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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12506-12518, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536707

RESUMO

Highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) play an important role in the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the abundance of HOMs in different environments and their relation to the oxidative potential of fine particulate matter (PM) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relative HOM abundance and radical yield of laboratory-generated SOA and fine PM in ambient air ranging from remote forest areas to highly polluted megacities. By electron paramagnetic resonance and mass spectrometric investigations, we found that the relative abundance of HOMs, especially the dimeric and low-volatility types, in ambient fine PM was positively correlated with the formation of radicals in aqueous PM extracts. SOA from photooxidation of isoprene, ozonolysis of α- and ß-pinene, and fine PM from tropical (central Amazon) and boreal (Hyytiälä, Finland) forests exhibited a higher HOM abundance and radical yield than SOA from photooxidation of naphthalene and fine PM from urban sites (Beijing, Guangzhou, Mainz, Shanghai, and Xi'an), confirming that HOMs are important constituents of biogenic SOA to generate radicals. Our study provides new insights into the chemical relationship of HOM abundance, composition, and sources with the yield of radicals by laboratory and ambient aerosols, enabling better quantification of the component-specific contribution of source- or site-specific fine PM to its climate and health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis , Pequim , China , Finlândia
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(37): 20613-20627, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528972

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles with a high viscosity may become inhomogeneously mixed during chemical processing. Models have predicted gradients in condensed phase reactant concentration throughout particles as the result of diffusion and chemical reaction limitations, termed chemical gradients. However, these have never been directly observed for atmospherically relevant particle diameters. We investigated the reaction between ozone and aerosol particles composed of xanthan gum and FeCl2 and observed the in situ chemical reaction that oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ using X-ray spectromicroscopy. Iron oxidation state of particles as small as 0.2 µm in diameter were imaged over time with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. We found that the loss off Fe2+ accelerated with increasing ozone concentration and relative humidity, RH. Concentric 2-D column integrated profiles of the Fe2+ fraction, α, out of the total iron were derived and demonstrated that particle surfaces became oxidized while particle cores remained unreacted at RH = 0-20%. At higher RH, chemical gradients evolved over time, extended deeper from the particle surface, and Fe2+ became more homogeneously distributed. We used the kinetic multi-layer model for aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB) to simulate ozone reaction constrained with our observations and inferred key parameters as a function of RH including Henry's Law constant for ozone, HO3, and diffusion coefficients for ozone and iron, DO3 and DFe, respectively. We found that HO3 is higher in our xanthan gum/FeCl2 particles than for water and increases when RH decreased from about 80% to dry conditions. This coincided with a decrease in both DO3 and DFe. In order to reproduce observed chemical gradients, our model predicted that ozone could not be present further than a few nanometers from a particle surface indicating near surface reactions were driving changes in iron oxidation state. However, the observed chemical gradients in α observed over hundreds of nanometers must have been the result of iron transport from the particle interior to the surface where ozone oxidation occurred. In the context of our results, we examine the applicability of the reacto-diffusive framework and discuss diffusion limitations for other reactive gas-aerosol systems of atmospheric importance.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(22): 15560-15573, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808874

RESUMO

Mass transfer between the gas and condensed phases in aerosols can be limited by slow bulk diffusion within viscous particles. During the heterogeneous and multiphase reactions of viscous organic aerosol particles, it is necessary to consider the interplay of numerous mass transfer processes and how they are impacted by viscosity, including the partitioning kinetics of semi-volatile organic reactants, water and oxidants. To constrain kinetic models of the heterogeneous chemistry, measurements must provide information on as many observables as possible. Here, the ozonolysis of maleic acid (MA) in ternary aerosol particles containing water and sucrose is used as a model system. By varying the mass ratio of sucrose to MA and by performing reactions over a wide range of relative humidity, direct measurements show that the viscosity of the particle can be varied over 7 orders of magnitude. Measurements of the volatilisation kinetics of MA show that this range in viscosity leads to a suppression in the effective vapour pressure of MA of 3-4 orders of magnitude. The inferred values of the diffusion coefficient of MA in the particle phase closely mirror the expected change in diffusion coefficient from the Stokes-Einstein equation and the change in viscosity. The kinetics of ozonolysis show a similar dependence on particle viscosity that can be further investigated using the kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB). Two scenarios, one constraining the diffusion coefficients for MA to those expected based on the Stokes-Einstein equation and the other including the diffusion coefficients as a fit parameter, yield similarly adequate representations of the ozonolysis kinetics, as inferred from the experimental decay in the signature of the vinylic C-H stretching vibration of MA. However, these two scenarios provide very different parameterisations of the compositional dependence of the diffusion coefficients of ozone within the condensed phase, yielding qualitatively different time-dependent internal concentration profiles. We suggest that this highlights the importance of providing additional experimental observables (e.g. particle size, heterogeneity in composition) if measurements and models are to be universally reconciled.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(23): 13749-13754, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125742

