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1.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6250-6258, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351120

RESUMO

Anticoagulant treatment of pediatric cerebral venous thrombosis has not been evaluated in randomized trials. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulants in the predefined subgroup of children with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) who participated in the EINSTEIN-Jr trial. Children with CVT were randomized (2:1), after initial heparinization, to treatment with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants (continued on heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). The main treatment period was 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding,were centrally evaluated by blinded investigators. Sinus recanalization on repeat brain imaging was a secondary outcome. Statistical analyses were exploratory. In total, 114 children with confirmed CVT were randomized. All children completed the follow-up. None of the 73 rivaroxaban recipients and 1 (2.4%; CVT) of the 41 standard anticoagulant recipients had symptomatic, recurrent VTE after 3 months (absolute difference, 2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6% to 13.5%). Clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 5 (6.8%; all nonmajor and noncerebral) rivaroxaban recipients and in 1 (2.5%; major [subdural] bleeding) standard anticoagulant recipient (absolute difference, 4.4%; 95% CI, -6.7% to 13.4%). Complete or partial sinus recanalization occurred in 18 (25%) and 39 (53%) rivaroxaban recipients and in 6 (15%) and 24 (59%) standard anticoagulant recipients, respectively. In summary, in this substudy of a randomized trial with a limited sample size, children with CVT treated with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulation had a low risk of recurrent VTE and clinically relevant bleeding. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02234843.

2.
Circulation ; 142(23): 2219-2230, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease) demonstrated superiority of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin to reduce major cardiac and ischemic limb events after lower extremity revascularization. Clopidogrel is commonly used as a short-term adjunct to aspirin after endovascular revascularization. Whether clopidogrel modifies the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described. METHODS: VOYAGER PAD was a phase 3, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization randomized to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus 100 mg aspirin daily or rivaroxaban placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety end point was TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding, with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding a secondary safety outcome. Clopidogrel use was allowed at the discretion of the investigator for up to 6 months after the qualifying revascularization. RESULTS: Of the randomized patients, 3313 (50.6%) received clopidogrel for a median duration of 29.0 days. Over 3 years, the hazard ratio for the primary outcome of rivaroxaban versus placebo was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.01) with clopidogrel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01) without clopidogrel without statistical heterogeneity (P for interaction=0.92). Rivaroxaban resulted in an early apparent reduction in acute limb ischemia within 30 days (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-1.46] with clopidogrel; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.01] without clopidogrel; P for interaction=0.93). Compared with aspirin, rivaroxaban increased TIMI major bleeding similarly regardless of clopidogrel use (P for interaction=0.71). With clopidogrel use >30 days, rivaroxaban was associated with more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding within 365 days (hazard ratio, 3.20 [95% CI, 1.44-7.13]) compared with shorter durations of clopidogrel (P for trend=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: In the VOYAGER PAD trial, rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular and limb events with an early benefit for acute limb ischemia regardless of clopidogrel use. The safety of rivaroxaban was consistent regardless of clopidogrel use but with a trend for more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding with clopidogrel use >30 days than with a shorter duration. These data support the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin after lower extremity revascularization regardless of concomitant clopidogrel, with a short course (≤30 days) associated with less bleeding. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02504216.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074284

