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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103799, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655144

RESUMO

Mutations in ATP6V1B2, which encodes the B2 subunit of the vacuolar H + ATPase have previously been associated with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 2 (ZLS2) and deafness-onychodystrophy (DDOD) syndrome. Recently epilepsy has also been described as a potentially associated phenotype. Here we further uncover the role of ATP61VB2 in epilepsy and report autosomal dominant inheritance of a novel missense variant in ATP6V1B2 in a large Polish family with relatively mild gingival and nail problems, no phalangeal hypoplasia and with generalized epilepsy. In light of our findings and review of the literature, we propose that the ATP6V1B2 gene should be considered in families with autosomal dominant epilepsy both with or without intellectual disability, and that presence of subtle gingival and nail problems may be another characteristic calling card of affected individuals with ATP6V1B2 mutations.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have observed that epilepsy risk is higher among offspring of affected women than offspring of affected men. We tested whether this "maternal effect" was present in familial epilepsies, which are enriched for genetic factors that contribute to epilepsy risk. METHODS: We assessed evidence of a maternal effect in a cohort of families containing ≥3 persons with epilepsy using 3 methods: (1) "downward-looking" analysis, comparing the rate of epilepsy in offspring of affected women versus men; (2) "upward-looking" analysis, comparing the rate of epilepsy among mothers versus fathers of affected individuals; and (3) lineage analysis, comparing the proportion of affected individuals with family history of epilepsy on the maternal versus paternal side. RESULTS: Downward-looking analysis revealed no difference in epilepsy rates among offspring of affected mothers versus fathers (prevalence ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-1.2). Upward-looking analysis revealed more affected mothers than affected fathers; this effect was similar for affected and unaffected sibships (odds ratio = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.5-1.2) and was explained by a combination of differential fertility and participation rates. Lineage analysis revealed no significant difference in the likelihood of maternal versus paternal family history of epilepsy. INTERPRETATION: We found no evidence of a maternal effect on epilepsy risk in this familial epilepsy cohort. Confounding sex imbalances can create the appearance of a maternal effect in upward-looking analyses and may have impacted prior studies. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of evidence, in familial epilepsies, of the maternal effect observed in population-based studies. ANN NEUROL 2019.

3.
Mov Disord ; 34(11): 1602-1613, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584223

RESUMO

Genetically determined myoclonus disorders are a result of a large number of genes. They have wide clinical variation and no systematic nomenclature. With next-generation sequencing, genetic diagnostics require stringent criteria to associate genes and phenotype. To improve (future) classification and recognition of genetically determined movement disorders, the Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders (2012) advocates and renews the naming system of locus symbols. Here, we propose a nomenclature for myoclonus syndromes and related disorders with myoclonic jerks (hyperekplexia and myoclonic epileptic encephalopathies) to guide clinicians in their diagnostic approach to patients with these disorders. Sixty-seven genes were included in the nomenclature. They were divided into 3 subgroups: prominent myoclonus syndromes, 35 genes; prominent myoclonus syndromes combined with another prominent movement disorder, 9 genes; disorders that present usually with other phenotypes but can manifest as a prominent myoclonus syndrome, 23 genes. An additional movement disorder is seen in nearly all myoclonus syndromes: ataxia (n = 41), ataxia and dystonia (n = 6), and dystonia (n = 5). However, no additional movement disorders were seen in related disorders. Cognitive decline and epilepsy are present in the vast majority. The anatomical origin of myoclonus is known in 64% of genetic disorders: cortical (n = 34), noncortical areas (n = 8), and both (n = 1). Cortical myoclonus is commonly seen in association with ataxia, and noncortical myoclonus is often seen with myoclonus-dystonia. This new nomenclature of myoclonus will guide diagnostic testing and phenotype classification. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

4.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494011

RESUMO

Genomics now has an increasingly important role in neurology clinics. Regarding the epilepsies, innovations centred around technology, analytics, and collaboration have led to remarkable progress in gene discovery and have revealed the diverse array of genetic mechanisms and neurobiological pathways that contribute to these disorders. The new genomic era can present a challenge to clinicians, who now find themselves asked to interpret and apply genetic data to their daily management of patients with epilepsy. Navigation of this new era will require genetic literacy and familiarity with research advances in epilepsy genetics. Genetic epilepsy diagnoses now directly affect clinical care, and their importance will only increase as new targeted treatments continue to emerge. At the same time, new genetic insights challenge us to move from a deterministic view of genetic changes to a more nuanced appreciation of genetic risk within complex neurobiological systems that give rise to epilepsy.

