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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246538

RESUMO

Introduction: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens. In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples. Methods: Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda. Results: Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O'nyong'nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province. Conclusions: Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 12-14, 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of anti-HAV and HEV markers in order to better understand spread of these two viruses among adults in Rwanda. METHODS: Samples from 1045 and 1133 blood donors, healthy adults and liver disease patients were analysed for anti-HAV IgG and HEV markers respectively. RESULTS: Anti-HAV was present in 96.9% (1013/1045), with proportions of immune persons increasing with age. HEV infection markers were detected in 11.9% (135/1133) without differences between the three categories. Seven persons had low levels of HEV RNA including four blood donors but none of the HEV strains could be sequenced. The highest prevalence of HEV markers was in farmers and persons from the Southern (17.3%) and Western regions (18.6%), which have the national highest density of pigs. This may indicate that pigs constitute an important source of HEV infection for humans in Rwanda. CONCLUSION: HAV remains highly endemic in Rwanda, but there may now be a decline of exposure during childhood. HEV is also endemic in Rwanda, but has a moderate spread and may be transmitted by blood transfusion. Based on the geographical and occupational differences in HEV prevalence, a possible zoonotic transmission from pigs should be further explored.

4.
Euro Surveill ; 24(17)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039835

RESUMO

In an outbreak of measles in Gothenburg, Sweden, breakthrough infections (i.e. infections in individuals with a history of vaccination) were common. The objective of this study was to compare measles RNA levels between naïve (i.e. primary) and breakthrough infections. We also propose a fast provisional classification of breakthrough infections. Medical records were reviewed and real-time PCR-positive samples genotyped. Cases were classified as naïve, breakthrough or vaccine infections. We compared clinical symptoms and measles RNA cycle threshold (Ct) values between breakthrough and naïve infections. Sixteen of 28 confirmed cases of measles in this outbreak were breakthrough infections. A fast provisional classification, based on previous history of measles vaccination and detectable levels of measles IgG in acute serum, correctly identified 14 of the 16 breakthrough infections, confirmed by IgG avidity testing. Measles viral load was significantly lower in nasopharyngeal samples from individuals with breakthrough compared with naïve infections (median Ct-values: 32 and 19, respectively, p < 0.0001). No onward transmission from breakthrough infections was identified. Our results indicate that a high risk of onward transmission is limited to naïve infections. We propose a fast provisional classification of breakthrough measles that can guide contact tracing in outbreak settings.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 15(3): e1007873, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889179

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive retinal degenerative diseases cause visual impairment and blindness in both humans and dogs. Currently, no standard treatment is available, but pioneering gene therapy-based canine models have been instrumental for clinical trials in humans. To study a novel form of retinal degeneration in Labrador retriever dogs with clinical signs indicating cone and rod degeneration, we used whole-genome sequencing of an affected sib-pair and their unaffected parents. A frameshift insertion in the ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 4 (ABCA4) gene (c.4176insC), leading to a premature stop codon in exon 28 (p.F1393Lfs*1395), was identified. In contrast to unaffected dogs, no full-length ABCA4 protein was detected in the retina of an affected dog. The ABCA4 gene encodes a membrane transporter protein localized in the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors. In humans, the ABCA4 gene is associated with Stargardt disease (STGD), an autosomal recessive retinal degeneration leading to central visual impairment. A hallmark of STGD is the accumulation of lipofuscin deposits in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The discovery of a canine homozygous ABCA4 loss-of-function mutation may advance the development of dog as a large animal model for human STGD.

