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1.
Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited information on germline mutations in biliary tract cancers, this study performed somatic and germline testing for patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with known biliary tract carcinoma with the aim of determining the frequency and range of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs). METHODS: Patients with biliary tract carcinoma were consented for somatic tumor and matched blood testing of up to 468 genes via the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets next-generation sequencing platform. A germline variant analysis was performed on a panel of up to 88 genes associated with an increased predisposition for cancer. Demographic and diagnostic details were collected. RESULTS: Germline mutations were tested in 131 patients. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most common cancer (63.4%), and it was followed by gallbladder adenocarcinoma (16.8%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (16%), and otherwise unspecified biliary tract cancer (3.8%). Known and likely PGAs were present in 21 patients (16.0%), with 9.9% harboring a PGA in a high/moderate-penetrance cancer predisposition gene. Among high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, PGAs were most commonly observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (33.3%), which made up 5.3% of the entire cohort, and they were followed by PALB2, BAP1, and PMS2. Mutations in ATM, MITF, and NBN, moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, were identified in 1 patient each. There was no observed difference in the types of mutations among the subtypes of biliary tract cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PGAs found was comparable to existing data on the prevalence of germline mutations in other solid tumor types with matched tumor analysis. This provides support for the role of the BRCA1/2, ATM, and BAP1 genes in biliary tract cancer susceptibility.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 419-427, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615936

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chondrosarcomas are the second most common primary malignant bone tumors. Although histologic grade is the most important factor predicting the clinical outcome of chondrosarcoma, it is subject to interobserver variability. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 hotspot mutations were recently found to be frequently mutated in central chondrosarcomas. However, a few published articles have been controversial regarding the association between IDH1/IDH2 mutation status and clinical outcomes in chondrosarcomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed hotspot sequencing of IDH1 and IDH2 genes in 89 central chondrosarcomas and targeted next-generation sequencing in 54 of them, and then correlated the IDH1/IDH2 mutation status with the patient's clinical outcome. RESULTS: Although no association was discovered between IDH mutation status and the patient's overall survival, IDH1/IDH2 mutation was found to be associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas. Genomic profiling reveals TERT gene amplification and ATRX mutation, for the first time, in addition to TERT promoter mutation in a subset (6/30, 20%) of high-grade and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These abnormalities in telomere genes are concurrent with IDH1/IDH2 mutation and with CDKN2A/2B deletion or TP53 mutation, suggesting a possible association and synergy among these genes in chondrosarcoma progression. We found 21% of patients with chondrosarcoma also had histories of second malignancies unrelated to cartilaginous tumors, suggesting possible unknown genetic susceptibility to chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: IDH1/IDH2 mutations are associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas, and they tend to co-occur with TERT mutations and with CDKN2A/2B and TP53 alterations in a subset of high-grade chondrosarcomas.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(1): 71-80, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare and aggressive malignancies with limited treatment options. This study was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenicity of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced ACC were enrolled in a phase II study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks, without restriction on prior therapy. The primary end point was objective response rate. Efficacy was correlated with tumor programmed death-ligand 1 expression, microsatellite-high and/or mismatch repair deficient (MSI-H/MMR-D) status, and somatic and germline genomic correlates. RESULTS: We enrolled 39 patients with advanced ACC and herein report after a median follow-up of 17.8 months (range, 5.4 months to 34.7 months). The objective response rate to pembrolizumab was 23% (nine patients; 95% CI, 11% to 39%), and the disease control rate was 52% (16 patients; 95% CI, 33% to 69%). The median duration of response was not reached (lower 95% CI, 4.1 months). Two of six patients with MSI-H/MMR-D tumors responded. The other seven patients with objective responses had microsatellite stable tumors. The median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% CI, 2.0 months to 10.7 months), and the median overall survival was 24.9 months (95% CI, 4.2 months to not reached). Thirteen percent of patients (n = 5) had treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Tumor programmed death-ligand 1 expression and MSI-H/MMR-D status were not associated with objective response. CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D tumors, for which pembrolizumab is a standard therapy, are more common in ACC than has been recognized. In advanced ACC that is microsatellite stable, pembrolizumab provided clinically meaningful and durable antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile.

