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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385243

RESUMO

The article Chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants in shellfish from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, written by Ge Yin, Lillemor Asplund, Yanling Qiu, Yihui Zhou, Hua Wang, Zongli Yao, Jianbin Jiang and Åke Bergman.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27551, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346942

RESUMO

The article Occurrence and risk assessment of trace metals and metalloids in sediments and benthic invertebrates from Dianshan Lake, China, written by Yan Wu, Yihui Zhou, Yanling Qiu, Da Chen, Zhiliang Zhu, Jianfu Zhao and Åke Bergman.

3.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124327, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319314

RESUMO

The egg samples of four heron species, including black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), little egret (Egretta garzetta), Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) and cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), were collected from the upper Yangtze River (Changjiang) Basin, Southwest China in early summer of 2017. Nine out of ten target organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in these heron egg samples. The sum of concentrations of the PFRs quantified (∑PFRs) ranged from 63 to 590 pmol g-1 ww (18-185 ng g-1 ww) with a median value of 139 pmol g-1 ww (48 ng g-1 ww) among all samples. The median ∑PFRs in eggs of night herons (160 pmol g-1 ww) was higher than Chinese pond herons (median 121 pmol g-1 ww) and little egrets (median 109 pmol g-1 ww). In heron eggs, ∑PFRs were mainly contributed by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris (isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri-2-methylphenyl phosphate (TMPP). Alkyl-PFRs accounted for approximately 28%-85% (median 57%) of the nine PFRs quantified while the rest is contributed by aryl-PFRs and chlorinated PFRs. Lower levels of PFRs in little egret eggs were found upstream than downstream of the Yangtze. In addition, the daily intakes of PFRs through ingestion of heron eggs were estimated at lower levels.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 365: 502-510, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466048

RESUMO

China's rapid growth of both population size and sanitation infrastructure have created a heightened need for responsible management of sewage sludge. We applied liquid chromatography in conjunction with isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure multiple endocrine disrupting antimicrobials and their transformation products in 100 sewage sludge samples collected across 21 Chinese provinces/districts. Occurrences (detection frequencies) and concentrations (ng/g dry weight) were as follows: triclosan (99%; <4-4870), triclocarban (95%; <3-43,300), 2'-hydroxy-triclocarban (94%; <1-2340), 3'-hydroxy-triclocarban (91%; <1-1250), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (100%; 22-580), dichlorocarbanilide (94%; <2-23,890), monocarbanilide (92%; <2-120), carbanilide (90%; <3-1,340), and five parabens: methyl- (98%; <2-630), ethyl- (96%; <2-170), propyl- (99%; <2-27), butyl- (89%; <2-11) and benzyl-paraben (7%; <2-12). The transformation products of triclocarban were measured for the first time in Chinese wastewater system, and ratios of transformation products to parental triclocarban indicate ongoing triclocarban dechlorination during wastewater treatment. Contaminant profiles and concentrations differed by region, treatment capacity, and wastewater type. Extrapolation of collected data yielded an estimate for the total mass of 13 analytes sequestered in Chinese sewage sludge of 68 t/y with an upper bound of 400 t/y. This China-wide survey established baseline levels of selected antimicrobials in sludges whose current disposal is performed with little regulatory oversight and enforcement.

5.
Environ Sci Eur ; 30(1): 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221106

RESUMO

Background: Freshwater sediments have been recognized as a long-term sink and potential source for environmental pollutants released into the aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the sediment quality of Taihu Lake, which is susceptible to anthropogenic contamination, was assessed by a combination of chemical analytical and biological end points. Specifically, the snail Bellamya aeruginosa was caged in situ at two locations representing different pollution levels for different exposure times (7, 14 and 21 days). At each of these time points, biochemical parameters, i.e., phase I biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation, were evaluated in the hepatopancreas of snails. In addition, surface sediments were collected for analysis of contaminants of concern, including inorganic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Results: Chemical analyses revealed that sediments from Taihu Lake were contaminated with trace elements and organic pollutants. Concentrations of trace elements (Cu, Ni and As) and organochlorinated pesticides (4,4'-DDE) exceeded their corresponding threshold effect level according to the sediment quality assessment values for freshwater ecosystems in Canada, indicating that adverse biological effects may occur. All biomarkers, except EROD activity, were induced in snails during all exposure times. The integrated biomarker response index (IBR) indicated that during the initial exposure phase (7 days), B. aeruginosa were subjected to significant environmental stress, which diminished during later sampling time points. Conclusions: Results showed that IBR correlated well with the levels of environmental contaminants, demonstrating the applicability of this biomonitoring approach to complex environmental exposure scenarios.