6.
J Neurovirol ; 25(3): 397-404, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850976

RESUMO

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most prevalent viral central nervous system (CNS) infections in Eurasia and neurological sequelae are common. The immune responses are considered crucial for the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the activation of the complement system in TBE. The complement system is a part of the innate immune response in the CNS, which previously has been reported to be activated in other flavivirus infections. We analyzed complement factors in 44 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 20 cases of TBE in the acute and later stages, as well as in serum and CSF from 32 healthy controls. The concentrations of complement factors C1q, C3a, C3b, and C5a were determined with commercially available ELISA kits. Clinical data to categorize the severity of disease and outcome was retrieved from the medical records of the TBE patients. We found significantly higher concentrations of all of the analyzed complement factors in the CSF from TBE patients compared to the healthy controls. In particular, the marked increment of C1q concentrations in the CSF (p < 0,001 as compared to controls) indicated an intrathecal activation by the classical pathway. There was no correlation between complement factor concentrations in the CSF and severity of the disease in the acute phase or with sequelae at 6 months follow-up. We have found an intrathecal complement activation in TBE, and the marked increase of complement factor C1q indicated an activation by the classical pathway.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813247

RESUMO

A recombinant subunit vaccine (Shingrix®) was recently licensed for use against herpes zoster. This vaccine is based on glycoprotein E (gE) of varicella zoster virus (VZV), the most abundantly expressed protein of VZV, harboring sites for N- and O-linked glycosylation. The subunit vaccine elicits stronger virus-specific CD4+ T cell response as well as antibody B cell response to gE, compared to the currently used live attenuated vaccine (Zostavax®). This situation is at variance with the current notion since a live vaccine, causing an active virus infection, should be far more efficient than a subunit vaccine based on only one single viral glycoprotein. We previously found gE to be heavily glycosylated, not least by numerous clustered O-linked glycans, when it was produced in human fibroblasts. However, in contrast to Zostavax®, which is produced in fibroblasts, the recombinant gE of Shingrix® is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Hence, the glycan occupancy and glycan structures of gE may differ considerably between the two vaccine types. Here, we aimed at (i) defining the glycan structures and positions of recombinant gE and (ii) identifying possible features of the recombinant gE O-glycosylation pattern contributing to the vaccine efficacy of Shingrix®. Firstly, recombinant gE produced in CHO cells ("Shingrix situation") is more scarcely decorated by O-linked glycans than gE from human fibroblasts ("Zostavax situation"), with respect to glycan site occupancy. Secondly, screening of immunodominant B cell epitopes of gE, using a synthetic peptide library against serum samples from VZV-seropositive individuals, revealed that the O-linked glycan signature promoted binding of IgG antibodies via a decreased number of interfering O-linked glycans, but also via specific O-linked glycans enhancing antibody binding. These findings may, in part, explain the higher protective efficacy of Shingrix®, and can also be of relevance for development of subunit vaccines to other enveloped viruses.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Peptídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Acetilgalactosamina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Glicosilação , Humanos , Soro/metabolismo
8.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(3): 534-542, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735356

RESUMO

Mucin-like regions, characterized by a local high density of O-linked glycosylation, are found on the viral envelope glycoproteins of many viruses. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), for example, exhibits a mucin-like region on its glycoprotein gC, a viral protein involved in initial recruitment of the virus to the cell surface via interaction with sulfated glycosaminoglycans. So far, this mucin-like region has been proposed to play a key role in modulating the interactions with cellular glycosaminoglycans, and in particular to promote release of HSV-1 virions from infected cells. However, the molecular mechanisms and the role as a pathogenicity factor remains unclear. Using single virus particle tracking, we show that the mobility of chondroitin sulfate-bound HSV-1 virions is decreased in absence of the mucin-like region. This decrease in mobility correlates with an increase in HSV-1-chondroitin sulfate binding forces as observed using atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy. Our data suggest that the mucin-like region modulates virus-glycosaminoglycan interactions by regulating the affinity, type, and number of glycoproteins involved in the virus-glycosaminoglycan interaction. This study therefore presents new evidence for a role of the mucin-like region in balancing the interaction of HSV-1 with glycosaminoglycans and provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms used by the virus to ensure both successful cell entry and release from the infected cell.

