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1.
Clin Obes ; 9(6): e12340, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691531

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of intensive behavioural therapy (IBT) for obesity (IBT-alone), IBT plus liraglutide 3.0 mg/day (IBT-liraglutide), and IBT-liraglutide combined with 12 weeks of a portion-controlled diet (Multicomponent) on changes in general health-related (HR) quality of life (QoL) and weight-related QoL. Adults with obesity (79.3% female; 54.0% white; 44.7% black; mean age = 47.6 ± 11.8 years and body mass index = 38.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2 ) were randomized to IBT-alone (n = 50), IBT-liraglutide (n = 50) or Multicomponent (n = 50). General HRQoL was measured with the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and weight-related QoL was assessed with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite scale. At week 52, participants in the three groups lost 6.1 ± 1.3%, 11.5 ± 1.3% and 11.8 ± 1.3% of initial body weight, respectively. Both liraglutide-treated groups were significantly more likely than IBT-alone to achieve clinically meaningful improvements in total weight-related QoL. They also both achieved greater improvements than IBT-alone in weight-related public distress and in general mental health, as measured by the SF-36 mental component summary score. Independent of treatment group, greater categorical weight loss was associated with greater improvements in several domains of both general and weight-related QoL. The addition of liraglutide to IBT appeared to improve aspects of both general HRQoL and weight-related QoL.

2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(12): 2005-2010, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This exploratory analysis examined the effects of intensive behavioral therapy (IBT) for obesity ("IBT-alone"), IBT plus liraglutide 3.0 mg/d ("IBT-liraglutide"), and IBT plus liraglutide 3.0 mg/d plus 12 weeks of a portion-controlled diet that provided 1,000 to 1,200 kcal/d ("Multicomponent") on changes in food cravings, eating behaviors, and eating disorder psychopathology at 24 and 52 weeks post randomization. METHODS: Adults with obesity (mean age = 47.6 ± 11.8 years and BMI = 38.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2 ; 79.3% female; 54.0% non-Hispanic white; 44.7% black) were randomized to IBT-alone (n = 50), IBT-liraglutide (n = 50), or Multicomponent (n = 50). RESULTS: At weeks 24 and 52, liraglutide-treated groups reported significantly larger declines in weight concern relative to the IBT-alone group. At week 24, compared with IBT-alone, liraglutide-treated groups reported significantly greater reductions in dietary disinhibition, global eating disorder psychopathology, and shape concern. The Multicomponent group had significantly greater reductions in binge eating at week 24 relative to the IBT-alone group. However, differences among groups were no longer significant at week 52. Groups did not differ in total food cravings at week 24 or 52. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of liraglutide and IBT was associated with greater short-term improvements in dietary disinhibition, global eating disorder psychopathology, and shape concern than IBT alone.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

4.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 47(6): 686-696, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a psychological treatment that has been found to increase weight loss in adults when combined with lifestyle modification, compared with the latter treatment alone. However, an ACT-based treatment for weight loss has never been tested in adolescents. METHODS: The present pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a 16-week, group ACT-based lifestyle modification treatment for adolescents and their parents/guardians. The co-primary outcomes were: (1) mean acceptability scores from up to 8 biweekly ratings; and (2) the percentage reduction in body mass index (BMI) from baseline to week 16. The effect size for changes in cardiometabolic and psychosocial outcomes from baseline to week 16 also was examined. RESULTS: Seven families enrolled and six completed treatment (14.3% attrition). The mean acceptability score was 8.8 for adolescents and 9.0 for parents (on a 1-10 scale), indicating high acceptability. The six adolescents who completed treatment experienced a 1.3% reduction in BMI (SD = 2.3, d = 0.54). They reported a medium increase in cognitive restraint, a small reduction in hunger, and a small increase in physical activity. They experienced small improvements in most quality of life domains and a large reduction in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings indicate that ACT plus lifestyle modification was a highly acceptable treatment that improved weight, cognitive restraint, hunger, physical activity, and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with obesity.