RESUMO

Terbuthylazine (TBA) is a widely used herbicide, and its heterogeneous reaction with OH radicals is important for assessing its potential to undergo atmospheric long-range transport and to affect the environment and public health. The apparent reaction rate coefficients obtained in different experimental investigations, however, vary by orders of magnitude depending on the applied experimental techniques and conditions. In this study, we used a kinetic multilayer model of aerosol chemistry with reversible surface adsorption and bulk diffusion (KM-SUB) in combination with a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm to simulate the measured decay rates of TBA. Two experimental data sets available from different studies can be described with a consistent set of kinetic parameters resolving the interplay of chemical reaction, mass transport, and shielding effects. Our study suggests that mass transport and shielding effects can substantially extend the atmospheric lifetime of reactive pesticides from a few days to weeks, with strong implications for long-range transport and potential health effects of these substances.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Triazinas , Aerossóis , Oxirredução
5.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

6.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 251-270, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574563

RESUMO

Mineral dust and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a major fraction of atmospheric particulate matter, affecting climate, air quality and public health. How mineral dust interacts with SOA to influence cloud chemistry and public health, however, is not well understood. Here, we investigated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are key species of atmospheric and physiological chemistry, in aqueous mixtures of SOA and mineral dust by applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry in combination with a spin-trapping technique, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a kinetic model. We found that substantial amounts of ROS including OH, superoxide as well as carbon- and oxygen-centred organic radicals can be formed in aqueous mixtures of isoprene, α-pinene, naphthalene SOA and various kinds of mineral dust (ripidolite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, and Saharan dust). The molar yields of total radicals were ∼0.02-0.5% at 295 K, which showed higher values at 310 K, upon 254 nm UV exposure, and under low pH (<3) conditions. ROS formation can be explained by the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides, which are a prominent fraction of SOA, through interactions with water and Fenton-like reactions with dissolved transition metal ions. Our findings imply that the chemical reactivity and aging of SOA particles can be enhanced upon interaction with mineral dust in deliquesced particles or cloud/fog droplets. SOA decomposition could be comparably important to the classical Fenton reaction of H2O2 with Fe2+ and that SOA can be the main source of OH radicals in aqueous droplets at low concentrations of H2O2 and Fe2+. In the human respiratory tract, the inhalation and deposition of SOA and mineral dust can also lead to the release of ROS, which may contribute to oxidative stress and play an important role in the adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosols in the Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Atmosfera/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Saúde Pública , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Aerossóis/química , Aerossóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Minerais/química , Material Particulado/química , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
7.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 413-427, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574569

RESUMO

The allergenic potential of airborne proteins may be enhanced via post-translational modification induced by air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of the chemical modifications that enhance the allergenicity of proteins, however, are still not fully understood. Here, protein tyrosine nitration and oligomerization upon simultaneous exposure of O3 and NO2 were studied in coated-wall flow-tube and bulk solution experiments under varying atmospherically relevant conditions (5-200 ppb O3, 5-200 ppb NO2, 45-96% RH), using bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Generally, more tyrosine residues were found to react via the nitration pathway than via the oligomerization pathway. Depending on reaction conditions, oligomer mass fractions and nitration degrees were in the ranges of 2.5-25% and 0.5-7%, respectively. The experimental results were well reproduced by the kinetic multilayer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB). The extent of nitration and oligomerization strongly depends on relative humidity (RH) due to moisture-induced phase transition of proteins, highlighting the importance of cloud processing conditions for accelerated protein chemistry. Dimeric and nitrated species were major products in the liquid phase, while protein oligomerization was observed to a greater extent for the solid and semi-solid phase states of proteins. Our results show that the rate of both processes was sensitive towards ambient ozone concentration, but rather insensitive towards different NO2 levels. An increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations in the Anthropocene may thus promote pro-allergic protein modifications and contribute to the observed increase of allergies over the past decades.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Atmosfera/química , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Ozônio/química , Proteínas/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ozônio/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(14): 7831-7841, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628304