9.
Vet Parasitol ; 264: 69-73, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503095

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to determine the species of Parascaris present in foals in Sweden and to establish whether anthelmintic resistance to pyrantel and fenbendazole is present on Swedish stud farms. Ascarid eggs collected from different regions in Sweden were karyotyped and were all identified as Parascaris univalens, characterized by one chromosomal pair. Faecal egg count reduction tests were performed on a total of 142 foals on 9 farms between September 2016 and May 2017. Healthy foals with at least 150 eggs per gram faeces (EPG) were included in the study and treated with oral pastes of pyrantel embonate or fenbendazole according to manufacturer instructions. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated by a Bayesian model using the R package "eggCounts". In accordance with the American Association of Equine Practitioners, parasites were classified as resistant to pyrantel if the reduction in EPG was ≤ 85% and to fenbendazole if the observed efficacy was ≤ 90%. Four of eleven groups treated with pyrantel had an observed efficacy of ≤ 85%, and as many as 43% of the foals treated with pyrantel excreted eggs 10-16 days after treatment. In contrast, one of the six groups treated with fenbendazole had an observed efficacy of ≤ 90%, and only 6% of all foals were excreting eggs 10-16 days after treatment. Since resistance to ivermectin has earlier been shown to be widespread in Parascaris spp. in Sweden it is likely that multiresistant populations are present on Swedish stud farms. This is the first study showing the existence of pyrantel-resistant Parascaris spp. in Europe, and the first ever study where anthelmintic resistance has been shown in P. univalens.

10.
J Neurovirol ; 24(6): 702-711, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094629

RESUMO

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a common cause of viral encephalitis (HSV-1) characterised by pronounced inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. We have shown in a rat model that HSV-1 infection causes an interaction between complement factors and proteasomes, leading to formation of proteasome/complement complexes (compleasomes). Exposure of the proteasome regulatory subunit antisecretory factor 1 (AF1) leads to a decrease in intracranial pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and prolonged formation of compleasomes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with HSE. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (n = 55) from 24 HSE patients were analysed for compleasome complexes. Samples from healthy controls (n = 23) and patient controls (n = 27) served as baseline information. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for proteasomes and their complex formation with complement factor 3 or 4, and Western blot for C3 activation were performed on CSF samples. Increased compleasome formation, both presenting as an initial formation and showing exposure of subunit AF1 in the compleasomes, was found in CSF samples drawn from patients with HSE compared with samples from the control groups (p < 0.0005). The total protein CSF concentration was equal in all groups. The levels were higher in the acute phase compared with late in the disease course (p < 0.0005). Complement 3 breakdown product iC3b was detected in CSF samples of the HSE patients. The early increased formation of compleasomes in CSF suggests that this complex may be involved in host defence against HSE.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 218(10): 1592-1601, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986093

RESUMO

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) may cause encephalitis, both with and without rash. Here we investigate whether viruses recovered from the central nervous system (CNS; encephalitis or meningitis) differ genetically from those recovered from non-CNS samples. Methods: Enrichment-based deep sequencing of 45 VZV genomes from cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and vesicles was carried out with samples collected from 34 patients with and without VZV infection of the CNS. Results: Viral sequences from multiple sites in the same patient were identical at the consensus level. Virus from vesicle fluid and CSF in cases of meningitis showed low-level diversity. By contrast, plasma, BAL, and encephalitis had higher numbers of variant alleles. Two CSF-encephalitis samples had high genetic diversity, with variant frequency patterns typical of mixed infections with different clades. Conclusions: Low viral genetic diversity in vesicle fluid is compatible with previous observations that VZV skin lesions arise from single or low numbers of virions. A similar result was observed in VZV from cases of VZV meningitis, a generally self-limiting infection. CSF from cases of encephalitis had higher diversity with evidence for mixed clade infections in 2 cases. We hypothesize that reactivation from multiple neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of VZV encephalitis.