RESUMO

Importance: The reported associations of cerebral microbleeds with recurrent stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage have raised concerns regarding antithrombotic treatment in patients with a history of stroke and microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Objective: To characterize microbleeds in embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) and report interactions between microbleeds and the effects of random assignment to anticoagulant vs antiplatelet therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Subgroup analyses of the New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs Aspirin to Prevent Embolism in ESUS (NAVIGATE ESUS) international, double-blind, randomized, event-driven phase 3 clinical trial. Participants were enrolled between December 2014 and September 2017 and followed up for a median of 11 months. The study setting included 459 stroke recruitment centers in 31 countries. Patients aged 50 years or older who had neuroimaging-confirmed ESUS between 7 days and 6 months before screening were eligible. Of these 7213 NAVIGATE ESUS participants, 3699 (51%) had information on cerebral microbleeds reported on their baseline clinical magnetic resonance imaging and were eligible for these analyses. Patients with a prior history of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. Interventions: Rivaroxaban, 15 mg, compared with aspirin, 100 mg, daily. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality. Results: Microbleeds were present in 395 of 3699 participants (11%). Of patients with cerebral microbleeds, mean (SD) age was 69.5 (9.4) years, 241 were men (61%), and 201 were White (51%). Advancing age (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), East Asian race/ethnicity (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.04-2.37), hypertension (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.54-3.15), multiterritorial infarcts (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.42-2.67), chronic infarcts (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.42-2.23), and occult intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.76-9.90) were independently associated with microbleeds. The presence of microbleeds was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3), a 4-fold risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3-13.9), a 2-fold risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3), and strictly lobar microbleeds with an approximately 2.5-fold risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3). There were no interactions between microbleeds and treatment assignments for recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, or all-cause mortality. The HR of intracerebral hemorrhage on rivaroxaban was similar between persons with microbleeds (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.3-30.0) and persons without microbleeds (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.6-14.7; interaction P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: Microbleeds mark an increased risk of recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and mortality in ESUS but do not appear to influence effects of rivaroxaban on clinical outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.

4.
Blood Adv ; 4(19): 4632-4639, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002131

RESUMO

Anticoagulant treatment of pediatric central venous catheter-related venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) has not been specifically evaluated. In EINSTEIN-Jr, 500 children with any VTE received rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants. A predefined analysis of the CVC-VTE cohort was performed. Children with CVC-VTE (age, birth to 17 years) were administered rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulants during the 1-month (children <2 years) or 3-month (all other children) study period. Predefined outcomes were recurrent VTE, change in thrombotic burden on repeat imaging, and bleeding. Predictors for continuation of anticoagulant therapy beyond the study period were evaluated. One hundred twenty-six children with symptomatic (n = 76, 60%) or asymptomatic (n = 50, 40%) CVC-VTE received either rivaroxaban (n = 90) or standard anticoagulants (n = 36). There was no recurrent VTE (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-2.8%). Three children had the principal safety outcome: none had major bleeding and 3 children had clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (2.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-6.5%), all in the rivaroxaban arm. Complete or partial vein recanalization occurred in 57 (55%) and 38 (37%) of 103 evaluable children, respectively. Results were similar for symptomatic and asymptomatic CVC-VTE. Continuation of anticoagulant therapy beyond the study period occurred in 61 (48%) of children and was associated with residual VTE but only in children <2 years (odds ratio [OR], 20.9; P = .003) and continued CVC use (OR, 6.7; P = .002). Anticoagulant therapy appeared safe and efficacious and was associated with reduced clot burden in most children with symptomatic or asymptomatic CVC-VTE. Residual VTE and continued CVC use were associated with extended anticoagulation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02234843.