6.
Environ Int ; 120: 544-562, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170309

RESUMO

Humans and wildlife are exposed to an intractably large number of different combinations of chemicals via food, water, air, consumer products, and other media and sources. This raises concerns about their impact on public and environmental health. The risk assessment of chemicals for regulatory purposes mainly relies on the assessment of individual chemicals. If exposure to multiple chemicals is considered in a legislative framework, it is usually limited to chemicals falling within this framework and co-exposure to chemicals that are covered by a different regulatory framework is often neglected. Methodologies and guidance for assessing risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals have been developed for different regulatory sectors, however, a harmonised, consistent approach for performing mixture risk assessments and management across different regulatory sectors is lacking. At the time of this publication, several EU research projects are running, funded by the current European Research and Innovation Programme Horizon 2020 or the Seventh Framework Programme. They aim at addressing knowledge gaps and developing methodologies to better assess chemical mixtures, by generating and making available internal and external exposure data, developing models for exposure assessment, developing tools for in silico and in vitro effect assessment to be applied in a tiered framework and for grouping of chemicals, as well as developing joint epidemiological-toxicological approaches for mixture risk assessment and for prioritising mixtures of concern. The projects EDC-MixRisk, EuroMix, EUToxRisk, HBM4EU and SOLUTIONS have started an exchange between the consortia, European Commission Services and EU Agencies, in order to identify where new methodologies have become available and where remaining gaps need to be further addressed. This paper maps how the different projects contribute to the data needs and assessment methodologies and identifies remaining challenges to be further addressed for the assessment of chemical mixtures.

7.
Chemosphere ; 208: 40-49, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860143

RESUMO

Phthalate esters, suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used in a wide range of applications. Because phthalate esters are not covalently bound, they can easily leach into the indoor environment and associate to dust particles. Thus, exposure may occur through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with the skin. However, it is unclear to what degree indoor dust contributes to the daily intake of phthalate esters. This study investigates household dust as an exposure pathway for seven phthalate esters, the monoester MEHP, and the plasticizer DINCH. Household dust collected from children's sleeping rooms and from living rooms were analysed using gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To compare two exposure pathways, different dust particle sizes were generated: a respirable fraction (<5 µm) and an ingested particle fraction in the anticipated size range of skin adherence (<75 µm). Modelling of dust inhalation and ingestion showed that the daily intake of dust-bound phthalate esters was likely to be 2 times (inhalation) to 12 times (ingestion) higher for 21-month-old children than for adults. These children's daily uptake of phthalate esters was 40-140 times higher through ingestion than inhalation. Furthermore, dust may be an exposure pathway for phthalate esters as well as for MEHP. Therefore, phthalate monoesters could be environmental contaminants of their own and need to be considered in health risk assessments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análogos & derivados , Poeira/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Inalação , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 281: 1-10, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248446

RESUMO

Many chemicals accumulate in organisms through a variety of different mechanisms. Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) accumulate in lysosomes and bind to membranes causing phospholipidosis, whereas many lipophilic chemicals target adipose tissue. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used as surfactants, but many of them are highly bioaccumulating and persistent in the environment, making them notorious environmental toxicants. Understanding the mechanisms of their bioaccumulation is, therefore, important for their regulation and substitution with new, less harmful chemicals. We compared the highly bioaccumulative perfluorooctanesulfonic acid PFOS to its three less bioaccumulative alternatives perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), in their ability to accumulate and remain in lung epithelial cells (NCI-H292) and adipocytes (3T3-L1K) in vitro. As a reference point we tested a set of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs), known to highly accumulate in cells and strongly bind to phospholipids, together with their respective non-CAD controls. Finally, all compounds were examined for their ability to bind to neutral lipids and phospholipids in cell-free systems. Cellular accumulation and retention of the test compounds were highly correlated between the lung epithelial cells and adipocytes. Interestingly, although an anion itself, intensities of PFOS accumulation and retention in cells were comparable to those of CAD compounds, but PFOS failed to induce phospholipidosis or alter lysosomal volume. Compared to other lipophilicity measures, phospholipophilicity shows the highest correlation (Rˆ2 = 0.75) to cellular accumulation data in both cell types and best distinguishes between high and low accumulating compounds. This indicates that binding to phospholipids may be the most important component in driving high cellular accumulation in lung epithelial cells, as well as in adipocytes, and for both CADs and bioaccumulating PFASs. Obtained continuous PLS models based on compound's affinity for phospholipids and neutral lipids can be used as good prediction models of cellular accumulation and retention of PFASs and CADs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Animais , Azitromicina/química , Azitromicina/metabolismo , Caproatos/química , Caproatos/metabolismo , Caprilatos/química , Caprilatos/metabolismo , Cátions/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/metabolismo
9.
Environ Res ; 161: 439-445, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216490