12.
ACS Infect Dis ; 4(6): 944-953, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688001

RESUMO

Discovery and development of new antiviral therapies essentially rely on two key factors: an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in viral infection and the development of fast and versatile drug screening platforms. To meet those demands, we present a biosensing platform to probe virus-cell membrane interactions on a single particle level. Our method is based on the formation of supported lipid bilayers from cell membrane material. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we report the contribution of viral and cellular components to the interaction kinetics of herpes simplex virus type 1 with the cell membrane. Deletion of glycoprotein C (gC), the main viral attachment glycoprotein, or deletion of heparan sulfate, an attachment factor on the cell membrane, leads to an overall decrease in association of virions to the membrane and faster dissociation from the membrane. In addition to this, we perform binding inhibition studies using the antiviral compound heparin to estimate its IC50 value. Finally, single particle tracking is used to characterize the diffusive behavior of the virus particles on the supported lipid bilayers. Altogether, our results promote this platform as a complement to existing bioanalytical assays, being at the interface between simplified artificial membrane models and live cell experiments.

13.
J Med Virol ; 90(8): 1290-1296, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663453

RESUMO

Seroprevalence studies provide information on the susceptibility to infection of certain populations, including women of childbearing age. Such data from Central Africa are scarce regarding two viruses that cause congenital infections: Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne infection, and Rubella virus (RuV), a vaccine-preventable infection. We report on the seroprevalence of both ZIKV and RuV from Rwanda, a country without any known cases of ZIKV, but bordering Uganda where this virus was isolated in 1947. Anti-ZIKV-specific and anti-RuV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples from 874 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors. Samples positive for IgG antibodies against ZIKV were examined for viral RNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The seroprevalence of ZIKV IgG in Rwanda was 1.4% (12/874), of which the predominance of positive findings came from the Southeastern region. All anti-ZIKV IgG-positive samples were PCR-negative. Among 297 female blood donors of childbearing age, 295 (99.3%) were seronegative and thus susceptible to ZIKV. All Swedish blood donors were IgG-negative to ZIKV. In contrast, blood donors from both countries showed high seroprevalence of IgG to RuV: 91.2% for Rwandan and 92.1% for Swedish donors. Only 10.5% (31/294) of female donors of childbearing age from Rwanda were seronegative for RuV. In Rwanda, seroprevalence for ZIKV IgG antibodies was low, but high for RuV. Hence, women of childbearing age were susceptible to ZIKV. These data may be of value for decision-making regarding prophylactic measures.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1566-1570, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692296

RESUMO

Enteric coinfections among children in low-income countries are very common, but it is not well known if specific pathogen combinations are associated or have clinical importance. In this analysis, feces samples from children in Rwanda and Zanzibar less than 5 years of age, with (N = 994) or without (N = 324) acute diarrhea, were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting a wide range of pathogens. Associations were investigated by comparing co-detection and mono-detection frequencies for all pairwise pathogen combinations. More than one pathogen was detected in 840 samples (65%). A negative association (coinfections being less common than expected from probability) was observed for rotavirus in combination with Shigella, Campylobacter, or norovirus genogroup II, but only in patients, which is statistically expected for agents that independently cause diarrhea. A positive correlation was observed, in both patients and controls, between Ct (threshold cycle) values for certain virulence factor genes in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (eae and bfpA) and toxin genes in enterotoxigenic E. coli (eltB and estA), allowing estimation of how often these genes were present in the same bacteria. A significant positive association in patients only was observed for Shigella and EPEC-eae, suggesting that this coinfection might interact in a manner that enhances symptoms. Although interaction between pathogens that affect symptoms is rare, this work emphasizes the importance and difference in interpretation of coinfections depending on whether they are positively or negatively associated.