5.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997098

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) experience an increased risk of major vascular events. There is limited information on what clinical features of symptomatic LE-PAD prognosticate major vascular events and whether patients at high risk have a greater absolute benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin. Objective: To quantify the risk of major vascular events and investigate the response to treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin among patients with symptomatic LE-PAD based on clinical presentation and comorbidities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a subanalysis of a previously reported subgroup of patients with symptomatic LE-PAD who were enrolled in a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies [COMPASS]) in 602 centers in 33 countries from March 2013 to January 2020. Data analysis was completed from May 2016 to June 2020. Interventions: A combination of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-month incidence risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death (MACE), major adverse limb events (MALE) including major vascular amputation, and bleeding. Results: The COMPASS trial enrolled 4129 patients with symptomatic LE-PAD (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [8.8] years; 2932 men [71.0%]). The 30-month Kaplan-Meier incidence risk of MACE or MALE, including major amputation, was 22.6% in those with prior amputation (this outcome was observed in 54 patients), 17.6% (n = 15) in those with Fontaine III or IV symptoms, and 11.8% (n = 142) in those with previous peripheral artery revascularization, classifying these features as high-risk limb presentations. The 30-month incidence risk of MACE or MALE, including major amputation, was 14.1% (n = 118) in those with kidney dysfunction, 13.5% (n = 67) in those with heart failure, 13.4% (n = 199) in those with diabetes, and 12.8% (n = 222) in those with polyvascular disease, classifying these features as high-risk comorbidities. Among patients with either high-risk limb presentations or high-risk comorbidities, treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone was associated with an estimated 4.2% (95% CI, 1.9%-6.2%) absolute risk reduction for MACE or MALE, including major amputation, at 30 months. Although the estimated absolute risk increase of major bleeding was higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin in combination than aspirin alone (2.0% [95% CI, 0.5%-3.9%]) for patients with either high-risk limb presentation or high-risk comorbidity, the estimated absolute risk increase of fatal or critical organ bleeding was low in this high-risk group (0.4% [95% CI, 0.2%-1.8%]), such that the net clinical benefit was estimated to be 3.2% (95% CI, 0.6%-5.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with LE-PAD with high-risk limb presentations or high-risk comorbidities had a high incidence of major vascular events. For these patients, treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin in combination compared with aspirin alone led to a large absolute reduction in vascular risk.

7.
Eur. j. prev. cardiol ; 27(3): 1-12, Ago. 2020. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1050001

RESUMO

Abstract Aims: Secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease involves antithrombotic therapy and optimal control of cardiovascular risk factors. In the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) study, adding low-dose rivaroxaban on top of aspirin lowered cardiovascular events, but there is limited data about risk factor control in secondary prevention. We studied the association between risk factor status and outcomes, and the impact of risk factor status on the treatment effect of rivaroxaban, in a large contemporary population of patients with coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. Methods and results: We reported ischemic events (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) in participants from the randomized, double-blind COMPASS study by individual risk factor (blood pressure, smoking status, cholesterol level, presence of diabetes, body mass index, and level of physical activity), and by number of risk factors. We compared rates and hazard ratios of patients treated with rivaroxaban plus aspirin vs aspirin alone within each risk factor category and tested for interaction between risk factor status and antithrombotic regimen. Complete baseline risk factor status was available in 27,117 (99%) patients. Status and number of risk factors were both associated with increased risk of ischemic events. Rates of ischemic events (hazard ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.8­2.6) and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 2.0; 1.5­2.7) were more than twofold higher in patients with 4­6 compared with 0­1 risk factors (p<0.0001 for both). Rivaroxaban reduced event rates independently of the number of risk factors (p interaction 0.93), with the largest absolute benefit in patients with the highest number of risk factors. Conclusion: More favorable risk factor status and low-dose rivaroxaban were independently associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. (AU)


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Prevenção Secundária
8.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628266