5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some weight loss medications, including liraglutide 3.0 mg, are thought to facilitate weight loss by improving appetite control. However, no studies have evaluated their long-term appetitive effects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study examined changes in appetite in a subsample of 113 adults with obesity (76.1% female, 55.8% white, BMI = 38.8 ± 4.8 kg/m2) who participated in a 52-week trial. Participants were randomized to intensive behavioral therapy alone (IBT-alone), IBT with liraglutide 3.0 mg/day (IBT-liraglutide), or IBT-liraglutide combined with a 12-week meal replacement diet (Multi-component). Participants rated their hunger, fullness after meals, liking of meals, and food preoccupation (all as experienced over the past week) using visual analogue scales (0-100 mm). Ratings were completed at baseline and eight subsequent visits over the year. RESULTS: At week 52, participants treated by IBT-alone lost 6.2 ± 1.6% of baseline weight, compared with 11.8 ± 1.6% and 12.1 ± 1.5% in the IBT-liraglutide and Multi-component groups, respectively. Compared to IBT-alone, IBT-liraglutide participants reported larger reductions at week 6 in hunger (-0.3 ± 4.2 vs -16.8 ± 4.0 mm, p = .005) and food preoccupation (+0.2 ± 3.7 vs -16.3 ± 3.6 mm, p = .002) and larger increases in fullness (-5.1 ± 3.2 vs +9.8 ± 3.0 mm, p = .001). These significant differences persisted at all assessments through week 24. There were no differences between IBT-alone and IBT-liraglutide in meal liking. IBT-alone and Multi-component participants differed in hunger at week 6, and in food preoccupation at all assessments through week 24. Multi-component participants reported reduced liking of meals relative to the IBT-alone and IBT-liraglutide groups through weeks 40 and 52, respectively. There were no other differences among any groups at week 52. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with short-term studies, IBT-liraglutide participants reported greater improvements in hunger, fullness, and food preoccupation than those assigned to IBT-alone. Differences in appetite persisted for 24 weeks but were not maintained at week 52, despite the relatively greater weight losses in the liraglutide-treated participants at the trial's end.

6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(7): 801-808, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined what adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity perceived as the threshold for a large amount of food and how their evaluations compared to ratings by participants with obesity but without BED. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study of 150 participants with obesity. BED was assessed using the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns and confirmed via interview. Participants completed the Eating Patterns Questionnaire and Eating Inventory. RESULTS: Participants with BED had significantly higher thresholds for a large amount of food relative to those without BED. Compared to participants without BED, those with BED had significantly higher thresholds on 13 of the 22 food items. In the overall sample, being male and having higher hunger scores were associated with greater thresholds. DISCUSSION: Individuals with obesity and BED had larger portion standards than participants without BED. Individuals with BED may benefit from interventions targeted toward decreasing perceptions of portion sizes.

7.
Metabolism ; 96: 83-91, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study evaluated whether adding phentermine to liraglutide would induce further weight loss in participants who had previously lost weight with liraglutide alone. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 45 adults with obesity (75.6% female, 55.6% white, body mass index = 34.3 ±â€¯4.7 kg/m2) who had lost an average of 12.6 ±â€¯6.8% of initial weight during a prior 1-year randomized trial with liraglutide and intensive behavioral treatment. Participants were re-randomized, in a double-blinded fashion, to liraglutide 3.0 mg plus phentermine 15.0 mg (liraglutide-phentermine) or liraglutide plus placebo (liraglutide-placebo). Participants also were provided with four, 15-minute counseling sessions during the 12-week extension study. RESULTS: At week 12, the liraglutide-phentermine and liraglutide-placebo groups lost a mean (±SEM) of 1.6 ±â€¯0.6% and 0.1 ±â€¯0.5% of re-randomization weight, respectively (p = 0.073). Two (9.1%) liraglutide-phentermine participants and one (4.3%) liraglutide-placebo participant lost ≥5% of re-randomization weight; 19 (86.4%) and 16 (69.9%) participants, respectively, maintained their full weight loss achieved in the prior 1-year trial (p = 0.125). Liraglutide-phentermine participants generally reported larger reductions in hunger and food preoccupation than liraglutide-placebo participants during the first 8 weeks of the extension study. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of liraglutide and phentermine appeared to be well-tolerated but did not produce additional clinically meaningful weight loss in individuals who had already lost 12.6% of initial weight with liraglutide alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02911818.