5.
Epilepsy Res ; 155: 106161, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295639

RESUMO

Over the past decade there has been a substantial increase in genetic studies of brain malformations, fueled by the availability of improved technologies to study surgical tissue to address the hypothesis that focal lesions arise from focal, post-zygotic genetic disruptions. Traditional genetic studies of patients with malformations utilized leukocyte-derived DNA to search for germline variants, which are inherited or arise de novo in parental gametes. Recent studies have demonstrated somatic variants that arise post-zygotically also underlie brain malformations, and that somatic mutation explains a larger proportion of focal malformations than previously thought. We now know from studies of non-diseased individuals that somatic variation occurs routinely during cell division, including during early brain development when the rapid proliferation of neuronal precursor cells provides the ideal environment for somatic mutation to occur and somatic variants to accumulate. When confined to brain, pathogenic variants contribute to the "hidden genetics" of neurological diseases. With burgeoning novel high-throughput genetic technologies, somatic genetic variations are increasingly being recognized. Here we discuss accumulating evidence for the presence of somatic variants in normal brain tissue, review our current understanding of somatic variants in brain malformations associated with lesional epilepsy, and provide strategies to identify the potential contribution of somatic mutation to non-lesional epilepsies. We also discuss technologies that may improve detection of somatic variants in the future in these and other neurological conditions.

6.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106163, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aetiology of self-limited epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (SECTS) remains controversial and a strong genetic basis has long been presumed. The discordant monozygotic twin (MZ) model controls for shared genetic and environmental factors, enabling focus on the potential role of the non-shared environment. METHODS: DNA methylation data was acquired from DNA extracted from three discordant MZ twin pairs, from both new born blood spots before epilepsy onset, and blood samples taken after epilepsy onset. An epigenome-wide analysis was performed, using the Illumina Infinium EPIC array. Differentially methylated regions (DMR) were identified using the bumphunter package in R. Comparative analyses were undertaken at the two different time points as well as a combined analysis independent of time. RESULTS: Many of the top DMR-associated genes have previously been described in neurodevelopmental disorders. The LYPD8 gene was associated with a top-ranked DMR both at birth and across the two time points. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated the novel utility of the longitudinal, discordant MZ twin model, to facilitate a deeper appreciation of the complex neurobiology of SECTS. The genetic architecture of SECTS is complex and is likely to involve an interplay between genes and environment, in part mediated by epigenetics.

7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1263-1272, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical phenotypes associated with KCNC1 variants other than the Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy-causing variant p.Arg320His, determine the electrophysiological functional impact of identified variants and explore genotype-phenotype-physiological correlations. METHODS: Ten cases with putative pathogenic variants in KCNC1 were studied. Variants had been identified via whole-exome sequencing or gene panel testing. Clinical phenotypic data were analyzed. To determine functional impact of variants detected in the Kv 3.1 channel encoded by KCNC1, Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and automated two-electrode voltage clamping were used. RESULTS: Six unrelated patients had a Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy and a recurrent de novo variant p.Ala421Val (c.1262C > T). Functional analysis of p.Ala421Val revealed loss of function through a significant reduction in whole-cell current, but no dominant-negative effect. Three patients had a contrasting phenotype of Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures and different KCNC1 variants, all of which caused loss of function with reduced whole-cell currents. Evaluation of the variant p.Ala513Val (c.1538C > T) in the tenth case, suggested it was a variant of uncertain significance. INTERPRETATION: These are the first reported cases of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy due to KCNC1 mutation. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with KCNC1 is now broadened to include not only a Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy, but an infantile onset Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy, as well as Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures. Loss of function is a key feature, but definitive electrophysiological separation of these phenotypes has not yet emerged.