RESUMO

Nitrate radical (NO3) oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) is important for nighttime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA produced at night may evaporate the following morning due to increasing temperatures or dilution of semivolatile compounds. We isothermally dilute the oxidation products from the limonene+NO3 reaction at 25 °C and observe negligible evaporation of organic aerosol via dilution. The SOA yields from limonene+NO3 are approximately constant (∼174%) at 25 °C and range from 81 to 148% at 40 °C. Based on the difference in yields between the two temperatures, we calculated an effective enthalpy of vaporization of 117-237 kJ mol-1. The aerosol yields at 40 °C can be as much as 50% lower compared to 25 °C. However, when aerosol formed at 25 °C is heated to 40 °C, only about 20% of the aerosol evaporates, which could indicate a resistance to aerosol evaporation. To better understand this, we probe the possibility that SOA from limonene+NO3 and ß-pinene+NO3 reactions is highly viscous. We demonstrate that particle morphology and evaporation is dependent on whether SOA from limonene is formed before or during the formation of SOA from ß-pinene. This difference in particle morphology is present even at high relative humidity (∼70%).


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monoterpenos , Umidade , Temperatura
9.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15002, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429776

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA. For the planetary boundary layer, global simulations indicate that SOA are mostly liquid in tropical and polar air with high relative humidity, semi-solid in the mid-latitudes and solid over dry lands. We find that in the middle and upper troposphere SOA should be mostly in a glassy solid phase state. Thus, slow diffusion of water, oxidants and organic molecules could kinetically limit gas-particle interactions of SOA in the free and upper troposphere, promote ice nucleation and facilitate long-range transport of reactive and toxic organic pollutants embedded in SOA.

10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32916, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605301

RESUMO

Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Ozônio/química , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/química , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Sistema Respiratório/química , Tensoativos/química
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(12): 6334-42, 2016 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219077

RESUMO

The chemical kinetics of organic nitrate production during new particle formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were investigated using the short-lived radioactive tracer (13)N in flow-reactor studies of α-pinene oxidation with ozone. Direct and quantitative measurements of the nitrogen content indicate that organic nitrates accounted for ∼40% of SOA mass during initial particle formation, decreasing to ∼15% upon particle growth to the accumulation-mode size range (>100 nm). Experiments with OH scavengers and kinetic model results suggest that organic peroxy radicals formed by α-pinene reacting with secondary OH from ozonolysis are key intermediates in the organic nitrate formation process. The direct reaction of α-pinene with NO3 was found to be less important for particle-phase organic nitrate formation. The nitrogen content of SOA particles decreased slightly upon increase of relative humidity up to 80%. The experiments show a tight correlation between organic nitrate content and SOA particle-number concentrations, implying that the condensing organic nitrates are among the extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) that may play an important role in the nucleation and growth of atmospheric nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Nitratos/química , Ozônio/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(18): 12662-74, 2016 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095585

RESUMO

Heterogeneous and multiphase reactions of ozone are important pathways for chemical ageing of atmospheric organic aerosols. To demonstrate and quantify how moisture-induced phase changes can affect the gas uptake and chemical transformation of organic matter, we apply a kinetic multi-layer model to a comprehensive experimental data set of ozone uptake by shikimic acid. The bulk diffusion coefficients were determined to be 10(-12) cm(2) s(-1) for ozone and 10(-20) cm(2) s(-1) for shikimic acid under dry conditions, increasing by several orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) due to phase changes from amorphous solid over semisolid to liquid. Consequently, the reactive uptake of ozone progresses through different kinetic regimes characterised by specific limiting processes and parameters. At high RH, ozone uptake is driven by reaction throughout the particle bulk; at low RH it is restricted to reaction near the particle surface and kinetically limited by slow diffusion and replenishment of unreacted organic molecules. Our results suggest that the chemical reaction mechanism involves long-lived reactive oxygen intermediates, likely primary ozonides or O atoms, which may provide a pathway for self-reaction and catalytic destruction of ozone at the surface. Slow diffusion and ozone destruction can effectively shield reactive organic molecules in the particle bulk from degradation. We discuss the potential non-orthogonality of kinetic parameters, and show how this problem can be solved by using comprehensive experimental data sets to constrain the kinetic model, providing mechanistic insights into the coupling of transport, phase changes, and chemical reactions of multiple species in complex systems.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(46): 31101-9, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536455