8.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 21(1): 3, 2019 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661128

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review synthesized recent research related to obesity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders, with a focus on epidemiology, mechanisms, and weight management approaches. The paper reviews literature on depressive and anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Depression has a bidirectional relationship with obesity. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and their treatments, increase the risk of developing obesity. Mechanisms underlying this weight gain include lifestyle and environmental factors and psychiatric medications, though emerging evidence has also suggested the role of genetic and neuroendocrine processes. Evidence about the most effective treatments for obesity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders remains limited. Adolescents with psychiatric disorders are at high risk for obesity. Close monitoring for increases in weight and cardiometabolic risk factors with use of antipsychotic and mood-stabilizing medications is recommended. Clinical trials are needed that test the efficacy of weight management strategies for this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adolescente , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Behav Med ; : 1-5, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657439

RESUMO

Obesity is a complex disease caused by a wide array of behavioral, biological, and environmental factors. However, obesity is often attributed to oversimplified and stigmatizing causal factors such as laziness, lack of willpower, and failure to take personal responsibility for one's health. Understanding of the causal factors that contribute to obesity among people with obesity may affect their weight management efforts. The current study explored associations between causal attributions for obesity and long-term weight loss, as well as examined potential changes in attributions with weight reduction. The 16-item Causal Attributions for Obesity scale (rated 1-7) was administered to 178 patients seeking behavioral/pharmacological weight-loss treatment. Causal attributions and weight were assessed at baseline, after 14 weeks of a low-calorie diet, and again at weeks 24 and 52 of a subsequent randomized trial (i.e., 66 weeks total). Logistic and linear regression examined effects of baseline causal attribution ratings on weight loss. Higher baseline ratings of personal responsibility attributions predicted 38% reduced odds of achieving ≥10% weight loss at week 52 (p = 0.02). Causal attribution ratings did not change over time or correlate continuously with weight change. Thus, attributing obesity to a failure of personal responsibility may impair long-term weight management efforts for individuals seeking ≥10% weight loss. Targeted techniques are needed to reduce patients' stigmatizing beliefs about the causes of obesity.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid eating is a risk factor for childhood obesity but has not been a focus of intervention with young children. The short-term effects of a novel family-based treatment, "Reduced Eating Pace" (RePace), were tested on child eating speed and secondary outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-eight rapid eating children were randomized to RePace (n  = 14) or Delayed Usual Care Control (DUC) (n  = 14). RePace taught families a slower eating pace using psychoeducational and behavioral techniques, including silent vibrating devices that prompted 30-second "turtle bites." Outcomes included child "slowness in eating" assessed by parent-report questionnaire and observed eating in the laboratory (i.e., mouthfuls/minute and kilocalories/minute). Child BMI and other eating variables were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Children in RePace compared with DUC showed increased "slowness in eating" (P  <  0.001), increased food enjoyment (P  = 0.04), and less BMI gain (P  = 0.02) after 8 weeks. There was no treatment effect for observed eating speed, although typicality of the laboratory test meal was an effect modifier in exploratory analyses. Specifically, RePace versus DUC showed attenuated increases in mouthfuls per minute over time among youth for whom the laboratory food amount was more typical of amounts served at home. CONCLUSIONS: Slower eating may be a novel target for family-based obesity prevention targeting high-risk children.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether alcohol consumption decreases during an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and whether alcohol consumption is associated with weight loss among participants with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants (n = 4,901) were from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study, a randomized controlled trial that compared an ILI with a diabetes support and education (DSE) control. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of the ILI on alcohol consumption and the influence of alcohol consumption on weight loss at year 4. RESULTS: ILI and DSE participants did not differ in changes in alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake was not associated with weight loss at year 1 of the ILI. ILI participants who abstained from alcohol lost 5.1% ± 0.3% of initial weight at year 4 compared with a significantly (P = 0.04) smaller 2.4% ± 1.3% for consistent heavy drinkers. ILI participants who abstained from alcohol consumption over the 4 years lost 1.6% ± 0.5% more weight relative to individuals who drank alcohol at any time during the intervention (P = 0.003). DSE participants did not differ in weight loss by alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy alcohol drinkers are at risk for suboptimal long-term weight loss. Decreasing alcohol consumption may improve weight management among individuals with diabetes.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) covers intensive behavioral therapy (IBT) for obesity. The efficacy, however, of the specific approach has never been evaluated in a randomized trial, as described here. The 1-year trial also assessed whether the addition to IBT of liraglutide 3.0 mg would significantly increase weight loss and whether the provision of meal replacements would add further benefit. METHODS: A total of 150 adults with obesity were randomly assigned to: IBT (IBT-alone), providing 21 counseling visits; IBT combined with liraglutide (IBT-liraglutide); or IBT-liraglutide combined for 12 weeks with a 1,000- to 1,200-kcal/d meal-replacement diet (Multicomponent). All participants received weekly IBT visits in month 1, every-other-week visits in months 2 to 6, and monthly sessions thereafter. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of participants completed 1 year, at which time mean (± SEM) losses for IBT-alone, IBT-liraglutide, and Muticomponent participants were 6.1 ± 1.3%, 11.5 ± 1.3%, and 11.8 ± 1.3% of baseline weight, respectively. Fully 44.0%, 70.0%, and 74.0% of these participants lost ≥ 5% of weight, respectively. The liraglutide-treated groups were superior to IBT-alone on both outcomes. Weight loss in all three groups was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the efficacy of IBT for obesity and the potential benefit of adding pharmacotherapy to this approach.

