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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7253, 2023 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945570

RESUMO

Two-dimensional magnets and superconductors are emerging as tunable building-blocks for quantum computing and superconducting spintronic devices, and have been used to fabricate all two-dimensional versions of traditional devices, such as Josephson junctions. However, novel devices enabled by unique features of two-dimensional materials have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we present NbSe2/CrSBr van der Waals superconducting spin valves that exhibit infinite magnetoresistance and nonreciprocal charge transport. These responses arise from a unique metamagnetic transition in CrSBr, which controls the presence of localized stray fields suitably oriented to suppress the NbSe2 superconductivity in nanoscale regions and to break time reversal symmetry. Moreover, by integrating different CrSBr crystals in a lateral heterostructure, we demonstrate a superconductive spin valve characterized by multiple stable resistance states. Our results show how the unique physical properties of layered materials enable the realization of high-performance quantum devices based on novel working principles.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 131(2): 027001, 2023 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37505965

RESUMO

The macroscopic coherence in superconductors supports dissipationless supercurrents that could play a central role in emerging quantum technologies. Accomplishing unequal supercurrents in the forward and backward directions would enable unprecedented functionalities. This nonreciprocity of critical supercurrents is called the superconducting (SC) diode effect. We demonstrate the strong SC diode effect in conventional SC thin films, such as niobium and vanadium, employing external magnetic fields as small as 1 Oe. Interfacing the SC layer with a ferromagnetic semiconductor EuS, we further accomplish the nonvolatile SC diode effect reaching a giant efficiency of 65%. By careful control experiments and theoretical modeling, we demonstrate that the critical supercurrent nonreciprocity in SC thin films could be easily accomplished with asymmetrical vortex edge and surface barriers and the universal Meissner screening current governing the critical currents. Our engineering of the SC diode effect in simple systems opens the door for novel technologies while revealing the ubiquity of the Meissner screening effect induced SC diode effect in superconducting films, and it should be eliminated with great care in the search for exotic superconducting states harboring finite-momentum Cooper pairing.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 130(13): 136004, 2023 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37067302

RESUMO

Breaking a correlated pair in a superconductor requires an even number of fermions providing at least twice the pairing energy Δ. Here, we show that a single tunneling electron can also excite a pair breaking excitation in a proximitized gold film in the presence of magnetic impurities. Combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy with theoretical modeling, we map the excitation spectrum of an Fe-porphyrin molecule on the Au/V(100) proximitized surface into a manifold of entangled Yu-Shiba-Rusinov and spin excitations. Pair excitations emerge in the tunneling spectra as peaks outside the spectral gap only in the strong coupling regime, where the presence of a bound quasiparticle in the ground state ensures the even fermion parity of the excitation. Our results unravel the quantum nature of magnetic impurities on superconductors and demonstrate that pair excitations unequivocally reveal the parity of the ground state.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(3)2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36770530

RESUMO

Josephson junctions (JJs) in the presence of a magnetic field exhibit qualitatively different interference patterns depending on the spatial distribution of the supercurrent through the junction. In JJs based on two-dimensional topological insulators (2DTIs), the electrons/holes forming a Cooper pair (CP) can either propagate along the same edge or be split into the two edges. The former leads to a SQUID-like interference pattern, with the superconducting flux quantum ϕ0 (where ϕ0=h/2e) as a fundamental period. If CPs' splitting is additionally included, the resultant periodicity doubles. Since the edge states are typically considered to be strongly localized, the critical current does not decay as a function of the magnetic field. The present paper goes beyond this approach and inspects a topological JJ in the tunneling regime featuring extended edge states. It is here considered the possibility that the two electrons of a CP propagate and explore the junction independently over length scales comparable to the superconducting coherence length. As a consequence of the spatial extension, a decaying pattern with different possible periods is obtained. In particular, it is shown that, if crossed Andreev reflections (CARs) are dominant and the edge states overlap, the resulting interference pattern features oscillations whose periodicity approaches 2ϕ0.

5.
Nano Lett ; 20(9): 6815-6823, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786952

RESUMO

Spin-dependent transport at heavy metal/magnetic insulator interfaces is at the origin of many phenomena at the forefront of spintronics research. A proper quantification of the different interfacial spin conductances is crucial for many applications. Here, we report the first measurement of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) of Pt on a purely ferromagnetic insulator (EuS). We perform SMR measurements in a wide range of temperatures and fit the results by using a microscopic model. From this fitting procedure, we obtain the temperature dependence of the spin conductances (Gs, Gr, and Gi), disentangling the contribution of field-like torque (Gi), damping-like torque (Gr), and spin-flip scattering (Gs). An interfacial exchange field of the order of 1 meV acting upon the conduction electrons of Pt can be estimated from Gi, which is at least three times larger than Gr below the Curie temperature. Our work provides an easy method to quantify this interfacial spin-splitting field, which plays a key role in emerging fields such as superconducting spintronics and caloritronics as well as topological quantum computation.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(8): 656-660, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541945