6.
Oncologist ; 25(1): e68-e74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is critical to gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis. Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor targeting angiogenic and stromal receptor tyrosine kinases. We evaluated whether regorafenib augments the antitumor effect of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic esophagogastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with previously untreated metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma received 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) every 14 days and regorafenib 160 mg daily on days 4 to 10 of each 14-day cycle. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS). To identify predictive biomarkers of outcome, we examined correlations between genomic characteristics of sequenced pretreatment tumors and PFS. RESULTS: Between August 2013 and November 2014, 36 patients with metastatic esophagogastric cancer were accrued to this single-center phase II study (NCT01913639). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (36%), leucopenia (11%) and hypertension (8%). The 6-month PFS was 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-71%), the objective response rate was 54% (95% CI, 37%-70%), and the disease control rate was 77% (95% CI, 67%-94%). Next-generation sequencing did not identify any genomic alterations significantly correlated with response, and there was no association between homologous recombination deficiency and PFS with platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Regorafenib (one week on-one week off schedule) is well tolerated in combination with first-line FOLFOX but does not improve 6-month PFS relative to historical control. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Prognosis for metastatic esophagogastric cancer remains poor despite modern systemic therapy regimens. This phase II trial indicates that the combination of regorafenib and FOLFOX is well tolerated but does not add to the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic esophagogastric cancer. Notably, recently reported data suggest potential synergy between regorafenib and the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab. As this study demonstrates that regorafenib plus FOLFOX is safe, and combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy show favorable toxicity profiles, future studies combining immunotherapy with regorafenib and chemotherapy may be feasible.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444830

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901395, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urothelial cancers (UCs) have a substantial hereditary component, but, other than their association with Lynch syndrome, the contribution of genetic risk factors to UC pathogenesis has not been systematically defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in patients with UC and identify associated clinical factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 586 patients with UC underwent prospective, matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Seventy-seven genes associated with cancer predisposition were analyzed; allele frequencies were compared with publicly available database. RESULTS: P/LP germline variants were identified in 80 (14%) of 586 individuals with UC. The most common P/LP variants in high- or moderate-penetrance genes were BRCA2 (n = 9; 1.5%), MSH2 (n = 8; 1.4%), BRCA1 (n = 8; 1.4%), CHEK2 (n = 6; 1.0%), ERCC3 (n = 4; 0.7%), and NBN and RAD50 (n = 3; 0.5% each). Sixty-six patients (83%) had germline P/LP variants in DNA-damage repair (DDR) genes, of which 28 (42%) had biallelic inactivation. Patients with P/LP variants were more commonly diagnosed at an early age (22% v 6% in those without variants; P = .01). BRCA2 and MSH2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio, 3.7 [P = .004] and 4.6 [P = .001], respectively). Current clinical guidelines for referral for genetic testing failed to identify 6 (26%) patients with high-penetrance variants. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant P/LP germline variants in DDR genes frequently are present in patients with advanced UC. The presence of DDR germline variants could guide cancer screening for patients and their families and serve as predictive biomarkers of response to targeted or immunotherapies. Family history-based criteria to identify patients with hereditary UC susceptibility are insensitive. Broader germline testing in UC, particularly in those of young ages, should be considered.

9.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate genomic correlates underlying extremes of survivorship in metastatic colorectal cancer and their applicability in informing survival in distinct subsets of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined differences in oncogenic somatic alterations between metastatic colorectal cancer cohorts demonstrating extremes of survivorship following complete metastasectomy: ≤2-year (n = 17) and ≥10-year (n = 18) survivors. Relevant genomic findings, and their association with overall survival (OS), were validated in two independent datasets of 935 stage IV and 443 resected stage I-IV patients. RESULTS: In the extremes-of-survivorship cohort, significant co-occurrence of KRAS hotspot mutations and TP53 alterations was observed in ≤2-year survivors (P < 0.001). When validating these findings in the independent cohort of 935 stage IV patients, incorporation of the cumulative effect of any oncogenic Ras/B-raf (i.e., either KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF) and TP53 alteration generated three prognostic clusters: (i) TP53-altered alone (median OS, 132 months); (ii) Ras/B-raf-altered alone (65 months) or Ras/B-raf- and TP53 pan-wild-type (60 months); and (iii) coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 (40 months; P < 0.0001). Coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 was independently associated with mortality (HR, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-3.21; P < 0.001). This molecular profile predicted survival in the second independent cohort of 443 resected stage I-IV patients. Coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 was associated with worse OS in patients with liver (n = 490) and lung (n = 172) but not peritoneal surface (n = 149) metastases. Moreover, coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 tumors were significantly more likely to involve extrahepatic metastatic sites with limited salvage options. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic analysis of extremes of survivorship following colorectal cancer metastasectomy identifies a prognostic role for coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 and its association with distinct patterns of colorectal cancer metastasis.

