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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491863

RESUMO

Regional anesthesia has been considered a great tool for maximizing post-operative pain control while minimizing opioid consumption. Post-operative rebound pain, characterized by hyperalgesia after the peripheral nerve block, can however diminish or negate the overall benefit of this modality due to a counter-productive increase in opioid consumption once the block wears off. We reviewed published literature describing pathophysiology and occurrence of rebound pain after peripheral nerve blocks in patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. A search of relevant keywords was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Twenty-eight articles (n = 28) were included in our review. Perioperative considerations for peripheral nerve blocks and other alternatives used for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries were discussed. Multimodal strategies including preemptive analgesia before the block wears off, intra-articular or intravenous anti-inflammatory medications, and use of adjuvants in nerve block solutions may reduce the burden of rebound pain. Additionally, patient education regarding the possibility of rebound pain is paramount to ensure appropriate use of prescribed pre-emptive analgesics and establish appropriate expectations of minimized opioid requirements. Understanding the impact of rebound pain and strategies to prevent it is integral to effective utilization of regional anesthesia to reduce negative consequences associated with long-term opioid consumption.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1098-1105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs commonly in surgical patients despite widespread prophylactic antiemetic use. Rescue options are currently limited. 5HT3 antagonists are most frequently used for prophylaxis, but if they fail, additional doses are not effective as rescue medication. Intravenous (IV) amisulpride, a well-studied D2/D3 antagonist, has been shown in trials to prevent PONV. This study was designed to determine if amisulpride could be used to treat established PONV in patients at low-to-moderate risk of PONV who had not received any prior prophylaxis. METHODS: Men and women aged over 18 years were permitted to enroll if they were to undergo general inhalational anesthesia, expected to last at least 1 hour, for an outpatient or inpatient surgical procedure. Patients who then suffered PONV were randomized equally to 1 of 3 single-dose IV regimens: placebo or 5 or 10 mg amisulpride. The primary end point was complete response, defined as no emesis in the period 30 minutes to 24 hours after study drug treatment and no use of rescue medication in the entire 24-hour period. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled preoperatively, of whom 560 were randomized to a treatment arm. Complete response occurred in 39 of 181 patients (21.5%) in the placebo group compared to 60 of 191 patients (31.4%; P = .016) and 59 of 188 patients (31.4%; P = .016) in the amisulpride 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively. The adverse event profile of amisulpride at either dose was similar to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: IV amisulpride at 5 and 10 mg was safe and efficacious in the treatment of established PONV in surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with no prior PONV prophylaxis.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15343, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of 300 milligrams (mg) and 600 mg of pregabalin compared to placebo in the reduction of pain in patients with noncritical partial and full thickness burn injuries. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, single center, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Simple randomization method was used in this trial. After subjects met all the inclusion and none of the exclusion criteria, they were randomized and assigned to 1 of the 3 18-day treatments groups: Pregabalin 300 group, Pregabalin 600 group, or Placebo group. Demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded. The severity of pain was assessed by using the visual analog scale for pain intensity at baseline on day 3, day 9 ±â€Š3, day 25 ±â€Š7, day 90 ±â€Š6, and day 180 ±â€Š12. RESULTS: A total of 54 subjects were randomly assigned, and 51 were included in the data analysis. Demographics and clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between the 3 groups. There was a statistically significant difference in pain between the Pregabalin 300 and Pregabalin 600 groups (P-value = .0260). The Pregabalin 300 group had 17.93 units (95% confidence interval: 1.83-34.04) higher pain scores on average than the Pregabalin 600 group, regardless of time. The adjusted P-value comparing 0 to 300 was .1618, while the adjusted P-value for 0 versus 600 was .5304. There was an overall difference in pain across time regardless of study group (P-value = <.0001). An overall difference in opioid consumption (P-value = .0003) and BSHS (P-value = .0013) across time regardless of study group was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Pregabalin could be part of a promising multimodal analgesic regimen in noncritical burn population. Future placebo-controlled studies assessing the use of pregabalin in burn victim patients may further endorse our findings.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/complicações , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/classificação , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Queimaduras/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor/métodos , Placebos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15425, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The administration of opioids has been used for centuries as a viable option for pain management. When administered at appropriate doses, opioids prove effective not only at eliminating pain but further preventing its recurrence in long-term recovery scenarios. Physicians have complied with the appropriate management of acute and chronic pain; however, this short or long-term opioid exposure provides opportunities for long-term opioid misuse and abuse, leading to addiction of patients who receive an opioid prescription and/or diversion of this pain medication to other people without prescription. Several reviews attempted to summarize the epidemiology and management of opioid misuse, this integrative review seeks to summarize the current literature related with responsible parties of this opioid abuse crisis and discuss potential associations between demographics (ethnicity, culture, gender, religion) and opioid accessibility, abuse and overdose. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search in Google Scholar and Pub Med databases that were published between December 7, 1999 and January 9, 2018 in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches were referenced using medical subject headings (MeSH) that included "opioids", "over-prescription", "opioid consumption", or "opioid epidemic". The final review of all data bases was conducted on July 24, 2018. RESULTS: A total of 7160 articles were originally identified. After 3340 duplicate articles were removed, 3820 manuscripts were removed after title and abstract screening. Following this, 120 manuscripts underwent eligibility selection with only 70 publications being selected as reliable full-texts addressing related factors surrounding the opioid crisis. CONCLUSION: With approximately 100 million people suffering from both chronic and acute pain in the United States (US) in 2016, opiates will continue to remain a prominent class of medication in healthcare facilities and homes across the US. Over 66% of total overdose episodes in 2016 were opioid-related, a figure that attests to the severity and wide-spread nature of this issue. A three-point approach accentuating the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of both those currently affected and at-risk in the future may be the comprehensive solution.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Aditivo/induzido quimicamente , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/efeitos adversos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Anesth ; 57: 41-49, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852326

