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2.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002900, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving quality of intrapartum care will reduce intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal mortality, especially in resource-poor settings. Basic neonatal resuscitation can reduce intrapartum stillbirth and early neonatal mortality, if delivered in a high-quality health system, but there is a dearth of evidence on how to scale up such evidence-based interventions. We evaluated the scaling up of a quality improvement (QI) package for neonatal resuscitation on intrapartum-related mortality (intrapartum stillbirth and first day mortality) at hospitals in Nepal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in 12 hospitals over a period of 18 months from April 14, 2017, to October 17, 2018. The hospitals were assigned to one of four wedges through random allocation. The QI package was implemented in a stepped-wedge manner with a delay of three months for each step. The QI package included improving hospital leadership on intrapartum care, building health workers' competency on neonatal resuscitation, and continuous facilitated QI processes in clinical units. An independent data collection system was set up at each hospital to gather data on mortality through patient case note review and demographic characteristics of women using semi-structured exit interviews. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and multivariate logistic regression were used for analyses. During this study period, a total of 89,014 women-infant pairs were enrolled. The mean age of the mother in the study period was 24.0 ± 4.3 years, with 54.9% from disadvantaged ethnic groups and 4.0% of them illiterate. Of the total birth cohort, 54.4% were boys, 16.7% had gestational age less than 37 weeks, and 17.1% had birth weight less than 2,500 grams. The incidence of intrapartum-related mortality was 11.0 per 1,000 births during the control period and 8.0 per 1,000 births during the intervention period (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92; p = 0.002; intra-cluster correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.0286). The incidence of early neonatal mortality was 12.7 per 1,000 live births during the control period and 10.1 per 1,000 live births during the intervention period (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02; p = 0.09; ICC, 0.1538). The use of bag-and-mask ventilation for babies with low Apgar score (<7 at 1 minute) increased from 3.2% in the control period to 4.0% in the intervention period (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.32-1.77, p = 0.003). There were two major limitations to the study; although a large sample of women-infant pairs were enrolled in the study, the clustering reduced the power of the study. Secondly, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect reduction in early neonatal mortality with the number of clusters provided. CONCLUSION: These results suggest scaled-up implementation of a QI package for neonatal resuscitation can reduce intrapartum-related mortality and improve clinical care. The QI intervention package is likely to be effective in similar settings. More implementation research is required to assess the sustainability of QI interventions and quality of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN30829654.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 303, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Client satisfaction is an essential component of quality of care. Health system factors, processes of care as well as mothers' characteristics influence the extent to which care meets the expectations of mothers and families. In our study, we specifically aimed to address the mothers' experiences of, and satisfaction with, care during childbirth. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study, using structured interviews with published sequences of questions assessing satisfaction, including 4358 mothers who gave birth during the 12 months before June 2016 to estimate satisfaction with childbirth care. Regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of client satisfaction. RESULTS: Most mothers (92.5%) reported being satisfied with care during childbirth and would recommend that a family member to deliver at the same facility. Specifically, 94.7% were satisfied with the cleanliness of the facility, 92.0% reported being satisfied with the interaction with the healthcare providers, but only 49.8% felt satisfied with the assistance to feed their baby. Mothers who had negative experiences during the process of care, such as being abandoned when needing help, disrespect, humiliation, or physical abuse, reported low levels of satisfaction when compared to those who had not had such experiences (68.5% vs 93.5%). Additionally, they reported higher levels of dissatisfaction (20.1% vs 2.1%). Regression analysis revealed that mothers who gave birth in primary level facilities tended to be more satisfied than those who gave birth in hospitals, and having a companion increased, on average, the overall satisfaction score, with 0.06 in type II health centres (CI 0.03-0.10) and with 0.05 in type I health centres (CI - 0.02 - 0.13), compared to - 0.01(CI -0.08 - 0.07) in the hospitals, irrespective of age, education and socio-economic background. CONCLUSION: Childbirth at the primary level facilities contributes to the level of satisfaction. The provision of childbirth care should consider women's preferences and needs, including having a companion of choice. We highlight the challenge in balancing safety of care versus satisfaction with care and in developing policies on the optimum configuration of childbirth care. Interventions to improve the interaction with providers and the provision of respectful care are recommended.

