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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, there is limited knowledge on whether changing alcohol drinking habits during adulthood modifies CRC risk. OBJECTIVE: Leveraging longitudinal exposure assessments on alcohol intake at different ages, we examined the relationship between change in alcohol intake and subsequent CRC risk. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, changes in alcohol intake comparing follow-up with baseline assessments were investigated in relation to CRC risk. The analysis included 191,180, participants and 1530 incident CRC cases, with exclusion of the first three years of follow-up to minimize reverse causation. Trajectory profiles of alcohol intake, assessed at ages 20, 30, 40, 50 years, at baseline and during follow-up, were estimated using latent class mixed models and related to CRC risk, including 407,605 participants and 5,008 incident CRC cases. RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 50.2 years and the follow-up assessment occurred on average 7.1 years later. Compared to stable intake, a 12 g/day increase in alcohol intake during follow-up was positively associated with CRC risk (HR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04, 1.25), while a 12 g/day reduction was inversely associated with CRC risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78, 0.95). Trajectory analysis showed that compared to low alcohol intake, men who increased their alcohol intake from early- to mid- and late-adulthood by up to 30 g/day on average had significantly increased CRC risk (HR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.08, 1.42), while no associations were observed in women. Results were consistent by anatomical subsite. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake during mid-to-late adulthood raised CRC risk, while reduction lowered risk.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953519

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that abdominal adiposity is more strongly related to health risks than peripheral adiposity. However, the underlying pathways are still poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study using data from RNA-sequencing experiments and whole-body MRI scans of 200 participants in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, our aim was to identify novel genes whose gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue has an effect on body fat mass (BFM) and body fat distribution (BFD). The analysis identified 625 genes associated with adiposity, of which 531 encode a known protein and 487 are novel candidate genes for obesity. Enrichment analyses indicated that BFM-associated genes were characterized by their higher than expected involvement in cellular, regulatory and immune system processes, and BFD-associated genes by their involvement in cellular, metabolic, and regulatory processes. Mendelian Randomization analyses suggested that the gene expression of 69 genes was causally related to BFM and BFD. Six genes were replicated in UK Biobank. In this study, we identified novel genes for BFM and BFD that are BFM- and BFD-specific, involved in different molecular processes, and whose up-/downregulated gene expression may causally contribute to obesity.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1839-1848, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that smoking is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk. However, it is unknown if this association is causal or confounded. To further elucidate the role of smoking in endometrial cancer risk, we conducted complementary observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS: The observational analyses included 286,415 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and 179,271 participants in the UK Biobank, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. In two-sample MR analyses, genetic variants robustly associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n = 126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n = 112 variants) were selected and their association with endometrial cancer risk (12,906 cancer/108,979 controls from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium) was examined. RESULTS: In the observational analysis, lifetime amount of smoking and ever having smoked regularly were associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk. In the MR analysis accounting for body mass index, a genetic predisposition to a higher lifetime amount of smoking was not associated with endometrial cancer risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.44). Genetic predisposition to ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risk of endometrial cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was inversely associated with endometrial cancer in the observational analyses, although unsupported by the MR. Additional studies are required to better understand the possible confounders and mechanisms underlying the observed associations between smoking and endometrial cancer. IMPACT: The results from this analysis indicate that smoking is unlikely to be causally linked with endometrial cancer risk.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684159

RESUMO

Previously, the attempt to compile German dietary guidelines into a diet score was predominantly not successful with regards to preventing chronic diseases in the EPIC-Potsdam study. Current guidelines were supplemented by the latest evidence from systematic reviews and expert papers published between 2010 and 2020 on the prevention potential of food groups on chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. A diet score was developed by scoring the food groups according to a recommended low, moderate or high intake. The relative validity and reliability of the diet score, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, was investigated. The consideration of current evidence resulted in 10 key food groups being preventive of the chronic diseases of interest. They served as components in the diet score and were scored from 0 to 1 point, depending on their recommended intake, resulting in a maximum of 10 points. Both the reliability (r = 0.53) and relative validity (r = 0.43) were deemed sufficient to consider the diet score as a stable construct in future investigations. This new diet score can be a promising tool to investigate dietary intake in etiological research by concentrating on 10 key dietary determinants with evidence-based prevention potential for chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 7(5): 1004-1015, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570994