RESUMO

According to the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, marijuana continues to be the most common illicit recreational drug used in the US. Cannabis is associated with systemic reactions that potentially affect perioperative outcomes. We have reviewed the most important pharmacological aspects and pathophysiological effects that should be considered during the perioperative management of chronic cannabis/cannabinoids users. The synthetic analogues provide higher potency with increased risk for complications. High cannabinoid liposolubility favors rapid accumulation in fatty tissue which prolongs its elimination up to several days after exposure. The multi-systemic effects of cannabinoids and their pharmacological interactions with anesthetic agents may lead to serious consequences. Low doses of cannabinoids have been associated with increased sympathetic response (tachycardia, hypertension and increased contractility) with high levels of norepinephrine detected 30 min after use. High doses enhance parasympathetic tone leading to dose-dependent bradycardia and hypotension. Severe vascular complications associated with cannabis exposure may include malignant arrhythmias, coronary spasm, sudden death, cerebral hypoperfusion and stroke. Bronchial hyperreactivity and upper airway obstruction are commonly reported in cannabis users. Postoperative hypothermia, shivering and increased platelet aggregation have been also documented.

6.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 8(8): 1062-1072, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786162

RESUMO

An intravenous (IV) formulation of meloxicam is being studied for moderate to severe pain management. This phase 3, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the safety of once-daily meloxicam IV 30 mg in subjects following major elective surgery. Eligible subjects were randomized (3:1) to receive meloxicam IV 30 mg or placebo administered once daily. Safety was evaluated via adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, wound healing, and opioid consumption. The incidence of adverse events was similar between meloxicam IV- and placebo-treated subjects (63.0% versus 65.0%). Investigators assessed most adverse events as mild or moderate in intensity and unrelated to treatment. Adverse events of interest (injection-site reactions, bleeding, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, thrombotic, and wound-healing events) were similar between groups. Over the treatment period, meloxicam IV was associated with a 23.6% (P = .0531) reduction in total opioid use (9.2 mg morphine equivalent) compared to placebo-treated subjects. The results suggest that meloxicam IV had a safety profile similar to that of placebo with respect to numbers and frequencies of adverse events and reduced opioid consumption in subjects with moderate to severe postoperative pain following major elective surgery.

7.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 32(3-4): 259-268, 2018 Sep - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522716

RESUMO

Postoperative recovery is a complex process with several interrelated domains. Traditionally, the absence of negative physiological symptoms like nausea and pain, along with avoidance of major postoperative complications, has been the standard set by clinicians and hospitals for a satisfactory postoperative recovery. Nonetheless, evidence from recent studies reports these items to be the least important from the patient point of view. Effective communication, active involvement of the patient in their healthcare decisions, and empathy from healthcare providers are rated by patients as significant factors for their quality of recovery. Although challenging to study, the development of a multimodal, patient-centered approach to evaluate the postsurgical period is critical for a truly comprehensive assessment of recovery quality. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of how patient factors like satisfaction can be impacted by the Anesthesia Care Team and how overall quality of recovery is related to perioperative patient experiences.

