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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18082, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508109


The GABA molecule is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Through binding to post-synaptic neurons, GABA reduces the neuronal excitability by hyperpolarization. Correct binding between the GABA molecules and its receptors relies on molecular recognition. Earlier studies suggest that recognition is determined by the geometries of the molecule and its receptor. We employed dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) to study the conformation and dielectric properties of the GABA molecule under physiologically relevant laboratory conditions. The dielectric properties of GABA investigated have given us new insights about the GABA molecule, such as how they interact with each other and with water molecules at different temperatures (22°C and 37.5°C). Higher temperature leads to lower viscosity, thus lower relaxation time. The change in the GABA relaxation time due to concentration change is more associated with the solution viscosity than with the GABA dipole moment. A resonance behavior was observed with high GABA concentrations at physiological temperature, where there might be a phase transition at a certain temperature for a given GABA concentration that leads to a sudden change of the dielectric properties.

J Electr Bioimpedance ; 11(1): 106-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584911


Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) and deionized water were frozen in a laboratory chest freezer and impedance was monitored throughout freezing and thawing. The resistive and reactive components of electrical impedance were measured for these samples during freezing and thawing (heating) within a temperature range between 20 °C and -48 °C. The impedance of saline solution and de-ionized water increases sharply at the freezing point, similar to what is known for, e.g., complex tissues, including meat. Yet, only the saline solution impedance shows another sharp increment at a temperature between -30 and -20 °C. Changes of the electric properties after solidification suggest that the latter is linked to transformations of the ice lattice structure. We conclude that the electrical properties might serve as sensitive indicators of these phase changes.

Phys Rev E ; 95(6-1): 062129, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709349


In any general cycle of measurement, feedback, and erasure, the measurement will reduce the entropy of the system when information about the state is obtained, while erasure, according to Landauer's principle, is accompanied by a corresponding increase in entropy due to the compression of logical and physical phase space. The total process can in principle be fully reversible. A measurement error reduces the information obtained and the entropy decrease in the system. The erasure still gives the same increase in entropy, and the total process is irreversible. Another consequence of measurement error is that a bad feedback is applied, which further increases the entropy production if the proper protocol adapted to the expected error rate is not applied. We consider the effect of measurement error on a realistic single-electron box Szilard engine, and we find the optimal protocol for the cycle as a function of the desired power P and error ɛ.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24827206


In a recent paper [Vaikuntanathan and Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. E 83, 061120 (2011)], a model was introduced whereby work could be extracted from a thermal bath by measuring the energy of a particle that was thermalized by the bath and manipulating the potential of the particle in the appropriate way, depending on the measurement outcome. If the extracted work is Wextracted and the work Werasure needed to be dissipated in order to erase the measured information in accordance with Landauer's principle, it was shown that Wextracted≤Werasure in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Here we extend this work in two directions: First, we discuss how accurately the energy should be measured. By increasing the accuracy one can extract more work, but at the same time one obtains more information that has to be deleted. We discuss what are the appropriate ways of optimizing the balance between the two and find optimal solutions. Second, whenever Wextracted is strictly less than Werasure it means that an irreversible step has been performed. We identify the irreversible step and propose a protocol that will achieve the same transition in a reversible way, increasing Wextracted so that Wextracted=Werasure.

Langmuir ; 27(11): 7163-7, 2011 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21553914


Evaporation of aqueous droplets of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with a physisorbed layer of humic acid (HA) on a partially hydrophilic substrate induces the formation of a film of CNTs. Here, we investigate the role that the global geometry of the substrate surfaces has on the structure of the CNT film. On a flat mica or silica surface, the evaporation of a convex droplet of the CNT dispersion induces the well-known "coffee ring", while evaporation of a concave droplet (capillary meniscus) of the CNT dispersion in a wedge of two planar mica sheets or between two crossed-cylinder sheets induces a large area (>mm(2)) of textured or patterned films characterized by different short- and long-range orientational and positional ordering of the CNTs. The resulting patterns appear to be determined by two competing or cooperative sedimentation mechanisms: (1) capillary forces between CNTs giving micrometer-sized filaments parallel to the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and (2) fingering instability at the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and subsequent pinning of CNTs on the surface giving micrometer-sized filaments of CNTs perpendicular to this boundary line. The interplay between substrate surface geometry and sedimentation mechanisms gives an extra control parameter for manipulating patterns of self-assembling nanoparticles at substrate surfaces.

Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Água/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Volatilização
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(4): 046805, 2005 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16090834


A theoretical interpretation of the recent experiments of Astafiev et al. on the T1-relaxation rate in Josephson charge qubits is proposed. The experimentally observed reproducible nonmonotonic dependence of T1 on the splitting E(J) of the qubit levels suggests further specification of the previously proposed models of the background charge noise. From our point of view the most promising is the "Andreev fluctuator" model of the noise. In this model the fluctuator is a Cooper pair that tunnels from a superconductor and occupies a pair of localized electronic states. Within this model one can naturally explain both the average linear T1(E(J)) dependence and the irregular fluctuations.