RESUMO

Introduction: Prospective data on impact of educational attainment on prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce. We investigated the association between educational attainment and all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACEs), kidney failure requiring dialysis, and CKD etiology. Methods: Participants (N = 5095, aged 18-74 years) of the ongoing multicenter German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) cohort, enrolled on the basis of an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30 to 60 ml/min (stages G3, A1-A3) or overt proteinuria (stages G1-G2, A3), were divided into 3 categories according to their educational attainment and were followed for 6.5 years. Results: Participants with low educational attainment (vs. high) had a higher risk for mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95% CI: 1.16-1.90), MACE (HR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02-1.83), and kidney failure (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.15-2.05). Mediators between low educational attainment and mortality were smoking, CV disease (CVD) at baseline, low income, higher body mass index, and higher serum levels of CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, NGAL, BAP, NT-proBNP, OPN, H-FABP, and urea. Low educational attainment was positively associated with diabetic nephropathy (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% CI: 1.36-2.0) and CKD subsequent to acute kidney injury (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.03-2.35), but negatively associated with IgA nephropathy (OR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90). Conclusion: Low educational attainment is associated with adverse outcomes and CKD etiology. Lifestyle habits and biomarkers mediate associations between low educational attainment and mortality. Recognition of the role of educational attainment and the associated health-relevant risk factors is important to optimize the care of patients with CKD and improve prognosis.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 150(8): 1255-1268, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843121

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/unconjugated) in prediagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling  = 2.30, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.76-3.00), and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increase in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile toward higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Metaboloma , Obesidade/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
10.
Appetite ; 167: 105625, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364966

RESUMO

To promote healthy diets in older age, a comprehensive understanding of factors influencing dietary behaviour and underlying preferences is essential. Romantic relationships are focal socialisation contexts, in which diet-related preferences and practices are dynamically negotiated. Our aim was to reconstruct intra-couple dynamics shaping dietary preferences and comparatively analyse relationship types among older couples. Data basis was the NutriAct Family Study - a German web-based cohort. Analyses were based on three a priori defined relationship types: 1) both partners' mutual adaptation of dietary preferences (symmetrical convergence), 2) unilateral adaptation (asymmetrical convergence) and 3) persistence of individual preferences. Relationship types were, among others, comparatively analysed using ANOVAs. Intra-couple dynamics within the asymmetrical convergence type were measured by multivariate logistic regression. The dyadic sample consisted of 398 couples resp. N = 796 individuals aged 63.99 years (SD = 6.15). All three relationship types were identified (symmetrical convergence: n = 62, 15.6 %; asymmetrical convergence: n = 199, 50.0 %; persistence: n = 137, 34.4 %). Within the asymmetrical convergence type, women were more likely to take a dominating role compared to their male partners (OR: 24.40; 95%CI: 14.37-41.41). This study demonstrates the fundamental influence of intra-couple dynamics on individual dietary preferences, whereby traditional gender roles have shown to play a central moderating role. Our study findings are relevant for the development and implementation of public health (nutrition) strategies, since they highlight the importance of understanding dietary preferences as jointly constructed and shaped in the intra-couple context, rather than as isolated, individually developed ones. In this context, future research directions and practical implications targeting not only individuals but involving couples are discussed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(9): 1196-1205, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279548

