. CRP concentrations above the median value were associated with VTE [8.3% vs. 3.4%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-3.36], AKI (43.0% vs. 28.4%; aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.76-2.52), critical illness (47.6% vs. 25.9%; aOR 2.83, 95% CI 2.37-3.37), and mortality (32.2% vs. 17.8%; aOR 2.59, 95% CI 2.11-3.18), compared with CRP below the median. A dose response was observed between CRP concentration and adverse outcomes. While the associations between CRP and adverse outcomes were consistent among patients with low and high D-dimer levels, patients with high D-dimer and high CRP have the greatest risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation, as measured by CRP, is strongly associated with VTE, AKI, critical illness, and mortality in COVID-19. CRP-based approaches to risk stratification and treatment should be tested.

14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with increased cardiovascular risk that is not captured by traditional pro-inflammatory biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), circulating pro-inflammatory biomarkers, and vascular health in psoriasis. METHODS: In psoriasis and age, sex-matched controls, 273 proteins were analyzed utilizing the OLINK platform, while vascular endothelial inflammation and health was measured via direct transcriptomic analysis of brachial vein endothelial cells. RESULTS: In psoriasis, CCL20, IL-6, and IL-17A were the top three circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Vascular endothelial inflammation correlated with CCL20 (r=0.55, p<0.001) and less so with IL-6 (r=0.36, p=0.04) and IL-17A (r=0.29, p=0.12). After adjustment for potential confounders the association between CCL20 and vascular endothelial inflammation remained significant (ß =1.71, p=0.02). In nested models, CCL20 added value (χ2 = 79.22, p<0.001) to a model already incorporating PASI, Framingham Risk, hs-CRP, Il-17A and IL-6 (χ2 = 48.18, p<0.001) in predicting vascular endothelial inflammation. LIMITATIONS: Our study was observational and does not allow for causal inference in the relationship between CCL20 and cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that CCL20 expression has a strong association with vascular endothelial inflammation, reflects systemic inflammation, and may serve as a potential biomarker of impaired vascular health in psoriasis.

15.
Circulation ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267610

RESUMO

Background: In ISCHEMIA, an initial invasive strategy did not significantly reduce rates of cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality compared with a conservative strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and moderate/severe myocardial ischemia. The most frequent component of composite cardiovascular endpoints was myocardial infarction. Methods: ISCHEMIA prespecified that the primary and major secondary composite endpoints of the trial be analyzed using two MI definitions. For procedural MI, the primary MI definition used CK-MB as the preferred biomarker whereas the secondary definition used cardiac troponin. Procedural thresholds were >5 times URL for PCI and >10 times for CABG. Procedural MI definitions included (i) a category of elevated biomarker only events with much higher biomarker thresholds (ii) new ST segment depression of ≥ 1mm for the primary and ≥ 0.5 mm for the secondary definition and (iii) new coronary dissections ≥ NHLBI grade 3. We compared MI type, frequency, and prognosis by treatment assignment using both MI definitions. Results: Procedural MI's accounted for 20.1% of all MI events with the primary definition and 40.6% of all MI events with the secondary definition. Four-year MI rates in patients undergoing revascularization were more frequent with the invasive vs conservative strategy using the primary [2.7% vs. 1.1%; adjusted HR 2.98 (95% CI 1.87, 4.73)] and secondary [8.2% vs. 2.0%; adjusted HR 5.04 (95% CI 3.64, 6.97)] MI definitions. Type 1 MI's were less frequent with the invasive vs conservative strategy using the primary [3.40% vs. 6.89%; adjusted HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.41,0.69); p<0.0001], and secondary [3.48% vs 6.89%; adjusted HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.41, 0.69); p<0.0001] definitions. The risk of subsequent cardiovascular death was higher after a type 1 MI compared to no MI using the primary [adjusted HR 3.38 (95% CI 2.03,5.61); p<0.001] or secondary MI definition [adjusted HR 3.52 (2.11, 5.88); p<0.001]. Conclusions: In ISCHEMIA, type 1 MI events using the primary and secondary definitions during 5-year follow-up were more frequent with an initial conservative strategy and associated with subsequent cardiovascular death. Procedural MI rates were greater in the invasive strategy and using the secondary MI definition. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01471522.