13.
Ann Behav Med ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304382

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between weight bias internalization (WBI) and long-term weight loss is largely unknown. Purpose: To determine the effects of weight loss on WBI and assess whether WBI impairs long-term weight loss. Methods: One hundred thirty-three adults with obesity completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) at baseline, after a 14-week lifestyle intervention in which they lost ≥5 per cent of initial weight, and at weeks 24 and 52 of a subsequent randomized controlled trial (RCT) for weight-loss maintenance (66 weeks total). Linear mixed models were used to examine the effects of weight loss on WBIS scores and the effects of baseline WBIS scores on weight change over time. Logistic regression was used to determine the effects of baseline WBIS scores on achieving ≥5 and ≥10 per cent weight loss. Results: Changes in weight did not predict changes in WBIS scores. Baseline WBIS scores predicted reduced odds of achieving ≥5 and ≥10 per cent weight loss at week 24 of the RCT (p values < .05). At week 52, the interaction between participant race and WBIS scores predicted weight loss (p = .046) such that nonblack (but not black) participants with higher baseline WBIS scores had lower odds of achieving ≥10 per cent weight loss (OR = 0.38, p = .01). Baseline WBIS scores did not significantly predict rate of weight change over time. Conclusions: Among participants in a weight loss maintenance trial, WBI did not change in relation to changes in weight. More research is needed to clarify the effects of WBI on long-term weight loss and maintenance across race/ethnicity. Clinical trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02388568.

14.
Obes Surg ; 28(11): 3724-3728, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191502

RESUMO

Obesity is frequently attributed to causes such as laziness and lack of willpower and personal responsibility. The current study identified causal attributions for obesity among patients seeking bariatric surgery and compared them to those among patients seeking less invasive weight loss treatment (behavioral/pharmacological). The 16-item Causal Attributions for Obesity scale (CAO; rated 1-7) was administered to 102 patients seeking bariatric surgery (sample 1) and 178 patients seeking behavioral/pharmacological weight loss treatment (sample 2). Between-subjects analyses compared CAO ratings for the two samples. Results showed that behavioral factors were the highest-rated attributions in both samples. Sample 1 had higher ratings of biological and environmental factors than did sample 2. Overall, patients seeking bariatric surgery had a more complex conceptualization of obesity than did patients seeking behavioral/pharmacological treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02388568.