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from the environment are associated with reproductive abnormalities (i.e. decreased sperm concentration; increased endometriosis) and alterations of the cardiovascular system (i.e. increased blood pressure and risk of coronary disease). Some phthalates esters have been identified as EDCs, for which inhalation is considered as one of the routes of exposure. However, only little is known regarding inhalational exposure to EDCs via urban airborne particles. In the present study, we report the monthly concentration of 8 phthalate esters measured in PM10 and PM2.5 collected and recovered during 7 months in a highly populated area of Mexico City. Using the levels of PM10 and PM2.5 reported by the automatized network of environmental monitoring of Mexico City for the sampling site, we estimated exposure levels for people of different ages and gender. Two endocrine disrupting compounds, the phthalate esters DEHP and DnBP, were found on the particles in higher concentrations during the warmer months of the year. The highest concentration was reported for DEHP (229.7µg/g of particles) in PM2.5 collected in May 2013. After calculations of the DEHP concentration in the atmosphere, and using the respiratory flow rate, we determined males were potentially exposed to larger quantities of DEHP, reaching up to 18ng/8h in April 2013. Despite the concentrations of phthalates seem to be rather small, a comprehensive characterization of its presence is necessary in order to evaluate the overall exposure to these compounds, providing a clear view of exposure on children, adolescents and pregnant women.

10.
Environ Int ; 109: 73-80, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. OBJECTIVES: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. METHODS: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1g oil/100mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. RESULTS: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6µg/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from <0.09 to 120µg using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. CONCLUSIONS: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight <7.2kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Adulto , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Suécia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(15): 13307-13314, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386885

RESUMO

The acaricide, dicofol, is a well-known pesticide and partly a substitute for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Only few reports on environmental occurrence and concentrations have been reported calling for improvements. Hence, an analytical method was further developed for dicofol and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) to enable assessments of their environmental occurrence. Concentrated sulfuric acid was used to remove lipids and to separate dicofol from DCBP. On-column injection was used as an alternative to splitless injection to protect dicofol from thermal decomposition. By the method presented herein, it is possible to quantify dicofol and DCBP in the same samples. Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) were spiked at two dose levels and the recoveries were determined. The mean recovery for dicofol was 65% at the low dose (1 ng) and 77% at the high dose (10 ng). The mean recovery for DCBP was 99% at the low dose (9.2 ng) and 146% at the high dose (46 ng). The method may be further improved by use of another lipid removal method, e.g., gel permeation chromatography. The method implies a step forward in dicofol environmental assessments.


Assuntos
Dicofol , Inseticidas , Animais , Benzofenonas , DDT
12.
Environ Pollut ; 225: 184-192, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371733

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g-1 lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g-1lw). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Pentaclorofenol/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Animais , Benzofuranos/análise , Aves , Charadriiformes , Galinhas , China , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dioxinas , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Rios
13.
Arch Toxicol ; 91(2): 1001-1006, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27714423