8.
Front Surg ; 5: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519561

RESUMO

Introduction: Perioperative hypothermia is one of the most common phenomena seen among surgical patients, leading to numerous adverse outcomes such as intraoperative blood loss, cardiac events, coagulopathy, increased hospital stay and associated costs. Forced air warming (FAW) and resistive heating (RH) are the two most commonly used and widely studied devices to prevent perioperative hypothermia. The effect of FAW on operating room laminar flow and surgical site infection is unclear and we initiated an extensive literature search in order to get a scientific insight of this aspect. Material and Methods: The literature search was conducted using the Medline search engine, PubMed, Cochrane review, google scholar, and OSU library. Results: Out of 92 Articles considered initially for review we selected a total of 73 relevant references. Currently there is no robust evidence to support that FAW can increase SSIs. In addition, both of the two warming devices present safety problems. Conclusion: As unbiased independent reviewers, we advise clinicians to weigh the risks and benefits when using either one of these devices; no change in the current practice is necessary until further data emerges.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(52): e13743, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593150

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a serious well-described pulmonary complication. It occurs after an intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed or closed upper airway and generates a large negative airway pressure, leading to severe pulmonary edema (transvascular fluid filtration and interstitial/alveolar edema) and hypoxemia. We present a case of NPPE following general anesthesia in a patient who underwent median nerve neurorrhaphy with graft from lower left limb (sural nerve) due to sharp injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old Hispanic male was admitted to the Hospital Universitario de San José and scheduled to undergo a median nerve neurorrhaphy under general anesthesia. Preoperative vital signs, physical examination, and laboratory assessments were unremarkable. At the end of surgery, anesthetic agents were ceased after patient responded to commands and maintained eye contact. However, immediately after extubation, anesthesia care providers observed marked respiratory distress and rapid development of hypoxia. DIAGNOSES: After extubation, patient presented multiple episodes of hemoptysis, tachypnea (25 per minute), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 82% and abundant bilateral pulmonary rales. A baseline chest x-ray revealed symmetric parenchymal opacities with ground-glass attenuation and bilateral multilobar consolidations patterns. The diagnosis of NPPE was established and supportive treatment was initiated. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received noninvasive mechanical ventilation with a PEEP at 10 cmH2O, intravenous furosemide (20 mg.) every 12 hours, and fluids restriction. Patient remained in PACU for continuing monitoring and laboratory/imaging follow-up testing until next morning. OUTCOMES: On postoperative day 1, patient responded satisfactorily to supportive treatment and transferred to the general care floor; oxygen supplementation was discontinued 12 hours after extubation time. On postoperative day 3, after the evaluation of a chest x-ray, patient was discharged to home in stable conditions LESSON:: The occurrence of NPPE in the perioperative setting could be successfully managed with supportive regimens, effective clinical team coordination, and awareness of the importance of its rapid diagnosis.


Assuntos
Extubação/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inalação/fisiologia , Masculino , Nervo Mediano/cirurgia , Pressão , Nervo Sural/transplante
10.
Anesthesiology ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475232

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Although antiemetics are commonly used to prevent postoperative nausea or vomiting, the failure rate is appreciable and there is currently no generally accepted standard for rescue treatment of postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was designed to test the hypothesis that intravenous amisulpride, a dopamine D2/D3-antagonist, is superior to placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. METHODS: A total of 2,285 adult patients undergoing surgery under general inhalational anesthesia and receiving standard antiemetic prophylaxis were enrolled at 23 sites in Canada, France, Germany, and the United States. Of these, 702 patients experienced postoperative nausea or vomiting in the 24-h period after surgery and were randomized to receive a single dose of 5 or 10 mg intravenous amisulpride or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was complete response, defined as no emesis or rescue antiemetic use for 24 h after study drug administration, excluding emesis in the first 30 min. Secondary endpoints included incidence of emesis and rescue medication use, nausea burden, time to treatment failure, and length of stay in postanesthesia care unit and hospital. RESULTS: Complete response occurred in significantly more patients receiving 10 mg amisulpride (96 of 230, 41.7%) than placebo (67 of 235, 28.5%), a 13.2% difference (95% CI, 4.6 to 21.8; odds ratio, 1.80; P = 0.006). A 5-mg dose of amisulpride did not show a significant benefit (80 of 237, 33.8%); the difference from placebo was 5.2% (95% CI, 3.1 to 13.6; odds ratio, 1.24; P = 0.109). The total number of adverse events recorded and proportion of patients with at least one adverse event were comparable between the placebo and amisulpride groups. No clinically relevant toxicities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A single 10-mg dose of intravenous amisulpride was safe and more effective than placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting in patients failing postoperative nausea or vomiting prophylaxis.