8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1338-1344, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353856

RESUMO

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) causes drug-resistant epilepsy and is associated with pathogenic variants in mTOR pathway genes. How germline variants cause these focal lesions is unclear, however a germline + somatic "2-hit" model is hypothesized. In a boy with drug-resistant epilepsy, FCD, and a germline DEPDC5 pathogenic variant, we show that a second-hit DEPDC5 variant is limited to dysmorphic neurons, and the somatic mutation load correlates with both dysmorphic neuron density and the epileptogenic zone. These findings provide new insights into the molecular and cellular correlates of FCD determining drug-resistant epilepsy and refine conceptualization of the epileptogenic zone.

9.
Epilepsy Res ; 155: 106154, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of a patient group who, after temporal lobectomy for predominantly diurnal seizures, experience a postoperative conversion from diurnal to predominantly nocturnal seizures, and compare this group to those who continue to have a diurnal seizure pattern postoperatively. METHODS: From a cohort of 470 surgical cases with long-term follow-up, we retrospectively identified 16 patients with a predominantly nocturnal seizure pattern, including five with nocturnal seizures only (median follow-up 21 years) and compared them with 20 predominantly diurnal seizure patients. RESULTS: Sustained postoperative improvement in seizure frequency was observed in 14/16 cases. Seizure recurrence after surgery occurred within the first postoperative year in 13/16 cases. In all but 3 cases the seizures were all predominantly nocturnal from the time of recurrence, whereas in 3 there was a period of diurnal seizures during the early postoperative years. One patient lapsed back to diurnal seizures after 16 years of predominantly nocturnal seizures. Compared to the predominantly diurnal group, these patients had a significantly later age at seizure onset and were older at the time of surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients with predominantly nocturnal seizures comprise a small but distinct post-operative outcome category. Although not formally assessed, this outcome appears associated with improved quality of life, such as with eligibility to drive, with 50% of the sample confirmed as driving. This finding may help with providing prognostic information and counseling to these patients when they are identified postoperatively.

10.
Epigenomics ; 11(8): 951-968, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166810

RESUMO

Aim: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. We performed epigenetic analyses between and within 15 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for focal or generalized epilepsy. Methods: DNA methylation analysis was performed using Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC arrays, in blood and buccal samples. Results: Differentially methylated regions between epilepsy types associated with PM20D1 and GFPT2 genes in both tissues. Within MZ discordant twin pairs, differentially methylated regions associated with OTX1 and ARID5B genes for generalized epilepsy and TTC39C and DLX5 genes for focal epilepsy. Conclusion: This is the first epigenome-wide association study, utilizing the discordant MZ co-twin model, to deepen our understanding of the neurobiology of epilepsy.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 86(1): 91-98, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested 2 hypotheses regarding age at onset within familial epilepsies: (1) family members with epilepsy tend to have similar ages at onset, independent of epilepsy syndrome; and (2) age at onset is younger in successive generations after controlling for sampling bias. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data collected by the Epi4K Consortium (303 multiplex families, 1,120 individuals). To test hypothesis 1, we used both linear mixed models commonly used for heritability analysis and Cox regression models with frailty terms to assess clustering of onset within families after controlling for other predictors. To test hypothesis 2, we used mixed effects models, pairwise analyses, and survival analysis to address sampling-related bias that may mimic anticipation. RESULTS: Regarding hypothesis 1, age at seizure onset was significantly heritable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.17, p < 0.001) after adjusting for epilepsy type, sex, site, history of febrile seizure, and age at last observation. This finding remained significant after adjusting for epilepsy syndromes, and was robust across statistical methods in all families and in generalized families. Regarding hypothesis 2, the mean age at onset decreased in successive generations (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age at last observation, this effect was not significant in mixed effects models (p = 0.14), but remained significant in pairwise (p = 0.0003) and survival analyses (p = 0.02). INTERPRETATION: Age at seizure onset is an independent familial trait, and may have genetic determinants distinct from the determinants of particular epilepsy syndromes. Younger onsets in successive generations can be explained in part by sampling bias, but the presence of genetic anticipation cannot be excluded. ANN NEUROL 2019.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1483-1490, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145546