RESUMO

Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been hampered by what appeared as a lack of consensus among scientists. This publication provides summary information about a consensus reached by a group of world-leading scientists that can serve as the basis for the development of ED criteria in relevant EU legislation. Twenty-three international scientists from different disciplines discussed principles and open questions on ED identification as outlined in a draft consensus paper at an expert meeting hosted by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin, Germany on 11-12 April 2016. Participants reached a consensus regarding scientific principles for the identification of EDs. The paper discusses the consensus reached on background, definition of an ED and related concepts, sources of uncertainty, scientific principles important for ED identification, and research needs. It highlights the difficulty in retrospectively reconstructing ED exposure, insufficient range of validated test systems for EDs, and some issues impacting on the evaluation of the risk from EDs, such as non-monotonic dose-response and thresholds, modes of action, and exposure assessment. This report provides the consensus statement on EDs agreed among all participating scientists. The meeting facilitated a productive debate and reduced a number of differences in views. It is expected that the consensus reached will serve as an important basis for the development of regulatory ED criteria.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Animais , União Europeia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Medição de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Environ Health ; 15(1): 74, 2016 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27412149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength of evidence linking EDC exposures to adverse health or environmental outcomes. Systematic review methodologies are ideal for addressing this issue as they provide transparent and consistent approaches to study selection and evaluation. Objective methods are needed for integrating the multiple streams of evidence (epidemiology, wildlife, laboratory animal, in vitro, and in silico data) that are relevant in assessing EDCs. METHODS: We have developed a framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of EDC studies. The framework was designed for use with the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and World Health Organization (WHO) definition of an EDC, which requires appraisal of evidence regarding 1) association between exposure and an adverse effect, 2) association between exposure and endocrine disrupting activity, and 3) a plausible link between the adverse effect and the endocrine disrupting activity. RESULTS: Building from existing methodologies for evaluating and synthesizing evidence, the SYRINA framework includes seven steps: 1) Formulate the problem; 2) Develop the review protocol; 3) Identify relevant evidence; 4) Evaluate evidence from individual studies; 5) Summarize and evaluate each stream of evidence; 6) Integrate evidence across all streams; 7) Draw conclusions, make recommendations, and evaluate uncertainties. The proposed method is tailored to the IPCS/WHO definition of an EDC but offers flexibility for use in the context of other definitions of EDCs. CONCLUSIONS: When using the SYRINA framework, the overall objective is to provide the evidence base needed to support decision making, including any action to avoid/minimise potential adverse effects of exposures. This framework allows for the evaluation and synthesis of evidence from multiple evidence streams. Finally, a decision regarding regulatory action is not only dependent on the strength of evidence, but also the consequences of action/inaction, e.g. limited or weak evidence may be sufficient to justify action if consequences are serious or irreversible.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 82(1): 119-31, 2016 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325070

RESUMO

Evidence has accumulated that exposure to widespread environmental toxicants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tobacco smoke adversely affect fetal development and organ maturation, even after birth. The developing immune and respiratory systems are more sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their long-term physical development, starting from the early embryonic stage and persisting into early postnatal life, which requires complex signaling pathways that control proliferation and differentiation of highly heterogeneous cell types. In this review, we summarize the effect of early-life exposure to several widespread environmental toxicants on immune and lung development before and after birth, including the effects on immune cell counts, baseline characteristics of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and alteration of lung structure and function in offspring. We also review evidence supporting the association between early-life exposure to environmental toxicants and risk for immune-related diseases and lung dysfunction in offspring in later life.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Meio Ambiente , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(11): 5454-66, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144960

RESUMO

The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 554-555: 320-8, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956179

RESUMO

The environmental and human health concerns for organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) extend beyond the 23 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention. The current, intense industrial production and use of chemicals in China and their bioaccumulation makes Chinese wildlife highly suitable for the assessment of legacy, novel and emerging environmental pollutants. In the present study, six species of amphibians, fish and birds were sampled from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were screened for OHCs. Some extensive contamination was found, both regarding number and concentrations of the analytes, among the species assessed. High concentrations of chlorinated paraffins were found in the snake, Short-tailed mamushi (range of 200-340 µg g(-)(1)lw), Peregrine falcon (8-59 µg g(-1)lw) and Asiatic toad (97 µg g(-)(1)lw). Novel contaminants and patterns were observed; octaCBs to decaCB made up 20% of the total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content in the samples and new OHCs, substituted with 5-8 chlorines, were found but are not yet structurally confirmed. In addition, Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) and numerous other OHCs (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexbromocyclododecane (HBCDD), chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan and Mirex) were found in all species analyzed. These data show extensive chemical contamination of wildlife in the YRD with a suite of OHCs with both known and unknown toxicities, calling for further in-depth studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/metabolismo , Animais , China , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo
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