15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(2): 339-344, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188467

RESUMO

We set out to investigate the serological response of TBE virus (TBEV)-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in stored serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in notified TBE patients, in order to confirm or reject the diagnosis. We applied the ELISA methods used in clinical practice, Enzygnost and Immunozym, and assessed RT-PCR as a diagnostic tool. A total of 173 TBE cases were notified to the Public Health Agency. Samples from 129 patients were eligible for the study. Stored serum samples were found for 111 patients and CSF samples for 88 patients. All serum samples were analyzed with both Enzygnost and Immunozym, as well as an additional 140 control samples. CSF samples, including samples from ten controls, were analyzed with Immunozym. RT-PCR for TBEV was performed on 126 serum, two whole blood, 96 CSF, two feces and four nasopharynx samples. Only two of 111 notified patients lacked detectable TBEV IgM in serum, from whom one sample was RT-PCR positive. According to the ECDC definition, 117/129 (90.7%) of the reported TBE cases were confirmed. Positive RT-PCR results were obtained in eight patients, one from whole blood and eight from serum samples. Four out of eight of the RT-PCR positive patients were TBEV-IgM positive and none had detectable TBEV-specific IgG. All of the tested CSF, feces and nasopharynx samples were RT-PCR-negative. TBEV-specific IgG was detected in 88.4% and IgM in 31.6% of the CSF samples. RT-PCR on serum samples and CSF IgG antibodies can be used as complementary methods in TBE diagnostics, not least early in the disease course.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/imunologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biophys J ; 113(6): 1223-1234, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697896

RESUMO

Many viruses, including herpes simplex (HSV), are recruited to their host cells via interaction between their envelope glycoproteins and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This initial attachment is of a multivalent nature, i.e., it requires the establishment of multiple bonds between amino acids of viral glycoproteins and sulfated saccharides on the GAG chain. To gain understanding of how this binding process is modulated, we performed binding kinetics and mobility studies using end-grafted GAG chains that mimic the end attachment of these chains to proteoglycans. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was used to probe binding and release, as well as the diffusion of single HSV-1 particles. To verify the hypothesis that the degree of sulfation, but also the arrangement of sulfate groups along the GAG chain, plays a key role in HSV binding, we tested two native GAGs (chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate) and compared our results to chemically sulfated hyaluronan. HSV-1 recognized all sulfated GAGs, but not the nonsulfated hyaluronan, indicating that binding is specific to the presence of sulfate groups. Furthermore we observed that a notable fraction of GAG-bound virions exhibit lateral mobility, although the multivalent binding to the immobilized GAG brushes ensures firm virus attachment to the interface. Diffusion was faster on the two native GAGs, one of which, chondroitin sulfate, was also characterized by the highest association rate per GAG chain. This highlights the complexity of multivalent virus-GAG interactions and suggests that the spatial arrangement of sulfates along native GAG chains may play a role in modulating the characteristics of the HSV-GAG interaction. Altogether, these results, obtained with a minimal and well-controlled model of the cell membrane, provide, to our knowledge, new insights into the dynamics of the HSV-GAG interaction.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/virologia , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Difusão , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Heparitina Sulfato/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Cinética , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Proteoglicanas/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
17.
Transfusion ; 57(10): 2420-2432, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of severe liver disease worldwide and is highly endemic in Africa, where it often has nosocomial spread. Little is known on the HCV prevalence, risk for transfusion-transmitted HCV, and circulating genotypes in Rwanda. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors from all regions of the country and genetically characterize identified HCV strains. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on anti-HCV reactivity for all 45,061 Rwandan blood donations during 2014 were compiled. Samples from 720 blood donors were reanalyzed for anti-HCV in Sweden. Line immunoassay INNO-LIA HCV and detection of HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm anti-HCV reactivity. The NS5B and core regions were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence among all first-time blood donors was 1.6%, with the highest occurrence in donors from the eastern region. On further analysis, only 25 of 120 primarily anti-HCV-reactive samples could be confirmed reactive and 15 samples had indeterminate results by INNO-LIA. Confirmed reactivity was more common among females than males (p = 0.03) with no regional difference. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed a predominance of subtypes 4k, 4q, and 4r, with no geographical difference in their distribution. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anti-HCV among Rwandan blood donors has probably been overestimated previously due to the high rate of nonconfirmable anti-HCV reactivity. Further study of the involved mechanism is needed to avoid loss of blood products and distress for blood donors and other test recipients.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Sequência de Bases , Doadores de Sangue/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ruanda , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Cell Rep ; 20(4): 846-853, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746870