4.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328590

RESUMO

Objective: Asthma is a multifaceted disease, and severe asthma is likely to be persistent. Patients with severe asthma have the greatest burden and require more healthcare resources than those with mild-to-moderate asthma. The majority with asthma can be managed in primary care, while some patients with severe asthma warrant referral for expert advice regarding management. In adolescence, this involves a transition from pediatric to adult healthcare. This study aimed to explore how young adults with severe asthma experienced the transition process. Methods: Young adults with severe asthma were recruited from an ongoing Swedish population-based cohort. Qualitative data were obtained through individual interviews (n = 16, mean age 23.4 years), and the transcribed data were analyzed with systematic text condensation. Results: Four categories emerged based on the young adults' experiences: "I have to take responsibility", "A need of being involved", "Feeling left out of the system", and "Lack of engagement". The young adults felt they had to take more responsibility, did not know where to turn, and experienced fewer follow-ups in adult healthcare. Further, they wanted healthcare providers to involve them in self-management during adolescence, and in general, they felt that their asthma received insufficient support from healthcare providers. Conclusions: Based on how the young adults with severe asthma experienced the transition from pediatric to adult healthcare, it is suggested that healthcare providers together with each patient prepare, plan, and communicate in the transition process for continued care in line with transition guidelines.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

6.
Health Place ; 57: 200-203, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100656

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether associations between greenness and birth outcomes can be detected in children belonging to a Swedish birth cohort (BAMSE). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 500 m buffer zone around maternal address was used as estimate of greenness. Ordinary least squares and quantile regression models were performed to investigate associations between neighbourhood NDVI and birthweight (n = 2619), birth length (n = 2490) and head circumference (n = 2243). Logistic regression analyses were used to detect the association between NDVI and odds of being born as "small-" or "large-for-gestational-age". There were no clear associations between NDVI and birth weight in the total sample. However, in a suburban sub-sample, increased NDVI levels were significantly associated with elevated birthweight of small new-borns (ß2nd percentile = 276 g, 95% CI 61 to 492, p = 0.012), and significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) for children being born as small-for-gestational-age (OR = 0.31 95% CI 0.1 to 1, p = 0.049). No significant associations were found between NDVI and birth length or head circumference. In conclusion, neighbourhood greenness appears not to be associated with birthweight as such, but rather decrease the odds of being born underweight, in particular in suburban areas.

7.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

9.
Environ Res ; 169: 362-367, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that traffic noise exposure is associated with adiposity among adults but data in children are limited. OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study examined whether pre- and postnatal noise exposure is associated with body mass index (BMI) between birth and adolescence or with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: The study was conducted using data from the BAMSE birth cohort, which included 4089 children born in Stockholm County, Sweden. Data on BMI from birth to adolescence were collected via questionnaires, clinical examinations and health care records. A national register provided information on birth outcomes. Road traffic noise levels at the most exposed façade were estimated for all residences of the children during follow-up, as well as of their mothers during pregnancy, and time-weighted average exposure was calculated for different time windows. Maternal occupational noise exposure was obtained from a job-exposure-matrix. Logistic- and quantile regression models were used to estimate associations between noise exposure and health outcomes. RESULTS: We found residential road traffic noise exposure to be associated with increases in BMI from school age to adolescence, but not at earlier ages. In the age groups 8-11 years and 12-16 years the BMI increments were 0.11 kg/m2 per 10 dB Lden (95% CI 0.08-0.13) and 0.20 kg/m2 per 10 dB Lden (95% CI 0.17-0.22), respectively. Maternal noise exposure during pregnancy was generally unrelated to adverse birth outcomes and BMI from birth to adolescence in the children, however, traffic noise exposure was associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth CONCLUSION: Residential road traffic noise exposure was associated with BMI increases from school age to adolescence, but not at earlier ages. Maternal occupational noise exposure or exposure from road traffic during pregnancy were not consistently related to birth outcomes or BMI from birth to adolescence.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209092, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality Improvement (QI) approaches are increasingly used to bridge the quality gap in maternal and newborn care (MNC) in Sub Saharan Africa. Health workers typically serve as both recipients and implementers of QI activities; their understanding, motivation, and level of involvement largely determining the potential effect. In support of efforts to harmonise and integrate the various QI approaches implemented in parallel in Tanzanian health facilities, our objective was to investigate how different components of a collaborative QI intervention were understood and experienced by health workers, and therefore contributed positively to its mechanisms of effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative process evaluation of a collaborative QI intervention for MNC in rural Tanzania was carried out. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 health workers in 13 purposively sampled health facilities. A deductive theory-driven qualitative content analysis was employed using the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health services (i-PARIHS) framework as a lens with its four constructs innovation, recipients, facilitation, and context as guiding themes. RESULTS: Health workers valued the high degree of fit between QI topics and their everyday practice and appreciated the intervention's comprehensive approach. The use of run-charts to monitor progress was well understood and experienced as motivating. The importance and positive experience of on-site mentoring and coaching visits to individual health facilities was expressed by the majority of health workers. Many described the parallel implementation of various health programs as a challenge. CONCLUSION: Components of QI approaches that are well understood and experienced as supportive by health workers in everyday practice may enhance mechanisms of effect and result in more significant change. A focus on such components may also guide harmonisation, to avoid duplication and the implementation of parallel programs, and country ownership of QI approaches in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Melhoria de Qualidade , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Tutoria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , População Rural , Tanzânia
12.
Glob Health Action ; 11(1): 1532631, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in the provision of evidence-based obstetric care are common in low-income countries, including Mozambique. Constraints relate to lack of human and financial resources and weak health systems, however limited resources alone do not explain the variance. Understanding the healthcare context ahead of implementing new interventions can inform the choice of strategies to achieve a successful implementation. The Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was developed to assess modifiable aspects of the healthcare context that theoretically influence the implementation of evidence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the comprehensibility and the internal reliability of COACH and its use to describe the healthcare context as perceived by health providers involved in maternal care in Mozambique. METHODS: A response process evaluation was completed with six purposively selected health providers to uncover difficulties in understanding the tool. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach's α. Subsequently, a cross-sectional survey using COACH, which contains 49 items assessing eight dimensions, was administered to 175 health providers in 38 health facilities within six districts in Mozambique. RESULTS: The content of COACH was clear and most items were understood. All dimensions were near to or exceeded the commonly accepted standard for satisfactory internal reliability (0.70). Analysis of the survey data indicated that items on all dimensions were rated highly, revealing positive perception of context. Significant differences between districts were found for the Work culture, Leadership, and Informal payment dimensions. Responses to many items had low variance and were left-skewed. CONCLUSIONS: COACH was comprehensible and demonstrated good reliability, although biases may have influenced participants' responses. The study suggests that COACH has the potential to evaluate the healthcare context to identify shortcomings and enable the tailoring of strategies ahead of implementation. Supplementing the tool with qualitative approaches will provide an in-depth understanding of the healthcare context.

