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1.
N Engl J Med ; 354(5): 472-82, 2006 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16452559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of schizophrenia with multiple antipsychotic drugs is common, but the benefits and risks are not known. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated patients with schizophrenia and a poor response to treatment with clozapine. The patients continued to take clozapine and were randomly assigned to receive eight weeks of daily augmentation with 3 mg of risperidone or with placebo. This course of treatment was followed by an optional 18 weeks of augmentation with risperidone. The primary outcome was reduction in the total score for severity of symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The secondary outcomes included cognitive functioning. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. In the double-blind phase, the mean total score for the severity of symptoms decreased from baseline to eight weeks in both the risperidone and the placebo groups. There was no statistically significant difference in symptomatic benefit between augmentation with risperidone and placebo: 9 of 34 patients receiving placebo and 6 of 34 receiving risperidone responded to treatment (P=0.38). The mean difference in the change in PANSS scores from baseline to eight weeks between those receiving risperidone and those receiving placebo was 0.1 (95 percent confidence interval, -7.3 to 7.0). The verbal working-memory index showed a small decline in the risperidone group and a small improvement in the placebo group (P=0.02 for the comparison between the two groups in the change from baseline). The increase in fasting blood glucose levels was mildly greater in the risperidone group than in the placebo group (16.2 vs. 1.8 mg per deciliter [0.90 vs. 0.10 mmol per liter], P=0.04). The incidence and severity of other side effects did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this short-term study, the addition of risperidone to clozapine did not improve symptoms in patients with severe schizophrenia. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00272584).


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Falha de Tratamento
2.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 1(2): 171-7, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18568063

RESUMO

In schizophrenia, alterations of proinflammatory cytokine levels have been reported and related to the disease and psychopathology. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn in view of confounding factors such as infection, age, sex, smoking, and antipsychotic medication. Chronic schizophrenic patients with a long-term disease process and medication period have not been investigated so far. We have measured serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in 41 elderly, chronic schizophrenic patients and 23 age- and sex-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We assessed detailed psychopathology and neuropsychological performance and determined serum levels of haloperidol, clozapine, and the two main clozapine metabolites, desmethylclozapine and clozapine metabolite N-oxide, by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). IL-1beta and IL-6 levels were increased in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients compared with healthy controls, whereas TNFalpha showed no difference. We did not find statistically significant differences of cytokine levels between medication groups and there was no correlation with serum levels of antipsychotics or psychopathological rating scores. Elevations of IL-1beta and IL-6 in elderly chronic schizophrenic patients may be related to an active disease process lasting until old age. Despite missing correlations, long-term treatment effects in treatment-resistant patients may have affected TNFalpha, leading to control levels. Post-mortem and animal studies should clarify the presence of altered immune function in the brain as well as the effect of cytokine levels in relation to neurodevelopmental disturbances and schizophrenia-associated behavior.

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