16.
Atherosclerosis ; 316: 53-57, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a systemic manifestation of atherosclerosis that is associated with a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). LDL aggregation contributes to atherosclerotic plaque progression and may contribute to plaque instability. We aimed to determine if LDL aggregation is associated with MACE in patients with PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER). METHODS: Two hundred thirty-nine patients with PAD undergoing LER had blood collected at baseline and were followed prospectively for MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) for one year. Nineteen age, sex and LDL-C-matched control subjects without cardiovascular disease also had blood drawn. Subject LDL was exposed to sphingomyelinase and LDL aggregate size measured via dynamic light scattering. RESULTS: Mean age was 72.3 ± 10.9 years, 32.6% were female, and LDL-cholesterol was 68 ± 25 mg/dL. LDL aggregation was inversely associated with triglycerides, but not associated with demographics, LDL-cholesterol or other risk factors. Maximal LDL aggregation occurred significantly earlier in subjects with PAD than in control subjects. 15.9% of subjects experienced MACE over one year. The 1st tertile (shortest time to maximal aggregation) exhibited significantly higher MACE (25% vs. 12.5% in tertile 2 and 10.1% in tertile 3, p = 0.012). After multivariable adjustment for demographics and CVD risk factors, the hazard ratio for MACE in the 1st tertile was 4.57 (95% CI 1.60-13.01; p = 0.004) compared to tertile 3. Inclusion of LDL aggregation in the Framingham Heart Study risk calculator for recurrent coronary heart disease events improved the c-index from 0.57 to 0.63 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We show that in the setting of very well controlled LDL-cholesterol, patients with PAD with the most rapid LDL aggregation had a significantly elevated MACE risk following LER even after multivariable adjustment. This measure further improved the classification specificity of an established risk prediction tool. Our findings support broader investigation of this assay for risk stratification in patients with atherosclerotic CVD.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes of lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) is uncertain. We characterized associations between DM and post-procedural outcomes in PAD patients undergoing LER. METHODS: Adults undergoing surgical or endovascular LER were identified from the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. DM was defined by ICD-9 diagnosis codes and sub-classified based on the presence or absence of complications (poor glycemic control or end-organ damage). Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE) were defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or major limb amputation during the index hospitalization for LER. For survivors, all-cause 6-month hospital readmission was determined. RESULTS: Among 39,441 patients with PAD hospitalized for LER, 50.8% had DM. The composite of MACLE after LER was not different in patients with and without DM after covariate adjustment, but patients with DM were more likely to require major limb amputation (5.5% vs. 3.2%, p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44) and hospital readmission (59.2% vs. 41.3%, p < 0.001; aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55). Of 20,039 patients with DM hospitalized for LER, 55.7% had DM with complications. These patients were more likely to have MACLE after LER (11.1% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001; aOR 1.56 95% CI 1.28-1.89) and require hospital readmission (61.1% vs. 47.2%, p < 0.001; aOR 1.41 95% CI 1.27-1.57) than patients with uncomplicated DM. CONCLUSIONS: DM is present in ≈50% of patients undergoing LER for PAD and is an independent risk factor for major limb amputation and 6-month hospital readmission.

18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every 2 minutes there is a pregnancy related death worldwide, with one third due to severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). While international trials demonstrated efficacy of 1,000 mg TXA in treating PPH, to our knowledge there are no dose finding studies of TXA in pregnant women for PPH prevention. OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal TXA dose needed to prevent PPH. METHODS: We enrolled 30 pregnant women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery in an open-label, dose ranging study. Subjects were divided into 3 cohorts receiving 5, 10 or 15 mg/kg (max 1000 mg) of intravenous TXA at umbilical cord clamping. Inclusion criteria were ≥34 week's gestation and normal renal function. Primary endpoints were pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. TXA plasma concentration greater than 10 µg/mL and maximum lysis less than 17% were defined as therapeutic targets independent to the current study. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-spiked samples was used to evaluate pharmacodynamic profiles at time points up to 24 hours after TXA administration. Safety was assessed by plasma thrombin generation, D-dimer, and TXA concentrations in breast milk. RESULTS: There were no serious adverse events including hemorrhage or venous thromboembolism. Plasma concentrations of TXA increased in a dose-proportional manner. The lowest dose cohort received an average of 448 ± 87 mg TXA. Plasma TXA exceeded 10 µg/mL and maximum lysis was less than 17% more than 1 hour after administration for all TXA doses tested. Median estimated blood loss for cohorts receiving 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg TXA was 750, 750 and 700 mL, respectively. Plasma thrombin generation did not increase with higher TXA concentrations. D-dimer changes from baseline were not different among the cohorts. Breast milk TXA concentrations were 1% or less than maternal plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: While large randomized trials are necessary to support clinical efficacy of TXA for prophylaxis, we propose an optimal dose of 600 mg in future TXA efficacy studies to prevent PPH.

19.
JAMA ; 324(20): 2106-2107, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231657
20.
Hip Int ; : 1120700020975749, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the incidence of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) continues to increase, revision THA (rTHA) is becoming an increasingly common procedure. rTHA is widely regarded as a more challenging procedure, with higher complication rates and increased medical, social and economic burdens when compared to its primary counterpart. Given the complexity of rTHA and the projected increase in incidence of these procedures, patient optimisation is becoming of interest to improve outcomes. Anaesthetic choice has been extensively studied in primary THA as a modifiable risk factor for postoperative outcomes, showing favourable results for neuraxial anaesthesia compared to general anaesthesia. The impact of anaesthetic choice in rTHA has not been studied previously. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients who underwent rTHA between 2014 and 2017 were divided into 3 anaesthesia cohorts: general anaesthesia, neuraxial anaesthesia, and combined general-regional (neuraxial and/or peripheral nerve block) anaesthesia. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyse patient characteristics and 30-day postoperative outcomes. Bonferroni correction was applied for post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: In total, 5759 patients were identified. Of these, 3551 (61.7%) patients underwent general anaesthesia, 1513 (26.3%) patients underwent neuraxial anaesthesia, and 695 (12.1%) patients underwent combined general-regional anaesthesia. On multivariate analysis, neuraxial anaesthesia was associated with decreased odds for any-one complication (OR 0.635; p < 0.001), perioperative blood transfusion (OR 0.641; p < 0.001), and extended length of stay (OR 0.005; p = 0.005) compared to general anaesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to those receiving general anaesthesia, patients undergoing neuraxial anaesthesia are at decreased risk for postoperative complications, perioperative blood transfusions, and extended length of stay. Prospective controlled trials should be conducted to verify these findings.

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