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the X-chromosome Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene contribute to intellectual disability, epilepsy, and associated comorbidities in affected males. Here, we report a novel splice variant in ARX in a family with three affected individuals. The proband had early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, his brother and mother had severe and mild intellectual disability, respectively. Massively parallel sequencing identified a novel c.1449-1G>C in intron 4 of the ARX gene, predicted to abolish the splice acceptor site, retaining intron 4 and leading to a premature termination codon immediately after exon 4. As exon 5 is the last exon of the ARX gene, the premature termination codon at position p.L484* would be predicted to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, potentially producing at least some C-terminally truncated protein. Analysis of cDNA from patient lymphoblastoid cells confirmed retention of intron 4 and loss of detectable expression of ARX mRNA across exon 4 to exon 5. We review published cases of variants that lead to altered or early termination of the ARX protein, but not complete loss of function, and are associated with phenotypes of intellectual disability and infantile onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, including Ohtahara and West syndromes. Taken together, this novel splice variant retaining intron 4 is likely to be the cause of the early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy in the proband.

14.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): e31-e36, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719712

RESUMO

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common syndrome of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). Linkage and association studies suggest that the gene encoding the bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) may increase risk of JME. The present methylation and association study followed up a recent report highlighting that the BRD2 promoter CpG island (CpG76) is differentially hypermethylated in lymphoblastoid cells from Caucasian patients with JME compared to patients with other GGE subtypes and unaffected relatives. In contrast, we found a uniform low average percentage of methylation (<4.5%) for 13 CpG76-CpGs in whole blood cells from 782 unrelated European Caucasians, including 116 JME patients, 196 patients with genetic absence epilepsies, and 470 control subjects. We also failed to confirm an allelic association of the BRD2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3918149 with JME (Armitage trend test, P = 0.98), and we did not detect a substantial impact of SNP rs3918149 on CpG76 methylation in either 116 JME patients (methylation quantitative trait loci [meQTL], P = 0.29) or 470 German control subjects (meQTL, P = 0.55). Our results do not support the previous observation that a high DNA methylation level of the BRD2 promoter CpG76 island is a prevalent epigenetic motif associated with JME in Caucasians.

15.
Ann Neurol ; 85(2): 241-250, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between the interictal metabolic patterns, the extent of resection of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 FDG-PET) hypometabolism, and seizure outcomes in patients with unilateral drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) following anterior temporal lobe (TL) resection. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with hippocampal sclerosis or normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, concordant 18 FDG-PET hypometabolism, and at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up were included in this 2-center study. The hypometabolic regions in each patient were identified with reference to 20 healthy controls (p < 0.005). The resected TL volume and the volume of resected TL PET hypometabolism (TLH) were calculated from the pre- and postoperative MRI scans coregistered with interictal 18 FDG-PET. RESULTS: Striking differences in metabolic patterns were observed depending on the lateralization of the epileptogenic TL. The extent of the ipsilateral TLH was significantly greater in left MTLE patients (p < 0.001), whereas right MTLE patients had significantly higher rates of contralateral (CTL) TLH (p = 0.016). In right MTLE patients, CTL hypometabolism was the strongest predictor of an unfavorable seizure outcome, associated with a 5-fold increase in the likelihood of seizure recurrence (odds ratio [OR] = 4.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-22.39, p = 0.04). In left MTLE patients, greater extent of resection of ipsilateral TLH was associated with lower rates of seizure recurrence (p = 0.004) in univariate analysis; however, its predictive value did not reach statistical significance (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.90-1.02, p = 0.19). INTERPRETATION: The difference in metabolic patterns depending on the lateralization of MTLE may represent distinct epileptic networks in patients with right versus left MTLE, and can guide preoperative counseling and surgical planning. Ann Neurol 2019; 1-10 ANN NEUROL 2019;85:241-250.

