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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 136: 103715, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491550

RESUMO

The rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus, is small experimental fish proven to be sensitive to Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) infection. In present study we established a new cell (GrE) from eggs of G. rarus. GrE cells grew well at 28 °C in M199 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and has been subcultured for over 70 passages. Chromosome analysis indicated that 40% of the cells were diploid 2n = 66 while the chromosome number of the fish is 2n = 50. Viral replication in GrE cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assays and virus titration experiments. GrE cells and Cyenopharyngodon idellus kidney cells were infected with two GCRV genotypes while the virus copies of GCRV II in GrE peaked at 2.25 × 105 on 12th dpi. In vivo challenge experiments using GCRV I and II isolates at generations 1 and 20 indicated that GCRV II reproduce similar symptoms and histopathological changes of the disease in the rare minnow. These results indicated that GrE is permissive for GCRV genotype II propagation and can be used for pathogenesis studies and vaccine development of the predominant genotype of GCRV.

3.
Nat Methods ; 16(9): 843-852, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471613

RESUMO

Many bioinformatics methods have been proposed for reducing the complexity of large gene or protein networks into relevant subnetworks or modules. Yet, how such methods compare to each other in terms of their ability to identify disease-relevant modules in different types of network remains poorly understood. We launched the 'Disease Module Identification DREAM Challenge', an open competition to comprehensively assess module identification methods across diverse protein-protein interaction, signaling, gene co-expression, homology and cancer-gene networks. Predicted network modules were tested for association with complex traits and diseases using a unique collection of 180 genome-wide association studies. Our robust assessment of 75 module identification methods reveals top-performing algorithms, which recover complementary trait-associated modules. We find that most of these modules correspond to core disease-relevant pathways, which often comprise therapeutic targets. This community challenge establishes biologically interpretable benchmarks, tools and guidelines for molecular network analysis to study human disease biology.

4.
Viruses ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443175

RESUMO

Viruses are able to evolve in vitro by mutations after serial passages in cell cultures, which can lead to either a loss, or an increase, of virulence. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a 295-kb double-stranded DNA virus, is the etiological agent of the koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). To assess the influence of serial passages, an isolate of CyHV-3 (KHV-T) was passaged 99 times onto common carp brain (CCB) cells, and virus virulence was evaluated during passages through the experimental infections of common carp. After 78 CCB passages, the isolate was much less virulent than the original form. A comparative genomic analysis of these three forms of KHV-T (P0, P78 and P99) revealed a limited number of variations. The largest one was a deletion of 1363 bp in the predicted ORF150, which was detected in P78, but not in P99. This unexpected finding was confirmed by conventional PCR and digital PCR. The results presented here primarily suggest that, CyHV-3 evolves, at least in vitro, through an assemblage of haplotypes that alternatively become dominant or under-represented.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

6.
J Proteome Res ; 18(9): 3360-3368, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318216

RESUMO

Identification of metabolites in large-scale 1H NMR data from human biofluids remains challenging due to the complexity of the spectra and their sensitivity to pH and ionic concentrations. In this work, we tested the capacity of three analysis tools to extract metabolite signatures from 968 NMR profiles of human urine samples. Specifically, we studied sets of covarying features derived from principal component analysis (PCA), the iterative signature algorithm (ISA), and averaged correlation profiles (ACP), a new method we devised inspired by the STOCSY approach. We used our previously developed metabomatching method to match the sets generated by these algorithms to NMR spectra of individual metabolites available in public databases. On the basis of the number and quality of the matches, we concluded that ISA and ACP can robustly identify ten and nine metabolites, respectively, half of which were shared, while PCA did not produce any signatures with robust matches.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
9.
J Fish Dis ; 42(6): 817-824, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920677

RESUMO

Recently, substantial mortality of farmed and wild tilapia caused by tilapia lake virus (TiLV) infection has been observed worldwide. However, sensitive and reliable diagnostic method is limited. A reverse transcription-loopmediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay has been applied for the detection of TiLV nucleotide sequence. Six primers targeting two locations on the target gene based on a highly conserved sequence in the segment 1 (S1) region of the TiLV genome have been designed. The optimized RT-LAMP reaction was maintained at the isothermal condition of 63°C for 45 min. And the amplifications could be verified by turbidity or a colour change with the addition of SYBR Green I. Subsequently, RT-LAMP products could be observed by a ladder pattern following gel electrophoresis. The species-specific assay showed that the method was sensitive enough to detect as low as 1.6 copies of viral particle, and the assay was highly specific because no cross-reactivity was observed with other pathogens, and had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% when TiLV-positive samples and non-target virus were tested. In summary, all the results demonstrate that this RT-LAMP is a rapid, effective and sensitive method for TiLV detection in tilapia aquaculture.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Tilápia/virologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Primers do DNA/genética , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Lagos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Transcrição Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Bioinformatics ; 35(19): 3752-3760, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851093