RESUMO

Importance: The concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) unifies a subgroup of cryptogenic strokes based on neuroimaging, a defined minimum set of diagnostic tests, and exclusion of certain causes. Despite an annual stroke recurrence rate of 5%, little is known about the etiology underlying recurrent stroke after ESUS. Objective: To identify the stroke subtype of recurrent ischemic strokes after ESUS, to explore the interaction with treatment assignment in each category, and to examine the consistency of cerebral location of qualifying ESUS and recurrent ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NAVIGATE-ESUS trial was a randomized clinical trial conducted from December 23, 2014, to October 5, 2017. The trial compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with recent ESUS (n = 7213). Ischemic stroke was validated in 309 of the 7213 patients by adjudicators blinded to treatment assignment and classified by local investigators into the categories ESUS or non-ESUS (ie, cardioembolic, atherosclerotic, lacunar, other determined cause, or insufficient testing). Five patients with recurrent strokes that could not be defined as ischemic or hemorrhagic in absence of neuroimaging or autopsy were excluded. Data for this secondary post hoc analysis were analyzed from March to June 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban, 15 mg/d, or aspirin, 100 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of recurrent ESUS with stroke characteristics. Results: A total of 309 patients (205 men [66%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [10] years) had ischemic stroke identified during the median follow-up of 11 (interquartile range [IQR], 12) months (annualized rate, 4.6%). Diagnostic testing was insufficient for etiological classification in 39 patients (13%). Of 270 classifiable ischemic strokes, 156 (58%) were ESUS and 114 (42%) were non-ESUS (37 [32%] cardioembolic, 26 [23%] atherosclerotic, 35 [31%] lacunar, and 16 [14%] other determined cause). Atrial fibrillation was found in 27 patients (9%) with recurrent ischemic stroke and was associated with higher morbidity (median change in modified Rankin scale score 2 [IQR, 3] vs 0 (IQR, 1]) and mortality (15% vs 1%) than other causes. Risk of recurrence did not differ significantly by subtype between treatment groups. For both the qualifying and recurrent strokes, location of infarct was more often in the left (46% and 54%, respectively) than right hemisphere (40% and 37%, respectively) or brainstem or cerebellum (14% and 9%, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, most recurrent strokes after ESUS were embolic and of undetermined source. Recurrences associated with atrial fibrillation were a minority but were more often disabling and fatal. More extensive investigation to identify the embolic source is important toward an effective antithrombotic strategy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.

9.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2386-2394, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optimal secondary prevention for patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) remains unknown. We aimed to assess whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels are associated with major vascular events and whether hs-cTnT may identify patients who benefit from anticoagulation following ESUS. METHODS: Data were obtained from the biomarker substudy of the NAVIGATE ESUS trial, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary stroke prevention in ESUS. Patients were dichotomized at the hs-cTnT upper reference limit (14 ng/L, Gen V, Roche Diagnostics). Cox proportional hazard models were computed to explore the association between hs-cTnT, the combined cardiovascular end point (recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, cardiovascular death), and recurrent ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Among 1337 patients enrolled at 111 participating centers in 18 countries (mean age 67±9 years, 61% male), hs-cTnT was detectable in 95% and at/above the upper reference limit in 21%. During a median follow-up of 11 months, the combined cardiovascular end point occurred in 68 patients (5.0%/y, rivaroxaban 28 events, aspirin 40 events; hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.41-1.1]), and recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 50 patients (4.0%/y, rivaroxaban 16 events, aspirin 34 events, hazard ratio 0.45 [95% CI, 0.25-0.81]). Annualized combined cardiovascular end point rates were 8.2% (9.5% rivaroxaban, 7.0% aspirin) for those above hs-cTnT upper reference limit and 4.8% (3.1% rivaroxaban, 6.6% aspirin) below with a significant treatment modification (P=0.04). Annualized ischemic stroke rates were 4.7% above hs-cTnT upper reference limit and 3.9% below, with no suggestion of an interaction between hs-cTnT and treatment (P=0.3). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ESUS, hs-cTnT was associated with increased cardiovascular event rates. While fewer recurrent strokes occurred in patients receiving rivaroxaban, outcomes were not stratified by hs-cTn results. Our findings support using hs-cTnT for cardiovascular risk stratification but not for decision-making regarding anticoagulation therapy in patients with ESUS. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis are associated with ischemic stroke. We report frequency and response to anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet prophylaxis of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) who have non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of the international NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15mg daily with aspirin 100mg daily in 7213 patients with recent ESUS. Among participants with results of intracranial arterial imaging with either computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), the frequency and predictors of non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis and responses to antithrombotic therapy were assessed. RESULTS: Among 4723 participants with available intracranial CTA or MRA results (65% of the trial cohort), the prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis was 16% (n=739). Patient features independently associated with intracranial atherosclerosis included East Asian region (odds ratio 2.7, 95%CI 2.2,3.3) and cervical carotid plaque (odds ratio 2.3, 95%CI 1.9,2.7), among others. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke averaged 4.8%/year among those with intracranial atherosclerosis vs. 5.0.%/year for those without (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.65, 1.4). Among those with intracranial atherosclerosis, the recurrent ischemic stroke rate was higher if assigned to rivaroxaban (5.8%/year) vs. aspirin (3.7%/year), but the difference was not statistically significant (HR 1.6, 95%CI 0.78, 3.3). There was trend for the effect of antithrombotic treatments to be different according to the presence or absence of intracranial atherosclerosis (pinteraction=0.09). Among participants with evidence of systemic atherosclerosis by either history or imaging (n=3820), recurrent ischemic stroke rates were similar among those assigned to rivaroxaban (5.5%/year) vs. aspirin (4.9%/year)(HR 1.1, 95%CI 0.84, 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: East Asia region was the strongest factor associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. There were no statistically significant differences between rivaroxaban and aspirin prophylaxis for recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2139-2147, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Risks, sites, and predictors of major bleeding during antithrombotic therapies have not been well defined for patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of major bleeds defined by International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria occurring among 7213 participants in international NAVIGATE (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial) embolic stroke of undetermined source randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15 mg daily with aspirin 100 mg daily. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 months, 85 major bleeds occurred. The most frequent site was gastrointestinal (38%), followed by intracranial (29%). Assignment to rivaroxaban (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.7-4.3]), East Asia region (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.9]), systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg (HR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2-3.8]), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.2 per 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 decrease, [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]) were independently associated with presence of major bleeds. Five (6%) were fatal. Among 15 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 (13%) were fatal. There was no evidence of an early high-risk period following initiation of rivaroxaban. The annualized rate of intracerebral hemorrhage was 6-fold higher among East Asian participants (0.67%) versus all other regions (0.11%; HR, 6.3 [95% CI, 2.2-18.0]). Distribution of bleeding sites was similar for rivaroxaban and aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Among embolic stroke of undetermined source patients participating in an international randomized trial, independent predictors of major bleeding were assignment to rivaroxaban, East Asia region, increased systolic blood pressure, and impaired renal function. East Asia as a region was strongly associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Estimated glomerular filtration rate should be a consideration for stratifying bleeding risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Método Duplo-Cego , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Stroke ; 51(6): 1797-1804, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295509