11.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725847

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnosing the site of origin for cancer is a pillar of disease classification that has directed clinical care for more than a century. Even in an era of precision oncologic practice, in which treatment is increasingly informed by the presence or absence of mutant genes responsible for cancer growth and progression, tumor origin remains a critical factor in tumor biologic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity. Objective: To evaluate whether data derived from routine clinical DNA sequencing of tumors could complement conventional approaches to enable improved diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A machine learning approach was developed to predict tumor type from targeted panel DNA sequence data obtained at the point of care, incorporating both discrete molecular alterations and inferred features such as mutational signatures. This algorithm was trained on 7791 tumors representing 22 cancer types selected from a prospectively sequenced cohort of patients with advanced cancer. Results: The correct tumor type was predicted for 5748 of the 7791 patients (73.8%) in the training set as well as 8623 of 11 644 patients (74.1%) in an independent cohort. Predictions were assigned probabilities that reflected empirical accuracy, with 3388 cases (43.5%) representing high-confidence predictions (>95% probability). Informative molecular features and feature categories varied widely by tumor type. Genomic analysis of plasma cell-free DNA yielded accurate predictions in 45 of 60 cases (75.0%), suggesting that this approach may be applied in diverse clinical settings including as an adjunct to cancer screening. Likely tissues of origin were predicted from targeted tumor sequencing in 95 of 141 patients (67.4%) with cancers of unknown primary site. Applying this method prospectively to patients under active care enabled genome-directed reassessment of diagnosis in 2 patients initially presumed to have metastatic breast cancer, leading to the selection of more appropriate treatments, which elicited clinical responses. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that the application of artificial intelligence to predict tissue of origin in oncologic practice can act as a useful complement to conventional histologic review to provide integrated pathologic diagnoses, often with important therapeutic implications.

12.
Nat Med ; 25(10): 1607-1614, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591597

RESUMO

Rectal cancer (RC) is a challenging disease to treat that requires chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to optimize outcomes for individual patients. No accurate model of RC exists to answer fundamental research questions relevant to patients. We established a biorepository of 65 patient-derived RC organoid cultures (tumoroids) from patients with primary, metastatic or recurrent disease. RC tumoroids retained molecular features of the tumors from which they were derived, and their ex vivo responses to clinically relevant chemotherapy and radiation treatment correlated with the clinical responses noted in individual patients' tumors. Upon engraftment into murine rectal mucosa, human RC tumoroids gave rise to invasive RC followed by metastasis to lung and liver. Importantly, engrafted tumors displayed the heterogenous sensitivity to chemotherapy observed clinically. Thus, the biology and drug sensitivity of RC clinical isolates can be efficiently interrogated using an organoid-based, ex vivo platform coupled with in vivo endoluminal propagation in animals.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Animais , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
13.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552290

RESUMO

Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of combining phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors with endocrine therapies in hormone therapy-refractory breast cancer. However, biomarkers of PI3K pathway dependence in ER+ breast cancer have not been fully established. Hotspot mutations in the alpha isoform of PI3K (PIK3CA) are frequent in ER+ disease and may identify tumors that respond to PI3K inhibitors. It is unclear whether PIK3CA mutations are the only biomarker to suggest pathway dependence and response to therapy. We performed correlative molecular characterization of primary and metastatic tissue from patients enrolled in a phase Ib study combining buparlisib (NVP-BKM-120), a pan-PI3K inhibitor, with letrozole in ER+, human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative, metastatic breast cancer. Activating mutations in PIK3CA and inactivating MAP3K1 mutations marked tumors from patients with clinical benefit (≥6 months of stable disease). Patients harboring mutations in both genes exhibited the greatest likelihood of clinical benefit. In ER+ breast cancer cell lines, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MAP3K1 did not affect the response to buparlisib. In a subset of patients treated with buparlisib or the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib each with letrozole where PAM50 analysis was performed, nearly all tumors from patients with clinical benefit had a luminal A subtype. Mutations in MAP3K1 in ER+ breast cancer may be associated with clinical benefit from combined inhibition of PI3K and ER, but we could not ascribe direct biological function therein, suggesting they may be a surrogate for luminal A status. We posit that luminal A tumors may be a target population for this therapeutic combination.