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Developing a robust and performant data analysis workflow that integrates all necessary components whilst still being able to scale over multiple compute nodes is a challenging task. We introduce a generic method based on the microservice architecture, where software tools are encapsulated as Docker containers that can be connected into scientific workflows and executed using the Kubernetes container orchestrator. RESULTS: We developed a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) which facilitates rapid integration of new tools and developing scalable and interoperable workflows for performing metabolomics data analysis. The environment can be launched on-demand on cloud resources and desktop computers. IT-expertise requirements on the user side are kept to a minimum, and workflows can be re-used effortlessly by any novice user. We validate our method in the field of metabolomics on two mass spectrometry, one nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and one fluxomics study. We showed that the method scales dynamically with increasing availability of computational resources. We demonstrated that the method facilitates interoperability using integration of the major software suites resulting in a turn-key workflow encompassing all steps for mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics including preprocessing, statistics and identification. Microservices is a generic methodology that can serve any scientific discipline and opens up for new types of large-scale integrative science. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The PhenoMeNal consortium maintains a web portal (https://portal.phenomenal-h2020.eu) providing a GUI for launching the Virtual Research Environment. The GitHub repository https://github.com/phnmnl/ hosts the source code of all projects. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 809-819, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776543

RESUMO

Carp from breeding strains with different genetic background present diverse levels of resistance to viral pathogens. Carp strains of Asian origin, currently being treated as Cyprinus rubrofuscus L., especially Amur wild carp (AS), were proven to be more resistant to koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD; caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3, CyHV-3) than strains originating from Europe and belonging to Cyprinus carpio L., like the Prerov scale carp (PS) or koi carp from a breed in the Czech Republic. We hypothesised that it can be associated with a higher magnitude of type I interferon (IFN) response as a first line of innate defence mechanisms against viral infections. To evaluate this hypothesis, four strains of common carp (AS, Rop, PS and koi) were challenged using two viral infection models: Rhabdovirus SVCV (spring viremia of carp virus) and alloherpesvirus CyHV-3. The infection with SVCV induced a low mortality rates and the most resistant was the Rop strain (no mortalities), whereas the PS strain was the most susceptible (survival rate of 78%). During CyHV-3 infection, Rop and AS strains performed better (survival rates of 78% and 53%, respectively) than PS and koi strains (survival rates of 35% and 10%, respectively). The evaluation of virus loads and virus replication showed significant differences between the carp strains, which correlated with the mortality rate. The evaluation of type I IFN responses showed that there were fundamental differences between the virus infection models. While responses to the SVCV were high, the CyHV-3 generally induced low responses. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the magnitude of type I IFN responses did not correlate with a higher resistance in infected carp. In the case of a CyHV-3 infection, reduced type I IFN responses could be related to the potential ability of the virus to interfere with cellular sensing of foreign nucleic acids. Taken together, the results broaden our understanding of how common carp from different genetic strains interact with various viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária
12.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
13.
Gigascience ; 8(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of a multitude of small molecules to gain insight into an organism's metabolism. The research field is dynamic and expanding with applications across biomedical, biotechnological, and many other applied biological domains. Its computationally intensive nature has driven requirements for open data formats, data repositories, and data analysis tools. However, the rapid progress has resulted in a mosaic of independent, and sometimes incompatible, analysis methods that are difficult to connect into a useful and complete data analysis solution. FINDINGS: PhenoMeNal (Phenome and Metabolome aNalysis) is an advanced and complete solution to set up Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) that brings workflow-oriented, interoperable metabolomics data analysis platforms into the cloud. PhenoMeNal seamlessly integrates a wide array of existing open-source tools that are tested and packaged as Docker containers through the project's continuous integration process and deployed based on a kubernetes orchestration framework. It also provides a number of standardized, automated, and published analysis workflows in the user interfaces Galaxy, Jupyter, Luigi, and Pachyderm. CONCLUSIONS: PhenoMeNal constitutes a keystone solution in cloud e-infrastructures available for metabolomics. PhenoMeNal is a unique and complete solution for setting up cloud e-infrastructures through easy-to-use web interfaces that can be scaled to any custom public and private cloud environment. By harmonizing and automating software installation and configuration and through ready-to-use scientific workflow user interfaces, PhenoMeNal has succeeded in providing scientists with workflow-driven, reproducible, and shareable metabolomics data analysis platforms that are interfaced through standard data formats, representative datasets, versioned, and have been tested for reproducibility and interoperability. The elastic implementation of PhenoMeNal further allows easy adaptation of the infrastructure to other application areas and 'omics research domains.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Software , Computação em Nuvem , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Microb Pathog ; 128: 36-40, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576715