RESUMO

Importance: Premature death from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes is higher among persons with diabetes. Objective: To investigate the association between time spent cycling and all-cause and CVD mortality among persons with diabetes, as well as to evaluate the association between change in time spent cycling and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 7459 adults with diabetes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Questionnaires regarding medical history, sociodemographic, and lifestyle information were administered in 10 Western European countries from 1992 through 2000 (baseline examination) and at a second examination 5 years after baseline. A total of 5423 participants with diabetes completed both examinations. The final updated primary analysis was conducted on November 13, 2020. Exposures: The primary exposure was self-reported time spent cycling per week at the baseline examination. The secondary exposure was change in cycling status from baseline to the second examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively, adjusted for other physical activity modalities, diabetes duration, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Of the 7459 adults with diabetes included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 55.9 (7.7) years, and 3924 (52.6%) were female. During 110 944 person-years of follow-up, 1673 deaths from all causes were registered. Compared with the reference group of people who reported no cycling at baseline (0 min/wk), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61-0.99), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.91) for cycling 1 to 59, 60 to 149, 150 to 299, and 300 or more min/wk, respectively. In an analysis of change in time spent cycling with 57 802 person-years of follow-up, a total of 975 deaths from all causes were recorded. Compared with people who reported no cycling at both examinations, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.71-1.14) in those who cycled and then stopped, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46-0.92) in initial noncyclists who started cycling, and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80) for people who reported cycling at both examinations. Similar results were observed for CVD mortality. Conclusion and Relevance: In this cohort study, cycling was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk among people with diabetes independent of practicing other types of physical activity. Participants who took up cycling between the baseline and second examination had a considerably lower risk of both all-cause and CVD mortality compared with consistent noncyclists.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/reabilitação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Avaliação Nutricional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1270-1274, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 80% of kidney cancers in adults, and obesity is a known risk factor. Regular consumption of sweetened beverages has been linked to obesity and several chronic diseases, including some types of cancer. It is uncertain whether soft drink and juice consumption is associated with risk of RCC. We investigated the associations of soft drink and juice consumption with RCC incidence and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: A total of 389,220 EPIC participants with median age of 52 years at recruitment (1991-2000) were included. Cox regression yielded adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC incidence and mortality in relation to intakes of juices and total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks. RESULTS: A total of 888 incident RCCs and 356 RCC deaths were identified. In models including adjustment for body mass index and energy intake, there was no higher risk of incident RCC associated with consumption of juices (HR per 100 g/day increment = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09), total soft drinks (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94-1.05), or artificially sweetened soft drinks (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.08). In these fully adjusted models, none of the beverages was associated with RCC mortality (HR, 95% CI per 100 g/day increment 1.06, 0.97-1.16; 1.03, 0.98-1.09; 0.97, 0.89-1.07; and 1.06, 0.99-1.14, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of juices or soft drinks was not associated with RCC incidence or mortality after adjusting for obesity. IMPACT: Soft drink and juice intakes are unlikely to play an independent role in RCC development or mortality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(9): 1389-1397, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A diet following chronic kidney disease (CKD)-specific recommendations is considered essential for optimal management of patients with CKD. However, data on the adherence to these recommendations and its implications for health-relevant biomarkers are lacking. The objectives were to estimate adherence to CKD-specific dietary recommendations, to identify characteristics and lifestyle variables associated with poor adherence, and to investigate the relationship of adherence with biomarkers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, average dietary intake was estimated in 3193 participants with moderately severe CKD enrolled into the observational multicenter German CKD study using a food frequency questionnaire. A CKD diet score was developed to assess adherence to CKD-specific dietary recommendations based on intake of sodium, potassium, fiber, protein, sugar, and cholesterol. The associations of dietary adherence with characteristics, lifestyle variables, and biomarker levels were determined. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis revealed younger age, higher body mass index, male gender, lower educational attainment, various lifestyle variables (cigarette smoking, infrequent alcohol consumption, low physical activity), and lower estimated glomerular filtrate rate associated with lower adherence to dietary recommendations. Low adherence to dietary recommendations was further associated with dyslipidemia, higher uric acid, and C-reactive protein levels. Associations between low dietary adherence and biomarkers were mostly driven by low intake of fiber and potassium, and high intake of sugar and cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed differential characteristics and biomarkers associated with lower adherence to CKD-specific dietary recommendations. Promotion of CKD-specific dietary recommendations may help to mitigate the adverse prognosis in CKD patients.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim , Masculino
14.
Diabetologia ; 64(4): 814-825, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452586

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Studies suggest decreased mortality risk among people who are overweight or obese compared with individuals with normal weight in type 2 diabetes (obesity paradox). However, the relationship between body weight or weight change and microvascular vs macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes remains unresolved. We investigated the association between BMI and BMI change with long-term risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We studied participants with incident type 2 diabetes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular disease and microvascular disease at diagnosis (n = 1083). Pre-diagnosis BMI and relative annual change between pre- and post-diagnosis BMI were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted Cox models. RESULTS: There were 85 macrovascular (myocardial infarction and stroke) and 347 microvascular events (kidney disease, neuropathy and retinopathy) over a median follow-up of 10.8 years. Median pre-diagnosis BMI was 29.9 kg/m2 (IQR 27.4-33.2), and the median relative annual BMI change was -0.4% (IQR -2.1 to 0.9). Higher pre-diagnosis BMI was positively associated with total microvascular complications (multivariable-adjusted HR per 5 kg/m2 [95% CI]: 1.21 [1.07, 1.36], kidney disease 1.39 [1.21, 1.60] and neuropathy 1.12 [0.96, 1.31]) but not with macrovascular complications (HR 1.05 [95% CI 0.81, 1.36]). Analyses according to BMI categories corroborated these findings. Effect modification was not evident by sex, smoking status or age groups. In analyses according to BMI change categories, BMI loss of more than 1% indicated a decreased risk of total microvascular complications (HR 0.62 [95% CI 0.47, 0.80]), kidney disease (HR 0.57 [95% CI 0.40, 0.81]) and neuropathy (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.52, 1.03]), compared with participants with a stable BMI; no clear association was observed for macrovascular complications (HR 1.04 [95% CI 0.62, 1.74]). The associations between BMI gain compared with stable BMI and diabetes-related vascular complications were less apparent. Associations were consistent across strata of sex, age, pre-diagnosis BMI or medication but appeared to be stronger among never-smokers compared with current or former smokers. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Among people with incident type 2 diabetes, pre-diagnosis BMI was positively associated with microvascular complications, while a reduced risk was observed with weight loss when compared with stable weight. The relationships with macrovascular disease were less clear.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Aumento de Peso , Redução de Peso , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Cancer ; 148(7): 1637-1651, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038275