13.
Lakartidningen ; 1152018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351439

RESUMO

Mastocytosis is a rare and multifaceted disease group characterized by mast cell accumulation in the skin and/or internal organs. In its most common form solitary or widespread, often itchy, red-brown skin lesions appear in childhood or during adulthood (cutaneous mastocytosis). The skin lesions are not always easy to recognize by medical professionals; hence, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. In children, the lesions tend to resolve before puberty, whereas most post-adolescent patients experience a chronic course combined with extra-cutaneous mast cell infiltration (systemic mastocytosis). Therefore, adult patients with cutaneous mastocytosis should be examined for signs of systemic involvement. This article describes the symptoms and signs in cutaneous mastocytosis, and provides guidelines based on international consensus documents. In addition, a newly updated classification of different forms of cutaneous mastocytosis is given.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis are associated with worse asthma control. However, it is unclear how IgE sensitization and/or rhinitis are associated with lung function. We therefore evaluated the effect of rhinitis and sensitization on lung function, including the periphery of the airway system, and inflammatory biomarkers in individuals with and without asthma. METHODS: Participants in the BAMSE longitudinal birth cohort study underwent measures of spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and FeNO at age 16 years. Questionnaires were used to obtain data on asthma and rhinitis. Blood samples were analyzed for eosinophils and allergen-specific IgE. RESULTS: Groups based on the combination of asthma, rhinitis, and sensitization were compared to a healthy reference group. Lower FEV1 /FVC levels were seen for groups with asthma only (adjusted mean difference -2.8% units (95% CI -4.7; -1.0), P < 0.01), asthma with sensitization (-2.0 (-3.9; -0.2), P < 0.05), and asthma with sensitization and rhinitis (-2.5 (-3.6; -1.4), P < 0.001). The index of peripheral airway resistance R5-20 was higher in groups with asthma and sensitization (adjusted median difference 94.9 Pa L-1  s-1 (95% CI 60.4; 129.3), P < 0.001), as well as asthma with sensitization and rhinitis (36.9(15.0; 58.8), P < 0.01). These groups also had increased FeNO and blood eosinophil levels. CONCLUSIONS: We found signs of peripheral airway obstruction and increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers in the presence of allergic asthma, irrespective of rhinitis status. Despite having a reduced FEV1 /FVC, peripheral airway engagement was not seen in non-sensitized adolescents with asthma. We suggest that small airway disease is a feature related to the eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma in adolescence.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209194

RESUMO

The parallel epidemics of childhood asthma and obesity over the past few decades have spurred research into obesity as a risk factor for asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of asthma in obesity incidence. We examined whether early-onset asthma and related phenotypes are associated with the risk of developing obesity in childhood.This study includes 21 130 children born from 1990 to 2008 in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We followed non-obese children at 3-4 years of age for incident obesity up to 8 years of age. Physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing and allergic rhinitis were assessed up to 3-4 years of age.Children with physician-diagnosed asthma had a higher risk for incident obesity than those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Children with active asthma (wheeze in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma) exhibited a higher risk for obesity (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-3.00) than those without wheeze and asthma. Persistent wheezing was associated with increased risk for incident obesity compared to never wheezers (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.09).Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity in later childhood.