RESUMO

Infections with koi herpesvirus (KHV) in carp are still a severe problem worldwide. Detection and elimination of infected fish are necessary for control of the Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Serum is an excellent specimen for KHV testing because of high survivability of KHV in serum and ease of collection, storage, and handling. The direct detection of fish viruses based on the sandwich ELISA has emerged as a practical and reliable means of diagnosis. Thus, it is important to create monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against purified KHV. By using hybridoma-monoclonal antibody technology, two hybridoma cell lines secreting MAbs against the KHV were established. By Western blot and IFAT analysis, the secreted MAbs from cell line IB7IB4 and cell line 7C72F7 recognized proteins of KHV. The result demonstrated that the MAbs were highly specific and sensitive to the KHV, and can be used for monitoring the virus quantification of carp, for example, the direct KHV diagnosis by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). An antigen sandwich ELISA applying the biotin-avidin system was established using the biotinylated MAb IB7IB4 and 7C72F7 to detect virus in koi sera. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested other viruses by ELISA except KHV. The detection limit of the test was 3.923ng/ml KHV. Thus, this antigen sandwich ELISA is suitable for recognition of KHV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Carpas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Western Blotting , Carpas/virologia , Linhagem Celular , DNA Viral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Hibridomas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vírion/isolamento & purificação
15.
J Fish Dis ; 42(2): 181-187, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537062

RESUMO

The production of piscine viruses, in particular of koi herpesvirus (KHV, CyHV-3) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), is still challenging due to the limited susceptibility of available cell lines to these viruses. A number of cell lines from different fish species were compared to standard diagnostic cell lines for KHV and ISAV regarding their capability to exhibit a cytopathic effect (CPE) and to accumulate virus. Two cell lines, so far undescribed, appeared to be useful for diagnostic purposes. Fr994, a cell line derived from ovaries of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), produced constantly high ISA virus (ISAV) titres and developed a pronounced CPE even at high cell passage numbers, while standard cell lines are reported to gradually loose these properties upon propagation. Another cell line isolated from the head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), KoK, showed a KHV induced CPE earlier than the standard cell line used for diagnostics. A third cell line, named Fin-4, established from the fin epithelium of rainbow trout did not promote efficient replication of tested viruses, but showed antigen sampling properties and might be useful as an in vitro model for virus uptake or phagocytosis.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/citologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Isavirus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Nadadeiras de Animais/citologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/virologia , Animais , Carpas/virologia , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Feminino , Rim Cefálico/citologia , Rim Cefálico/virologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/virologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/virologia
16.
Virus Res ; 261: 21-30, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543872

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus is a global pathogen causing mass mortality in koi and common carp, against which improved vaccines are urgently needed. In this study we investigated the role of four nonessential, but immunogenic envelope glycoproteins encoded by members of the ORF25 gene family (ORF25, ORF65, ORF148 and ORF149) during CyHV-3 replication. Single deletion of ORF65 did not affect in vitro replication, and deletion of ORF148 even slightly enhanced virus growth on common carp brain (CCB) cells. Deletions of ORF25 or ORF149 led to reduced plaque sizes and virus titers, which was due to delayed entry into host cells. An ORF148/ORF149 double deletion mutant exhibited wild-type like growth indicating opposing functions of the two proteins. Electron microscopy of CCB cells infected with either mutant did not indicate any effects on virion formation and maturation in nucleus or cytoplasm, nor on release of enveloped particles. The ORF148, ORF149 and double deletion mutants were also tested in animal experiments using juvenile carp, and proved to be insufficiently attenuated for use as live virus vaccines. However, surviving fish were protected against challenge with wild-type CyHV-3, demonstrating that these antibody inducing proteins are dispensable for an efficient immune response in vivo.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Deleção de Genes , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Carpas , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Citoplasma/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesviridae/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Carga Viral , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Virulência
17.
J Fish Dis ; 41(12): 1803-1809, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320411

RESUMO

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is an emerging disease threatening tilapia culture in many parts of the world. A cell line from the brain of tilapia, which was named TiB, was established, characterized and subcultured with more than 100 passages. The TiB cell line was optimally maintained at 27°C using medium 199 (M199) supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS). Chromosome analysis revealed that 60% of TiB cells at passage 5 maintained the modal chromosome number 2n = 44, while at passage 60, there were 43% of TiB cells with the diploid chromosome number 2n = 50. A significant cytopathic effect was observed in TiB cells after infection with tilapia lake virus (TiLV-2017A), and the viral replication in the cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assays and viral titres, indicating the susceptibility of TiB cells to TiLV-2017A. The viral titres of TiLV-2017A in TiB cells reached 107.43 TCID50 /ml within 10 days. The stable growth and susceptibility to fish viruses make TiB cells a useful tool for fish virus-host cell interaction and for immune response of fish.