15.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1335, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116212

RESUMO

Background: Many participants experience clinically significant fluctuations in weight before beginning a behavioral weight loss program. Pre-treatment weight gain, often referred to as the "last supper" effect, may limit total weight loss from the time of the pre-treatment screening visit and could be an indicator that a participant will respond poorly to behavioral intervention. Methods: Data were from the weight loss phase of a two-phase weight loss maintenance trial, in which 178 participants with obesity (screening BMI = 40.5 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 87.6% female; 71.3% black) were provided with a 14 week lifestyle intervention that included a meal replacement diet. Participants were categorized as having gained >1.15%, remained weight stable, or lost >1.15% of initial weight between the pre-treatment screening visit and the first treatment session (48.7 ± 29.4 days). We first examined whether the weight change groups differed in baseline eating characteristics (e.g., emotional eating, self-regulation, craving frequency) using one-way ANCOVAs. Linear mixed models were then used to compare weight change groups on total weight loss from the screening visit to week 14 and in-treatment weight loss from weeks 1 to 14. Results: Nearly half of the sample (48.9%) gained >1.15% of initial weight during the pre-treatment period (+2.5 ± 1.2%); 41.0% remained weight stable (+0.2 ± 0.6%); and 10.1% lost >1.15% of initial weight (-2.2 ± 0.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline eating characteristics. As measured from the screening weight, the weight-gain group had a lower total loss of 6.8%, compared to 7.8% in the weight stable group (p = 0.02) and 9.0% in the weight-loss group (p = 0.003). The weight-gain group lost more weight in the first 4 weeks of treatment, but in-treatment losses did not differ among the groups at week 14. Conclusion: Pre-treatment weight gain was not an indicator of a poor response to a behavioral weight loss intervention and was associated with greater weight loss early in treatment. However, weight gain during the pre-treatment period may limit the total weight loss that participants achieve from the time that they first enroll in a weight loss program.

16.
J Behav Med ; 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066187

RESUMO

To examine the relationship between food cravings and food addiction as defined by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and to assess the effects of these variables on weight loss during a 14-week group lifestyle modification program. Data were from 178 participants who were prescribed a 1000-1200 kcal/day portion-controlled diet and provided with weekly group lifestyle modification sessions. Participants completed the Food Craving Inventory and YFAS pre- and post-treatment. Weight was measured weekly. Participants with YFAS-defined food addiction (6.7%) reported more frequent overall food cravings relative to those without food addiction. More frequent food cravings at baseline were associated with less weight loss over the 14 weeks. Analyzed categorically, participants in the highest tertile of baseline food cravings lost 7.6 ± 0.5% of initial weight, which was significantly less compared to those in the lowest tertile who lost 9.1 ± 0.5%. Percent weight loss did not differ significantly between participants with YFAS-defined food addiction (6.5 ± 1.2%) and those who did not meet criteria (8.6 ± 0.3%). Addictive-like eating behaviors significantly declined from pre- to post-treatment. Participants with frequent food cravings lost less weight than their peers. Targeted interventions for food cravings could improve weight loss in these individuals. Few participants met YFAS-defined criteria for food addiction. Addictive-like eating behaviors tended to decline during behavioral weight loss, but neither baseline nor change in YFAS scores predicted weight loss.