17.
Nutrients ; 10(5)2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883392

RESUMO

Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from early life to adolescence, and Immunoglobulin E (IgE) milk reactivity, focusing on gender differences in a large, population-based birth cohort. Overall, 20.0% (537/2985) of children, with a comparable gender distribution, had early life milk-related symptoms. At 16y, approximately 2% (62/2985) children had persistent symptoms and high milk IgE levels (e.g., median at 4 years: 1.5 kUA/L) that were beginning in early life. In contrast, 94% had transient symptoms and low median IgE levels (early life: 0.63 kUA/L, 8y: 0.72 kUA/L; 16 years: 1.1 kUA/L). Also, at 16 years, approximately 6% of females and 3% of males without any previously reported symptoms reported adolescent-onset of symptoms (p < 0.001). Such symptoms were almost exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms and were not associated with detectable IgE. In conclusion, early life milk-related symptoms are common, although most cases are transient by 16 years. Twice as many females vs. males report adolescent-onset symptoms, and particularly gastrointestinal symptoms. Children with persistent symptoms have both a higher prevalence and higher milk IgE levels, as compared to other phenotypes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Respir Med ; 139: 48-54, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858001

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Little is known about how perinatal and childhood factors influence lung function change between childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible early life predictors of change in FEV1 between age 8 and 16 years. In addition, to investigate possible predictors of having persistently low lung function (FEV1 <25th percentiles both at age 8 and 16) up to adolescence. METHODS: The BAMSE birth cohort study collected data throughout childhood on environmental factors, individual characteristics, and spirometric measures at 8 and 16 years (n = 1425). Associations between early life predictors (n = 31) and FEV1 increase between 8 and 16 years were assessed with linear regression. Predictors of having persistently low lung function were examined. RESULTS: Few factors were consistently associated with altered lung function growth, although low birth weight, asthma heredity (paternal), secondhand smoke in infancy, and season of birth had a significant impact (p-value ≤0.01). The majority of subjects stayed however within the same category of lung function between ages 8 and 16 years (in total 821/1425 = 58%). Predictors associated with having persistently low lung function were gestational age, secondhand smoke (at 2 and 8 years of age), and factors related to lower respiratory tract infections in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, rather few exposures in childhood were identified to have a significant impact on lung function growth between childhood and adolescence. Our data support previous study findings indicating that lung function development is influenced by factors before birth and in infancy, including second hand tobacco smoke.

19.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(9): 776-782, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial. METHODS: In Quang Ninh province, 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Births and neonatal deaths were assessed in a baseline survey in 2005, monitored during the trial in 2008-2011 and followed up by a survey in 2014. Time series analyses were performed on monthly neonatal mortality data. RESULTS: There were 30 187 live births and 480 neonatal deaths. The intervention reduced the neonatal mortality from 19.1 to 11.6 per 1000 live births. The reduction was sustained 3 years after the trial. The control areas reached a similar level at the time of follow-up. Time series decomposition analysis revealed a downward trend in the intervention areas during the trial that was not found in the control areas. Neonatal mortality peaked in the hot and wet summers. CONCLUSIONS: A community engagement intervention resulted in a lower neonatal mortality rate that was sustained but not further reduced after the end of the trial. When decomposing time series of neonatal mortality, a clear downward trend was demonstrated in intervention but not in control areas. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN44599712, Post-results.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 51(6)2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748304

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with impaired lung function among young children, but less is known about long-term effects and the impact of adolescents' own smoking. We investigated the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand smoke exposure and adolescent smoking on lung function at age 16 years.The BAMSE (Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology) birth cohort collected information on participants' tobacco smoke exposure through repeated questionnaires, and measured saliva cotinine concentrations at age 16 years. Participants performed spirometry and impulse oscillometry (IOS) at age 16 years (n=2295).Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of -1.1% (95% CI -2.0 to -0.2%). IOS demonstrated greater resistance at 5-20 Hz (R5-20) in participants exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Adolescents who smoked had reduced FEV1/FVC ratios of -0.9% (95% CI -1.8 to -0.1%) and increased resistance of 6.5 Pa·L-1·s (95% CI 0.7 to 12.2 Pa·L-1·s) in R5-20 Comparable associations for FEV1/FVC ratio were observed for cotinine concentrations, using ≥12 ng·mL-1 as a cut-off for adolescent smoking.Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with lower FEV1/FVC ratios and increased airway resistance. In addition, adolescent smoking appears to be associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratios and increased peripheral airway resistance.

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