18.
J Fish Dis ; 41(12): 1811-1819, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255607

RESUMO

Currently, serological assays for grass carp reovirus genotype II (GCRV-II) diagnosis are not available. In this study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against GCRV-II was developed. The structural protein VP38 of GCRV-II was used as the coating antigen. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against IgM of grass carp labelled with HRP were used as a secondary antibody. The antigen concentration and serum dilution were optimized using chess board titration. Furthermore, the specificity of indirect ELISA assay was confirmed by cross check with sera positive for other grass carp pathogens. In comparison with results obtained from indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot by testing of 60 serum samples to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA, agreement between 90% and 96.7% was reached, respectively. A serological survey was performed using the assay with grass carp field serum samples. The seropositive rate of the 242 serum samples was 69.8%. In conclusion, the developed indirect ELISA is a very specific and sensitive test that will be useful for large-scale serological surveys to detect indirectly GCRV II infections as well as to monitor the changes of antibody level after immunization.

19.
J Gen Virol ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230443

RESUMO

Koi herpesvirus (KHV, Cyprinidherpesvirus 3) causes a fatal disease of koi and common carp. To obtain safe and efficacious live vaccines, we generated deletion mutants of KHV lacking the nonessential genes encoding two enzymes of nucleotide metabolism, thymidine kinase (TK, ORF55) and deoxyuridine-triphosphatase (DUT, ORF123). Since single-deletion mutants based on a KHV isolate from Israel (KHV-I) only exhibited partial attenuation (Fuchs W, Fichtner D, Bergmann SM, Mettenleiter TC. Arch Virol 2011;156 : 1059-1063), a corresponding double mutant was generated and tested in vivo, and shown to be almost avirulent but still protective. To overcome the low in vitro virus titres of KHV-I (≤105 p.f.u. ml-1), single and double TK and DUT deletions were also introduced into a cell culture-adapted KHV strain from Taiwan (KHV-T). The deletions did not affect in vitro virus replication, and all KHV-T mutants exhibited wild-type-like plaque sizes and titres exceeding 107 p.f.u. ml-1, as a prerequisite for economic vaccine production. Compared to wild-type and revertant viruses, the single-deletion mutants of KHV-T were significantly attenuated in vivo, and immersion of juvenile carp in water containing high doses of the double mutant caused almost no fatalities. Nevertheless, the deletion mutants induced similar levels of KHV-specific serum antibodies to the parental wild-type virus, and conferred solid protection against disease after challenge with wild-type KHV. For the convenient differentiation of DNA samples prepared from gill swabs of carp infected with wild-type and TK-deleted KHV we developed a triplex real-time PCR. Thus, KHV-TΔDUT/TK might be suitable as a genetic DIVA vaccine in the field.

20.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 178, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marine and aquaculture industries are important sectors of the food production and global trade. Unfortunately, the fish food industry is challenged with a plethora of infectious pathogens. The freshwater and marine fish communities are rapidly incorporating novel and most up to date techniques for detection, characterization and treatment strategies. Rapid detection of infectious diseases is important in preventing large disease outbreaks. MAIN TEXT: One hundred forty-six articles including reviews papers were analyzed and their conclusions evaluated in the present paper. This allowed us to describe the most recent development research regarding the control of diseases in the aquatic environment as well as promising avenues that may result in beneficial developments. For the characterization of diseases, traditional sequencing and histological based methods have been augmented with transcriptional and proteomic studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that transcriptional based approaches using qPCR are often synergistic to expression based studies that rely on proteomic-based techniques to better understand pathogen-host interactions. Preventative therapies that rely on prophylactics such as vaccination with protein antigens or attenuated viruses are not always feasible and therefore, the development of therapies based on small nucleotide based medicine is on the horizon. Of those, RNAi or CRISPR/Cas- based therapies show great promise in combating various types of diseases caused by viral and parasitic agents that effect aquatic and fish medicine. CONCLUSIONS: In our modern times, when the marine industry has become so vital for feed and economic stability, even the most extreme alternative treatment strategies such as the use of small molecules or even the use of disease to control invasive species populations should be considered.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Peixes , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia
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