14.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1422-1427, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406350

RESUMO

TRK fusions are found in a variety of cancer types, lead to oncogenic addiction, and strongly predict tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibition1-8. With the recent approval of the first selective TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, for patients with any TRK-fusion-positive adult or pediatric solid tumor, to identify mechanisms of treatment failure after initial response has become of immediate therapeutic relevance. So far, the only known resistance mechanism is the acquisition of on-target TRK kinase domain mutations, which interfere with drug binding and can potentially be addressable through second-generation TRK inhibitors9-11. Here, we report off-target resistance in patients treated with TRK inhibitors and in patient-derived models, mediated by genomic alterations that converge to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK pathway-directed targeted therapy, administered alone or in combination with TRK inhibition, re-established disease control. Experimental modeling further suggests that upfront dual inhibition of TRK and MEK may delay time to progression in cancer types prone to the genomic acquisition of MAPK pathway-activating alterations. Collectively, these data suggest that a subset of patients will develop off-target mechanisms of resistance to TRK inhibition with potential implications for clinical management and future clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7475-7484, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of broad-panel tumor genomic profiling has used a gene-centric approach, although much of that data is unused in clinical decision making. We hypothesized that a pathway-centric approach using next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with conventional clinicopathologic features, may better predict disease-free survival (DFS) in early stage lung adenocarcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing our prospectively maintained database, we analyzed 492 patients with primary, untreated, completely surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Ten canonical pathways were analyzed using broad-panel NGS. The correlations of DFS and number (and type) of pathway (NPA) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Associations between altered pathways and clinicopathologic variables, as well as identification of actionable therapeutic strategies were explored. RESULTS: Median NPA for the cohort was two (range, 0-5). Smoking status, solid morphologic appearance on preoperative CT, maximal standardized uptake value, pathologic tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype, lymphovascular invasion, visceral pleural invasion, and positive lymph nodes were significantly associated with NPA (P < 0.05). Of 543 actionable genetic alterations identified, 455 (84%) were within the RTK/RAS pathway. A total of 86 tumors had actionable therapeutic genomic alterations in >1 pathway. On multivariable analysis, higher NPA was significantly associated with worse DFS (HR, 1.31; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: NPA and specific pathway alterations are associated with clinicopathologic features in patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Cell cycle, Hippo, TGFß, and p53 pathway alterations are associated with poor DFS. Finally, NPA is an independent risk factor for poor DFS in our cohort.See related commentary by Blakely, p. 7269.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(20): 6160-6169, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are effective in only a minority of patients with esophagogastric cancer (EGC). Here, we aimed to identify predictors of durable clinical benefit to ICI in EGC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced EGC treated with ICIs at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) were identified. Clinicopathologic variables were assessed. In patients profiled by MSK-IMPACT-targeted sequencing, outcomes were correlated with tumor genomic features. RESULTS: One-hundred sixty-one patients were treated with ICIs (110 with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and 51 with anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.7 and 4.9 months, respectively. Greater number of disease sites (≥3), liver metastases, treatment with ≥3 prior therapies and ECOG performance status ≥2 were associated with poorer PFS and OS. Patients treated with combination ICI and those with PD-L1-positive tumors had improved outcomes. There was no difference in outcomes between patients treated with antibiotics during or in the 2 months preceding ICI treatment versus those who were not. Occurrence of irAEs was associated with improved OS. In genomically profiled tumors (n = 89), survival was associated with increasing tumor mutation burden (TMB). However, in multivariable analyses and when microsatellite unstable (MSI) patients were excluded, a significant association was no longer observed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced EGC, heavily pretreated patients, those with high-volume disease and/or poor PS were less likely to benefit from ICI. irAEs were associated with improved OS. TMB correlated with improved survival, but this association was not observed when MSI-high patients were excluded.

17.
Nature ; 571(7766): 576-579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292550

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to certain cancers1-3, and disease-specific screening and preventative strategies have reduced cancer mortality in affected patients4,5. These classical tumour-suppressor genes have tumorigenic effects associated with somatic biallelic inactivation, although haploinsufficiency may also promote the formation and progression of tumours6,7. Moreover, BRCA1/2-mutant tumours are often deficient in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination8-13, and consequently exhibit increased therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-containing therapy and inhibitors of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP)14,15. However, the phenotypic and therapeutic relevance of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains poorly defined in most cancer types. Here we show that in the 2.7% and 1.8% of patients with advanced-stage cancer and germline pathogenic or somatic loss-of-function alterations in BRCA1/2, respectively, selective pressure for biallelic inactivation, zygosity-dependent phenotype penetrance, and sensitivity to PARP inhibition were observed only in tumour types associated with increased heritable cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers (BRCA-associated cancer types). Conversely, among patients with non-BRCA-associated cancer types, most carriers of these BRCA1/2 mutation types had evidence for tumour pathogenesis that was independent of mutant BRCA1/2. Overall, mutant BRCA is an indispensable founding event for some tumours, but in a considerable proportion of other cancers, it appears to be biologically neutral-a difference predominantly conditioned by tumour lineage-with implications for disease pathogenesis, screening, design of clinical trials and therapeutic decision-making.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5537-5547, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The genomic landscape of gliomas has been characterized and now contributes to disease classification, yet the relationship between molecular profile and disease progression and treatment response remain poorly understood.Experimental Design: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing of 1,004 primary and recurrent tumors from 923 glioma patients with clinical and treatment phenotypes. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of glioma patients harbored a pathogenic germline variant, including a subset associated with heritable genetic syndromes and variants mediating DNA repair dysfunctions (29% of the total) that were associated with somatic biallelic inactivation and mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes. In astrocytomas, genomic alterations in effectors of cell-cycle progression correlated with aggressive disease independent of IDH mutation status, arose preferentially in enhancing tumors (44% vs. 8%, P < 0.001), were associated with rapid disease progression following tumor recurrence (HR = 2.6, P = 0.02), and likely preceded the acquisition of alkylating therapy-associated somatic hypermutation. Thirty-two percent of patients harbored a potentially therapeutically actionable lesion, of whom 11% received targeted therapies. In BRAF-mutant gliomas, response to agents targeting the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling axis was influenced by the type of mutation, its clonality, and its cellular and genomic context. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal genomic correlates of disease progression and treatment response in diverse types of glioma and highlight the potential utility of incorporating genomic information into the clinical decision-making for patients with glioma.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158244