11.
Front Surg ; 5: 59, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338261

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute postoperative pain following knee arthroscopy is common in orthopedic surgeries. Managing pain postoperatively combines usage of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this clinical study was to assess the efficacy of two different analgesic treatment regimens: intravenous (IV) ibuprofen and IV ketorolac for the treatment of postoperative pain pertaining to arthroscopic knee surgery. Methods: This was a single center, randomized, double-blind, parallel, active comparator clinical pilot study. Subjects were randomized to receive either IV ibuprofen, administered as two 800 mg doses or IV ketorolac, administered as a single 30 mg dose. Subjects in the ibuprofen group received 800 mg of IV ibuprofen within 2 h prior to surgery and a repeated second dose 4 h after the initial dose if they had not been discharged. Subjects in the ketorolac group received IV ketorolac 30 mg at the end of surgery, as per the manufacturer's recommendations. Pain assessments and opioid consumption data were collected up to 24 h postoperatively. Results: Of 53 randomized subjects, 51 completed the study. There were 20 subjects in the ibuprofen group and 31 subjects in the ketorolac group. The median (IQR) visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at resting upon post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) arrival was 33 (12, 52) vs. 9 (2, 25) (p = 0.0064) for the ketorolac and ibuprofen group, respectively. The median (IQR) visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at movement upon PACU arrival was 38 (20, 61) vs. 15 (6, 31) (p = 0.0018) for the ketorolac and ibuprofen group, respectively. Median VAS pain scores during movement taken at subsequent 30 min intervals in the ibuprofen group were less than half that of those reported in the ketorolac group for up to 90 min after arriving in PACU. The median VAS pain scores at rest and movement in the course of 120 min-24 h after PACU arrival was not statistically significant in both groups. Rescue opioid medication during PACU stay was required in 55.0% (N = 11) and 83.9% (N = 26), with a mean amount of narcotic consumption (oral morphine conversion) of 5.53 ± 5.89 mg vs. 19.92 ± 15.63 mg for the ibuprofen and ketorolac group, respectively (P < 0.001). However, opioid consumption during the first 24 h after PACU discharge was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.637). The mean time to first rescue medication was 77.62 ± 33.03 and 55.78 ± 35.37 for the ibuprofen and ketorolac group, respectively (p-value = 0.0456). There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction and documented adverse events during the first 24 h. Conclusion: This pilot study showed that the use of preemptive IV ibuprofen 800 mg could be considered to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Future prospective clinical trials using similar regimens should be conducted in order to gain a better understanding of how to best provide perioperative analgesic regimens. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01650519.

12.
Anesth Analg ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs commonly in surgical patients despite widespread prophylactic antiemetic use. Rescue options are currently limited. 5HT3 antagonists are most frequently used for prophylaxis, but if they fail, additional doses are not effective as rescue medication. Intravenous (IV) amisulpride, a well-studied D2/D3 antagonist, has been shown in trials to prevent PONV. This study was designed to determine if amisulpride could be used to treat established PONV in patients at low-to-moderate risk of PONV who had not received any prior prophylaxis. METHODS: Men and women aged over 18 years were permitted to enroll if they were to undergo general inhalational anesthesia, expected to last at least 1 hour, for an outpatient or inpatient surgical procedure. Patients who then suffered PONV were randomized equally to 1 of 3 single-dose IV regimens: placebo or 5 or 10 mg amisulpride. The primary end point was complete response, defined as no emesis in the period 30 minutes to 24 hours after study drug treatment and no use of rescue medication in the entire 24-hour period. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled preoperatively, of whom 560 were randomized to a treatment arm. Complete response occurred in 39 of 181 patients (21.5%) in the placebo group compared to 60 of 191 patients (31.4%; P = .016) and 59 of 188 patients (31.4%; P = .016) in the amisulpride 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively. The adverse event profile of amisulpride at either dose was similar to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: IV amisulpride at 5 and 10 mg was safe and efficacious in the treatment of established PONV in surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with no prior PONV prophylaxis.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(19): e0693, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742719