RESUMO

Herein, we demonstrate that HCMV miR-UL112-5p targets ERAP1, thereby inhibiting the processing and presentation of the HCMV pp65495-503 peptide to specific CTLs. In addition, we show that the rs17481334 G variant, naturally occurring in the ERAP1 3' UTR, preserves ERAP1 from miR-UL112-5p-mediated degradation. Specifically, HCMV miR-UL112-5p binds the 3' UTR of ERAP1 A variant, but not the 3' UTR of ERAP1 G variant, and, accordingly, ERAP1 expression is reduced both at RNA and protein levels only in human fibroblasts homozygous for the A variant. Consistently, HCMV-infected GG fibroblasts were more efficient in trimming viral antigens and being lysed by HCMV-peptide-specific CTLs. Notably, a significantly decreased HCMV seropositivity was detected among GG individuals suffering from multiple sclerosis, a disease model in which HCMV is negatively associated with adult-onset disorder. Overall, our results identify a resistance mechanism to HCMV miR-UL112-5p-based immune evasion strategy with potential implications for individual susceptibility to infection and other diseases.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/genética , Variação Genética/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Aminopeptidases/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/enzimologia , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45518, 2017 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28361880

RESUMO

The mammalian Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region contains several gene families characterized by highly polymorphic loci with extensive nucleotide diversity, copy number variation of paralogous genes, and long repetitive sequences. This structural complexity has made it difficult to construct a reliable reference sequence of the horse MHC region. In this study, we used long-read single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence eight Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the horse MHC class II region. The final assembly resulted in a 1,165,328 bp continuous gap free sequence with 35 manually curated genomic loci of which 23 were considered to be functional and 12 to be pseudogenes. In comparison to the MHC class II region in other mammals, the corresponding region in horse shows extraordinary copy number variation and different relative location and directionality of the Eqca-DRB, -DQA, -DQB and -DOB loci. This is the first long-read sequence assembly of the horse MHC class II region with rigorous manual gene annotation, and it will serve as an important resource for association studies of immune-mediated equine diseases and for evolutionary analysis of genetic diversity in this region.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Cavalos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Clonagem Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Ordem dos Genes , Variação Genética
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 3(5): 360-367, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238255

RESUMO

Detection of type-specific antibodies is an important and essential part of accurate diagnosis, even in silent carriers of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 (oral) and HSV-2 (genital) infections. Serologic assays that identify HSV-1 and HSV-2 type-specific antibodies have been commercially available for more than a decade but often face problems related to cross-reactivity and similar issues. Attempts to identify type-specific peptide epitopes for use in serology for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 have been limited. We recently demonstrated epitope mapping of envelope glycoprotein G2 and identified a type-specific glycopeptide epitope that broadly recognized HSV-2 infected individuals. In the present work we have performed a comprehensive glycopeptide synthesis and microarray epitope mapping of 14 envelope proteins from HSV-1 and HSV-2, namely, gB, gC, gD, gE, gG, gH, and gI, using sera from HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected individuals and control sera. Several unique type-specific peptide epitopes with high sensitivity were identified and synthesized as one large linear multiepitope sequence using microwave-assisted solid-phase (glyco)peptide synthesis. Microarray validation with clinically defined HSV and Varicella Zoster (VZV) sera confirmed excellent cumulative specificities and sensitivities.


Assuntos
Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/sangue , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/química , Glicoproteínas/síntese química , Herpes Genital/imunologia , Herpes Genital/virologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 2/química , Herpesvirus Humano 2/genética , Humanos , Soros Imunes/química , Imunoglobulina G , Micro-Ondas , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Especificidade da Espécie
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