RESUMO

The clinical significance of BRAF alterations in well-differentiated (WD) metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (panNET) is unknown, but BRAF-mutated panNET could represent a subset characterized by an identifiable and clinically actionable driver. Following the identification of two patients with WD metastatic panNET whose tumors harbored BRAF mutations, we queried the MSK-IMPACT series of 80 patients with WD metastatic panNET for additional mutations in BRAF, and in other genes involved in RAS/ RTK/ PI3K signaling pathways. BRAF mutations were identified in six samples (7.5%): two tumors harbored V600E mutations, one tumor each expressed K601E, T599K, and T310I mutations, and one tumor expressed both G596D and E451K BRAF. Few additional actionable driver alterations were identified. To determine the ERK activating capability of four BRAF mutations not previously characterized, mutant constructs were tested in model systems. Biochemical characterization of BRAF mutations revealed both high and low activity mutants. Engineered cells expressing BRAF K601E and V600E were used for in vitro drug testing of RAF and MEK inhibitors currently in clinical use. BRAF K601E demonstrated reduced sensitivity to dabrafenib compared to BRAF V600E, but the combination of RAF plus MEK inhibition was effective in cells expressing this mutation. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a patient with BRAF K601E and a patient with BRAF V600E WD metastatic panNET, and the identification of four mutations in BRAF not previously characterized. The combined clinical and biochemical data support a potential role for RAF and MEK inhibitors, or a combination of these, in a selected panNET population.

20.
Mod Pathol ; 32(10): 1447-1459, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186531

RESUMO

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is an aggressive malignancy harboring IDH2 R172 mutations in >80% cases. We explored the potential of genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to elucidate tumor biology and improve the diagnosis of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and its histologic mimics. Forty-two cases, including sinonasal undifferentiated, large cell neuroendocrine, small cell neuroendocrine, and SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas and olfactory neuroblastoma, were profiled by Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array interrogating >850,000 CpG sites. The data were analyzed using a custom bioinformatics pipeline. IDH2 mutation status was determined by the targeted exome sequencing (MSK-IMPACTTM) in most cases. H3K27 methylation level was assessed by the immunohistochemistry-based H-score. DNA methylation-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis segregated IDH2 mutants, mostly sinonasal undifferentiated (n = 10) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (n = 4), from other sinonasal tumors, and formed a single cluster irrespective of the histologic type. t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding dimensionality reduction analysis showed no overlap between IDH2 mutants, SMARCB1-deficient carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma. IDH2 mutants demonstrated a global methylation phenotype and an increase in repressive trimethylation of H3K27 in comparison to IDH2 wild-type tumors (p < 0.001). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed no difference in pathway activation between IDH2-mutated sinonasal undifferentiated and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. In comparison to SMARCB1-deficient, IDH2-mutated carcinomas were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.034) and lower propensity for lung metastasis (p = 0.002). ARID1A mutations were common in small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma but not among IDH2 mutants (3/3 versus 0/18 and p < 0.001). IDH2 mutations in sinonasal carcinomas induce a hypermethylator phenotype and define a molecular subgroup of tumors arising in this location. IDH2-mutated sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma likely represent a phenotypic spectrum of the same entity, which is distinct from small cell neuroendocrine and SMARCB1-deficient sinonasal carcinomas. DNA methylation-based analysis of the sinonasal tumors has potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy and classification of tumors arising in this location.

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