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Neuraxial anesthesia is a commonly used type of regional anesthesia. Cauda equina syndrome is an unusual and severe complication of neuraxial anesthesia, and is caused by damage to the sacral roots of the neural canal. We present a case of cauda equina syndrome following spinal anesthesia in a patient who underwent Bartholin abscess drainage. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year old female scheduled to undergo surgical drainage of Bartholin abscess. Spinal anesthesia was performed with bupivacaine and fentanyl. There were no perioperative adverse events reported. On postoperative day 1, the patient went to the emergency department describing bilateral weakness and pain of the lower extremities (LE). DIAGNOSES: Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed increased gadolinium accumulation in the neural sheath at the level of the cauda equina tracts, consistent with the diagnosis of arachnoiditis and the diagnosis of cauda equina was established. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received the following emergent treatment: 75 mg pregabalin (oral) every 12 hours, 20 mg (8 drops) tramadol (oral) every 8 hours, and 4 mg dexamethasone (intravenous) every 6 hours. On postoperative day 4, the patient still experienced bilateral flaccid paraparesis (accentuated in the left side), neuropathic pain in low extremities, and left brachial monoparesis. Hence, dexamethasone was instantly replaced with 1 g methylprednisolone (intravenous) for 5 days. OUTCOMES: After completing 5 days of methylprednisolone, on postoperative day 9, the patient experienced less pain in left extremities, osteotendinous reflexes were slightly diminished, and she was able to walk with difficulty for 3 to 5 minutes. Greater mobility was evidenced, with right proximal and distal low extremities Medical Research Council Scale grades of 2 and 3 and left proximal and distal low extremities Medical Research Council Scale grades 1 and 2, respectively. Oral prednisone was restarted. Consequently, she was discharged home in stable conditions on postoperative day 25 with a prescription for sertraline, clonazepam, pregabalin, paracetamol, and prednisone. LESSON: The early detection and treatment of complications after neuraxial anesthesia is essential to minimize the risk of permanent damage.


Assuntos
Abscesso/cirurgia , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Glândulas Vestibulares Maiores/cirurgia , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Drenagem , Polirradiculopatia/etiologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Polirradiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Tramadol/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(21): e10720, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent that has shown promise in reducing blood loss during total hip arthroplasty (THA). Several studies have reported side effects of high-dose TXA administration, including myocardial infarction (MI), thromboembolic events, and seizures. These possible side effects have prevented the widespread adoption of TXA in the surgical community. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 564 primary and revision THAs performed at a single academic center. Surgical patients received either no TXA or 1 g IV TXA at the beginning of surgery followed by a second bolus just before the surgical wound closure, at the surgeon's discretion. We analyzed differences in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), estimated blood loss (EBL), and adverse events in patients receiving TXA versus patients not receiving TXA up to 2 days following surgery. RESULTS: Significantly higher Hb and Hct values were found across all time points among patients undergoing primary posterior or revision THA who had received TXA. In addition, transfusion rates were significantly decreased in both primary posterior THAs and revision THAs when TXA was administered. Patients who received TXA experienced significantly fewer adverse events than those who did not for all surgery types. CONCLUSION: Administration of low-dose intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) TXA does not appear to increase rates of adverse events and may be effective in minimizing blood loss, as reflected by Hb and Hct values following THA.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 3(1): 16-21, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492464