17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(7): 1144-1152, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and depression frequently co-occur, and each increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study tested whether a combined treatment, targeting obesity and depression simultaneously, would yield greater improvements in weight, mood, and CVD risk factors than treatments that targeted each disease individually. METHODS: Seventy-six participants with obesity and major depression were randomly assigned to (1) behavioral weight control (BWC), (2) cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D), or (3) BWC combined with CBT-D. Participants were provided 18 group treatment sessions over 20 weeks. Mood, weight, and CVD risk were assessed at baseline and weeks 8 and 20, with a follow-up visit at week 46. RESULTS: At week 20, participants in combined treatment lost significantly (P < 0.02) more weight (5.2% ± 1.2%) than those assigned to CBT-D (0.8% ± 1.3%) and comparable amounts as those in BWC (3.5% ± 1.3%). Depression scores decreased significantly from baseline levels in each group, with no significant differences between groups. All three groups showed significant improvements in 10-year CVD risk, with no significant differences between groups. Groups did not differ significantly on any of these measures at week 46. CONCLUSIONS: BWC yielded short-term improvements in weight, mood, and CVD risk, comparable to a combined treatment that incorporated CBT-D. Results require replication with a larger sample size.

18.
Ann Behav Med ; 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800080

RESUMO

Background: Early weight loss (EWL) in the first 1-2 months of behavioral treatment is a strong predictor of later total weight loss. It is not clear whether participants with lower early losses lose less in ongoing treatment or simply fail to overcome the smaller initial loss. Furthermore, no study has tested whether EWL in behavioral treatment predicts response to a different treatment modality, such as pharmacotherapy. Methods: Data were from 170 participants with obesity (baseline BMI = 40.8 ± 5.8 kg/m2, 87.6% female; 71.3% Black) enrolled in a two-phase trial. Data from the weight loss phase, which provided weekly lifestyle counseling and a meal replacement diet, were used to examine the relationship between 4-week EWL and subsequent rate of weight loss in behavioral treatment. Data from the maintenance phase, in which 137 participants who had lost ≥5% of initial weight were randomized to 52 weeks of maintenance counseling with lorcaserin or placebo, were used to determine whether EWL with behavioral treatment affects the benefit of pharmacotherapy. Results: EWL in the first 4 weeks of behavioral treatment (3.6 ± 1.7%) predicted greater total losses at Week 14 (r2 = 0.61, p < .001) and a faster rate of weight loss in the subsequent 9 weeks of the program (p < .001). During the maintenance phase, lower EWL in behavioral treatment predicted a greater benefit of lorcaserin, in comparison with placebo, for the maintenance of a ≥5% loss at Weeks 24 and 52. Conclusions: These findings support recommendations to modify treatment for individuals with low EWL.

19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(6): 985-991, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of weight loss and weight loss maintenance (WLM) on weight-specific health-related quality of life in a 66-week trial. METHODS: Adults with obesity (N = 137, 86.1% female, 68.6% black, mean age = 46.1 years) who had lost ≥ 5% of initial weight in a 14-week intensive lifestyle intervention/low-calorie diet (LCD) program were randomly assigned to lorcaserin or placebo for an additional 52-week WLM program. The Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) scale (including five subscales), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression), and Perceived Stress Scale were administered at the start of the 14-week LCD program, randomization, and week 52 of the randomized controlled trial (i.e., 66 weeks total). RESULTS: Significant improvements in all outcomes, except weight-related public distress, were found following the 14-week LCD program (P values < 0.05). Improvements were largely maintained during the 52-week randomized controlled trial, despite weight regain of 2.0 to 2.5 kg across treatment groups. Participants who lost ≥ 10% of initial weight achieved greater improvements in physical function, self-esteem, sexual life, and the IWQOL-Lite total score than those who lost < 5% and did not differ from those who lost 5% to 9.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in weight-specific health-related quality of life were achieved with moderate weight loss and were sustained during WLM.

20.
Obes Facts ; 11(2): 157-164, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI) are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. METHODS: Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black) completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics. Participant height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Linear regression results (controlling for demographics, BMI, and depression) showed that stigmatizing experiences from family and work predicted greater WBI. Experiencing weight stigma at work was associated with WBI above and beyond the effects of other sources of stigma. Participants who reported higher BMIs for their mothers had lower levels of WBI. CONCLUSION: Experiencing weight stigma from family and at work may heighten WBI, while having a mother with a higher BMI may be a protective factor against WBI. Prospective research is needed to understand WBI's developmental course and identify mechanisms that increase or mitigate its risk.

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