RESUMO

A classical battery converts chemical energy into a persistent voltage bias that can power electronic circuits. Similarly, a phase battery is a quantum device that provides a persistent phase bias to the wave function of a quantum circuit. It represents a key element for quantum technologies based on phase coherence. Here we demonstrate a phase battery in a hybrid superconducting circuit. It consists of an n-doped InAs nanowire with unpaired-spin surface states, that is proximitized by Al superconducting leads. We find that the ferromagnetic polarization of the unpaired-spin states is efficiently converted into a persistent phase bias φ0 across the wire, leading to the anomalous Josephson effect1,2. We apply an external in-plane magnetic field and, thereby, achieve continuous tuning of φ0. Hence, we can charge and discharge the quantum phase battery. The observed symmetries of the anomalous Josephson effect in the vectorial magnetic field are in agreement with our theoretical model. Our results demonstrate how the combined action of spin-orbit coupling and exchange interaction induces a strong coupling between charge, spin and superconducting phase, able to break the phase rigidity of the system.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 6330-6337, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378061

RESUMO

We present a theory of the spin Hall magnetoresistance of metals in contact with magnetic insulators. We express the spin mixing conductances, which govern the phenomenology of the effect, in terms of the microscopic parameters of the interface and the spin-spin correlation functions of the local moments on the surface of the magnetic insulator. The magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the spin mixing conductances leads to a rich behavior of the resistance due to an interplay between the Hanle effect and the spin mixing at the interface. We describe an unusual negative magnetoresistance originating from a nonlocal Hanle effect. Our theory provides a useful tool for understanding the experiments on heavy metals in contact with magnetic insulators of different kinds, and it enables the spin Hall magnetoresistance effect to be used as a technique to study magnetism at interfaces.

8.
Nano Lett ; 18(10): 6369-6374, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248266

RESUMO

A superconductor with a spin-split excitation spectrum behaves as an ideal ferromagnetic spin-injector in a tunneling junction. It was theoretically predicted that the combination of two such spin-split superconductors with independently tunable magnetizations may be used as an ideal absolute spin-valve. Here, we report on the first switchable superconducting spin-valve based on two EuS/Al bilayers coupled through an aluminum oxide tunnel barrier. The spin-valve shows a relative resistance change between the parallel and antiparallel configuration of the EuS layers up to 900% that demonstrates a highly spin-polarized current through the junction. Our device may be pivotal for realization of thermoelectric radiation detectors, a logical element for a memory cell in cryogenics, superconductor-based computers, and superconducting spintronics in general.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(23): 237002, 2016 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27341251

RESUMO

A Josephson junction made of a generic magnetic material sandwiched between two conventional superconductors is studied in the ballistic semiclassic limit. The spectrum of Andreev bound states is obtained from the single valuedness of a particle-hole spinor over closed orbits generated by electron-hole reflections at the interfaces between superconducting and normal materials. The semiclassical quantization condition is shown to depend only on the angle mismatch between initial and final spin directions along such closed trajectories. For the demonstration, an Andreev-Wilson loop in the composite position-particle-hole-spin space is constructed and shown to depend on only two parameters, namely, a magnetic phase shift and a local precession axis for the spin. The details of the Andreev-Wilson loop can be extracted via measuring the spin-resolved density of states. A Josephson junction can thus be viewed as an analog computer of closed-path-ordered exponentials.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(1): 016603, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799036

RESUMO

We report measurements of a new type of magnetoresistance in Pt and Ta thin films. The spin accumulation created at the surfaces of the film by the spin Hall effect decreases in a magnetic field because of the Hanle effect, resulting in an increase of the electrical resistance as predicted by Dyakonov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126601 (2007)]. The angular dependence of this magnetoresistance resembles the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) bilayers, although the presence of a ferromagnetic insulator is not required. We show that this Hanle magnetoresistance is an alternative simple way to quantitatively study the coupling between charge and spin currents in metals with strong spin-orbit coupling.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(24): 247003, 2010 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867329

RESUMO

The observation of very large microwave-enhanced critical currents in superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junctions at temperatures well below the critical temperature of the electrodes has remained without a satisfactory theoretical explanation for more than three decades. Here we present a theory of the supercurrent in diffusive SNS junctions under microwave irradiation based on the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. We show that the enhancement of the critical current is due to the energy redistribution of the quasiparticles in the normal wire induced by the electromagnetic field. The theory provides predictions across a wide range of temperatures, frequencies, and radiation powers, both for the critical current and the current-phase relationship.

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