RESUMO

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be related to episodes of oxygen de-saturation, hypercapnia, cardiovascular dysfunction, cor-pulmonale, and pulmonary hypertension. STOP-BANG is an acronym for eight specific questions used to assess the likelihood of OSA. If the individual exhibits three or more of these indicators, he/she should be considered to be at high risk for OSA complications. Therefore, the decision of proceeding with inpatient versus outpatient ENT surgery still remains controversial. The primary objective of the study was to identify and correlate desaturation (SPO2 <90%) episodes and risk factors. Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective study between October 1, 2011 and August 31, 2014 in order to identify postoperative complications during the first 24 hours that justify postoperative monitoring and hospital admission. A total of 292 subjects were included for data analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on the number of OSA risk factors: group A with 3-4 risk factors (n = 166), and group B with ≥5 risk factors (n = 126). The following information was collected: demographics, ASA, preoperative STOP-BANG score, length of surgery, intraoperative complications, opioid consumption, post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and overall length of stay, supplemental oxygen requirement, oxygen desaturation, and postoperative opioid consumption. Results: No statistically significant difference was found when comparing demographic variables between both groups. All STOP-BANG variables showed statistical significance. PACU and inpatient variables were similar among both groups, with the exception of length of hospital stay (longer stay in group B when compared to group A [p = 0.003]). Desaturation differences between both groups during PACU were statistically significant (p = 0.008). A post-hoc analysis showed a 0% incidence of overall desaturation in the group with three STOP-BANG indicators. Conclusions: Our retrospective analysis concluded that patients diagnosed with three STOP-BANG risk factors did not experience postoperative complications and hospital admission was not justified. Level of Evidence: 4.

16.
Anesthesiology ; 128(6): 1099-1106, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting causes distress for patients and can prolong care requirements. Consensus guidelines recommend use of multiple antiemetics from different mechanistic classes as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The prophylactic efficacy of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride in combination with other antiemetics was investigated. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, international, multicenter trial was conducted in 1,147 adult surgical patients having three or four postoperative nausea and vomiting risk factors. Patients were randomized to receive either intravenous amisulpride (5 mg) or matching placebo at induction of general anesthesia, in addition to one standard, nondopaminergic antiemetic, most commonly ondansetron or dexamethasone. Vomiting/retching, nausea, and use of rescue medication were recorded for 24 h after wound closure. The primary endpoint was complete response, defined as no emesis or rescue medication use in the 24-h postoperative period. RESULTS: Complete response occurred in 330 of 572 (57.7%) of the amisulpride group and 268 of 575 (46.6%) of the control group (difference 11.1 percentage points; 95% CI, 5.3 to 16.8; P < 0.001). The incidences of emesis (13.8% vs. 20.0%, P = 0.003), any nausea (50.0% vs. 58.3%, P = 0.002), significant nausea (37.1% vs. 47.7%, P < 0.001), and rescue medication use (40.9% vs. 49.4%, P = 0.002) were significantly lower in the amisulpride group. Adverse events and laboratory and electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred no more frequently with amisulpride than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous amisulpride was safe and effective as prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting when given in combination with an antiemetic from another class to adult patients at high risk for suffering postoperative nausea and vomiting undergoing elective surgery under inhalational general anesthesia. VISUAL ABSTRACT: An online visual overview is available for this article at http://links.lww.com/ALN/B727.

17.
Pain Med ; 19(9): 1710-1719, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025135

RESUMO

Objective: Opioids represent an important analgesic option for physicians managing acute pain in surgical patients. Opioid management is not without its drawbacks, however, and current trends suggest that opioids might be overused in the United States. An expert panel was convened to conduct a clinical appraisal regarding the use of opioids in the perioperative setting. Methods: The clinical appraisal consisted of the review, presentation, and assessment of current published evidence as it relates to the statement "Opioids are not overused in the United States, even though opioid adjunct therapy achieves greater pain control with less risk." The authors' evaluation of this statement was also compared with the results of a national survey of surgeons and anesthesiologists in the United States. Results: We report the presented literature and proceedings of the panel discussion. The national survey revealed a wide range of opinions regarding opioid overuse in the United States. Current published evidence provides support for the efficacy of opioid therapy in surgical patients; however, it is not sufficient to conclude unequivocally that opioids are-or are not-overused in the management of acute surgical pain in the United States. Conclusions: Opioids remain a key component of multimodal perioperative analgesia, and strategic opioid use based on clinical considerations and patient-specific needs represents an opportunity to support improved postoperative outcomes and satisfaction. Future studies should focus on identifying optimal procedure-specific and patient-centered approaches to multimodal perioperative analgesia.