RESUMO

Ageing of particulate organic matter affects the composition and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Driven by temperature and humidity, the organic fraction can vary its physical state between liquid and amorphous solid, or rarely even crystalline. These transitions can influence the reaction kinetics due to limitations of mass transport in such (semi-) solid states, which in turn may influence the chemical ageing of particles containing such compounds. We have used coated wall flow tube experiments to investigate the reaction kinetics of the ozonolysis of shikimic acid, which serves as a proxy for oxygenated, water-soluble organic matter and can form a glass at room temperature. Particular attention was paid to how the presence of water influences the reaction, since it acts a plasticiser and thereby induces changes in the physical state. We analysed the results by means of a traditional resistor model, which assumes steady-state conditions. The ozonolysis rate of shikimic acid is strongly increased in the presence of water, a fact we attribute to the increased transport of O3 and shikimic acid through the condensed phase at lower viscosities. The analysis using the resistor model suggests that the system undergoes both surface and bulk reaction. The second-order rate coefficient of the bulk reaction is 3.7 (+1.5/-3.2) × 10(3) L mol(-1) s(-1). At low humidity and long timescales, the resistor model fails to describe the measurements appropriately. The persistent O3 uptake at very low humidity suggests contribution of a self-reaction of O3 on the surface.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(18): 10859-66, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287571

RESUMO

Air pollution is a potential driver for the increasing prevalence of allergic disease, and post-translational modification by air pollutants can enhance the allergenic potential of proteins. Here, the kinetics and mechanism of protein oligomerization upon ozone (O3) exposure were studied in coated-wall flow tube experiments at environmentally relevant O3 concentrations, relative humidities and protein phase states (amorphous solid, semisolid, and liquid). We observed the formation of protein dimers, trimers, and higher oligomers, and attribute the cross-linking to the formation of covalent intermolecular dityrosine species. The oligomerization proceeds fast on the surface of protein films. In the bulk material, reaction rates are limited by diffusion depending on phase state and humidity. From the experimental data, we derive a chemical mechanism and rate equations for a kinetic multilayer model of surface and bulk reaction enabling the prediction of oligomer formation. Increasing levels of tropospheric O3 in the Anthropocene may promote the formation of protein oligomers with enhanced allergenicity and may thus contribute to the increasing prevalence of allergies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Ozônio/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Poluição do Ar , Cromatografia em Gel , Difusão , Umidade , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Multimerização Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Tirosina/química , Tirosina/metabolismo
15.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4533-44, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686209

RESUMO

Multiphase reactions of OH radicals are among the most important pathways of chemical aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Reactive uptake of OH by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the kinetics of mass transport and chemical reaction are still not fully understood. Here we apply the kinetic multilayer model of gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) to experimental data from OH exposure studies of levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). The model accounts for gas-phase diffusion within a cylindrical coated-wall flow tube, reversible adsorption of OH, surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions at the surface and in the bulk of the condensed phase. The nonlinear dependence of OH uptake coefficients on reactant concentrations and time can be reproduced by KM-GAP. We find that the bulk diffusion coefficient of the organic molecules is approximately 10(-16) cm(2) s(-1), reflecting an amorphous semisolid state of the organic substrates. The OH uptake is governed by reaction at or near the surface and can be kinetically limited by surface-bulk exchange or bulk diffusion of the organic reactants. Estimates of the chemical half-life of levoglucosan in 200 nm particles in a biomass burning plume increase from 1 day at high relative humidity to 1 week under dry conditions. In BBA particles transported to the free troposphere, the chemical half-life of levoglucosan can exceed 1 month due to slow bulk diffusion in a glassy matrix at low temperature.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Biomassa , Radical Hidroxila/química , /química , Adsorção , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Atmosfera/análise , Simulação por Computador , Difusão , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Umidade , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Proteínas Quinases/química , Temperatura
16.
Amino Acids ; 41(3): 719-32, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21603949

RESUMO

In Arctic and Antarctic marine regions, where the temperature declines below the colligative freezing point of physiological fluids, efficient biological antifreeze agents are crucial for the survival of polar fish. One group of such agents is classified as antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) that usually consist of a varying number (n = 4-55) of [AAT]( n )-repeating units. The threonine side chain of each unit is glycosidically linked to ß-D: -galactosyl-(1 â†’ 3)-α-N-acetyl-D: -galactosamine. These biopolymers can be considered as biological antifreeze foldamers. A preparative route for stepwise synthesis of AFGP allows for efficient synthesis. The diglycosylated threonine building block was introduced into the peptide using microwave-enhanced solid phase synthesis. By this versatile solid phase approach, glycosylated peptides of varying sequences and lengths could be obtained. Conformational studies of the synthetic AFGP analogs were performed by circular dichroism experiments (CD). Furthermore, the foldamers were analysed microphysically according to their inhibiting effect on ice recrystallization and influence on the crystal habit.


Assuntos
Proteínas Anticongelantes/síntese química , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Regiões Árticas , Dicroísmo Circular , Peixes , Glicosilação , Gelo , Micro-Ondas , Conformação Proteica , Treonina/química
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