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Ann Neurol ; 89(1): 125-133, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metals have been suggested as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but only retrospective studies are available to date. We compared metal levels in prospectively collected blood samples from ALS patients and controls, to explore whether metals are associated with ALS mortality. METHODS: A nested ALS case-control study was conducted within the prospective EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort. Cases were identified through death certificates. We analyzed metal levels in erythrocyte samples obtained at recruitment, as a biomarker for metal exposure from any source. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium, and zinc concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. To estimate ALS risk, we applied conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: The study population comprised 107 cases (65% female) and 319 controls matched for age, sex, and study center. Median time between blood collection and ALS death was 8 years (range = 1-15). Comparing the highest with the lowest tertile, cadmium (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-3.87) and lead (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.97-3.67) concentrations suggest associations with increased ALS risk. Zinc was associated with a decreased risk (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.94). Associations for cadmium and lead remained when limiting analyses to noncurrent smokers. INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to compare metal levels before disease onset, minimizing reverse causation. The observed associations suggest that cadmium, lead, and zinc may play a role in ALS etiology. Cadmium and lead possibly act as intermediates on the pathway from smoking to ALS. ANN NEUROL 20209999:n/a-n/a.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Mercúrio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 507-512, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential to improve disease outcomes. No screening program for sporadic RCC is in place. Given relatively low incidence, screening would need to focus on people at high risk of clinically meaningful disease so as to limit overdiagnosis and screen-detected false positives. METHODS: Among 192,172 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (including 588 incident RCC cases), we evaluated a published RCC risk prediction model (including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (observed probability as a function of predicted probability). We used a flexible parametric survival model to develop an expanded model including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status, with the addition of self-reported history of hypertension and measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The previously published model yielded well-calibrated probabilities and good discrimination (C-statistic [95% CI]: 0.699 [0.679-0.721]). Our model had slightly improved discrimination (0.714 [0.694-0.735], bootstrap optimism-corrected C-statistic: 0.709). Despite this good performance, predicted risk was low for the vast majority of participants, with 70% of participants having 10-year risk less than 0.0025. CONCLUSIONS: Although the models performed well for the prediction of incident RCC, they are currently insufficiently powerful to identify individuals at substantial risk of RCC in a general population. IMPACT: Despite the promising performance of the EPIC RCC risk prediction model, further development of the model, possibly including biomarkers of risk, is required to enable risk stratification of RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Diagnóstico Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22381, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991458

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mean age of the German population increased over the last years, which resulted in a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment, sarcopenia and bone fractures. Current evidence indicates a preservation of human wellbeing in the elderly by a healthy diet, although the recommended macronutrient composition and quality remains unclear and needs further long-term investigation. In this context we investigate the effect of a specific dietary pattern on age-related disorders in a randomized controlled multi-center trial (RCT). METHODS: We assess the effect of a specific dietary pattern (NutriAct) with a high proportion of unsaturated fat, plant proteins and fibres (fat 35%-40% of total energy (%E) of which 15%E-20%E monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 10%E-15%E polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 15%E-25%E proteins, ≥30 g fibres per day and 35%E-45%E carbohydrates) on age-related impairment of health within a 36-months RCT conducted in the region of Berlin and Potsdam. 502 eligible men (n = 183) and women (n = 319), aged 50 to 80 years, with an increased risk to develop age-related diseases were randomly assigned to either an intervention group focusing on NutriAct dietary pattern or a control group focusing on usual care and dietary recommendations in accordance to the German Nutrition Society (DGE). In the intervention group, 21 nutrition counsellings as well as supplementation of rapeseed oil, oil cake and specific designed foods are used to achieve the intended NutriAct dietary pattern.The primary outcome is a composite endpoint of age-related disorders, including cardiovascular morbidity, decline of cognitive function as well as clinical features of sarcopenia. Secondary outcomes include diet-induced effects on quality of life, depression, frailty, cardiovascular function, bone density, fat distribution pattern, glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, as well as the identification of biomarkers linked with age-related disorders. DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial will provide clinically relevant information regarding dietary effects on age-related impairment of health and will contribute to the definition of the optimal macronutrient composition in the context of healthy aging in the German population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Envelhecimento Saudável , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
BMJ ; 370: m3173, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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