18.
Curr Pharm Des ; 23(42): 6524-6532, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common condition with up to 1% prevalence in the general population. In the perioperative course of neurologic surgery patients, the use of prophylactic and therapeutic antiepileptic drugs is a common practice. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence supporting the use of prophylactic antiepileptics to prevent perioperative seizures and there are no guidelines for which anesthetic technique is preferred. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the seizurogenic potential of anesthetic drugs and to discuss intraoperative seizures in neurosurgical patients. METHOD: We performed a search of the literature available in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. We also included articles identified in the review of the references of these articles. RESULTS: The incidence of seizures is heterogenic among neurosurgical patients. Seizure prophylaxis is widely administered despite limited available evidence of its effectiveness. In epileptic patients, the recommendation is to continue antiepileptic drugs in the perioperative setting. In these patients, anesthesiologists may also limit the use of medications that alter the seizure threshold and avoid medications that pose significant pharmacological interaction with antiepileptic drugs. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a knowledgeable multidisciplinary perioperative team is essential to avoid, identify and treat intraoperative seizures competently. In patients with a history of epilepsy it is recommended to continue antiepileptic therapy. Therefore, clinical judgment should guide the decision of administering seizure prophylaxis in neurosurgery patients according to an individual assessment of potential risk for seizures. Furthermore, there is a need for randomized controlled trials that support new protocols and/or guidelines for anesthetic and perioperative regimens to prevent and treat intraoperative seizures.

19.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 128(10): 2006-2013, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the comparison of its clinical utility and safety profile for visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring during prone spine surgeries under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) versus balanced general anesthesia using the SightSaver™ visual stimulator. METHODS: The protocol was designed asa pilot, single center, prospective, randomized, and double-arm study. Subjects were randomized to receive either TIVA or balanced general anesthesia. Following induction and intubation, 8 electrodes were placed subcutaneously to collect VEP recordings. The SightSaver™ visual stimulator was placed on the subject's scalp before prone positioning. VEP waveforms were recorded every 30min and assessed by a neurophysiologist throughout the length of surgery. RESULTS: A total of 19 subjects were evaluated and VEP waveforms were successfully collected. TIVA group showed higher amplitude and lower latency than balanced anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that TIVA is associated with higher VEP amplitude and shorter latencies than balanced general anesthesia; therefore, TIVA could be the most efficient anesthesia regimen for VEP monitoring. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings help to better understand the effect of different anesthesia regimens on intra-operative VEP monitoring.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
20.
Dig Dis Sci ; 62(10): 2728-2743, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is an irreversible antagonist of P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12Rs) used as an antiplatelet drug to reduce risk of thrombosis. P2Y12Rs are expressed in gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they might regulate GI function. AIM: To evaluate if blockade of P2Y12Rs by clopidogrel is associated with higher incidence of GI symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of our institutional database was conducted for a 13-year period. IBS patients were identified, and their demographics, GI symptoms and clopidogrel therapy were collected. Logistic regression models were used to characterize symptoms in clopidogrel versus no-clopidogrel IBS-groups, adjusting for Age and Sex differences. An additional study characterized the P2Y12R distribution in human gut. RESULTS: The search identified 7217 IBS patients (6761 no-clopidogrel/456 clopidogrel). There were a higher proportion of patients with GI symptoms on clopidogrel (68%) compared to controls (60%, p = 0.0011) that were Females (70 vs. 60%, p = 0.0003) not Males (61 vs. 60%; p = 0.8312). In Females, clopidogrel was associated with higher incidence of GI symptoms (Age adjusted; p < 0.0001) for pain, constipation, gastroparesis (p ≤ 0.0001) and psychogenic pain (p = 0.0006). Age or Sex (adjusted models) influenced one or more GI symptoms (i.e., pain, p < 0.0001; constipation, p < 0.0001/p = 0.008; diarrhea, flatulence, p = 0.01). P2Y12R immunoreactivity was abundant in human ENS; glial-to-neuron ratio of P2Y12Rs expressed in Females â‰« Males. CONCLUSIONS: Irreversible blockade of P2Y12R by clopidogrel is associated with higher incidence of GI symptoms in Female IBS patients, although Age or Sex alone contributes to symptomatology. Prospective studies can determine clinical implications of P2Y12Rs in IBS.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/inervação , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Dor Abdominal/induzido quimicamente , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Clopidogrel , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/química , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Flatulência/induzido quimicamente , Flatulência/epidemiologia , Gastroparesia/induzido quimicamente , Gastroparesia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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