16.
Brain ; 142(1): 59-69, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561534

RESUMO

Kufs disease is the major adult form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, but is rare and difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis was traditionally dependent on the demonstration of characteristic storage material, but distinction from normal age-related accumulation of lipofuscin can be challenging. Mutation of CLN6 has emerged as the most important cause of recessive Kufs disease but, remarkably, is also responsible for variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis. Here we provide a detailed description of Kufs disease due to CLN6 pathogenic variants. We studied 20 cases of Kufs disease with CLN6 pathogenic variants from 13 unrelated families. Mean age of onset was 28 years (range 12-51) with bimodal peaks in teenage and early adult life. The typical presentation was of progressive myoclonus epilepsy with debilitating myoclonic seizures and relatively infrequent tonic-clonic seizures. Patients became wheelchair-bound with a mean 12 years post-onset. Ataxia was the most prominent motor feature. Dementia appeared to be an invariable accompaniment, although it could take a number of years to manifest and occasionally cognitive impairment preceded myoclonic seizures. Patients were usually highly photosensitive on EEG. MRI showed progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. The median survival time was 26 years from disease onset. Ultrastructural examination of the pathology revealed fingerprint profiles as the characteristic inclusions, but they were not reliably seen in tissues other than brain. Curvilinear profiles, which are seen in the late infantile form, were not a feature. Of the 13 unrelated families we observed homozygous CLN6 pathogenic variants in four and compound heterozygous variants in nine. Compared to the variant late infantile form, there was a lower proportion of variants that predicted protein truncation. Certain heterozygous missense variants in the same amino acid position were found in both variant late infantile and Kufs disease. There was a predominance of cases from Italy and surrounding regions; this was partially explained by the discovery of three founder pathogenic variants. Clinical distinction of type A (progressive myoclonus epilepsy) and type B (dementia with motor disturbance) Kufs disease was supported by molecular diagnoses. Type A is usually caused by recessive pathogenic variants in CLN6 or dominant variants in DNAJC5. Type B Kufs is usually associated with recessive CTSF pathogenic variants. The diagnosis of Kufs remains challenging but, with the availability of genetic diagnosis, this will largely supersede the use of diagnostic biopsies, particularly as biopsies of peripheral tissues has unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/diagnóstico , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurology ; 92(2): e96-e107, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the epileptology, a key part of the SYNGAP1 phenotypic spectrum, in a large patient cohort. METHODS: Patients were recruited via investigators' practices or social media. We included patients with (likely) pathogenic SYNGAP1 variants or chromosome 6p21.32 microdeletions incorporating SYNGAP1. We analyzed patients' phenotypes using a standardized epilepsy questionnaire, medical records, EEG, MRI, and seizure videos. RESULTS: We included 57 patients (53% male, median age 8 years) with SYNGAP1 mutations (n = 53) or microdeletions (n = 4). Of the 57 patients, 56 had epilepsy: generalized in 55, with focal seizures in 7 and infantile spasms in 1. Median seizure onset age was 2 years. A novel type of drop attack was identified comprising eyelid myoclonia evolving to a myoclonic-atonic (n = 5) or atonic (n = 8) seizure. Seizure types included eyelid myoclonia with absences (65%), myoclonic seizures (34%), atypical (20%) and typical (18%) absences, and atonic seizures (14%), triggered by eating in 25%. Developmental delay preceded seizure onset in 54 of 56 (96%) patients for whom early developmental history was available. Developmental plateauing or regression occurred with seizures in 56 in the context of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Fifty-five of 57 patients had intellectual disability, which was moderate to severe in 50. Other common features included behavioral problems (73%); high pain threshold (72%); eating problems, including oral aversion (68%); hypotonia (67%); sleeping problems (62%); autism spectrum disorder (54%); and ataxia or gait abnormalities (51%). CONCLUSIONS: SYNGAP1 mutations cause a generalized DEE with a distinctive syndrome combining epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia with absences and myoclonic-atonic seizures, as well as a predilection to seizures triggered by eating.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasmos Infantis/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cell Rep ; 25(10): 2729-2741.e6, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517861

RESUMO

The mammalian neocortex has undergone remarkable changes through evolution. A consequence of such rapid evolutionary events could be a trade-off that has rendered the brain susceptible to certain neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed the exomes of 65 patients with the structural brain malformation periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH). De novo coding variants were observed in excess in genes defining a transcriptomic signature of basal radial glia, a cell type linked to brain evolution. In addition, we located two variants in human isoforms of two genes that have no ortholog in mice. Modulating the levels of one of these isoforms for the gene PLEKHG6 demonstrated its role in regulating neuroprogenitor differentiation and neuronal migration via RhoA, with phenotypic recapitulation of PH in human cerebral organoids. This suggests that this PLEKHG6 isoform is an example of a primate-specific genomic element supporting brain development.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
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