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Emboli in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) may originate from various potential embolic sources (PES), some of which may respond better to anticoagulation, whereas others to antiplatelets. We analyzed whether rivaroxaban is associated with reduction of recurrent stroke compared with aspirin in patients with ESUS across different PES and by number of PES. Methods- We assessed the presence/absence of each PES (atrial cardiopathy, atrial fibrillation, arterial atherosclerosis, left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac valvulopathy, patent foramen ovale, cancer) in NAVIGATE-ESUS (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) participants. Prevalence of each PES, as well as treatment effect and risk of event for each PES were determined. Results by number of PES were also determined. The outcomes were ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and myocardial infarction. Results- In 7213 patients (38% women, mean age 67years) followed for a median of 11 months, the 3 most prevalent PES were atrial cardiopathy (37%), left ventricular disease (36%), and arterial atherosclerosis (29%). Forty-one percent of all patients had multiple PES, with 15% having ≥3 PES. None or a single PES was present in 23% and 36%, respectively. Recurrent ischemic stroke risk was similar for rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients for each PES, except for those with cardiac valvular disease which was marginally higher in rivaroxaban-assigned patients (hazard ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.0-3.0]). All-cause mortality risks were similar across treatment groups for each PES while too few myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths occurred for meaningful assessment. Increasing number of PES was not associated with increased stroke recurrence nor all-cause mortality, and outcomes did not vary between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients by number of PES. Conclusions- A large proportion of patients with ESUS had multiple PES which could explain the neutral results of NAVIGATE-ESUS. Recurrence rates between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients were similar across the spectrum of PES. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Embolia Intracraniana , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289159

RESUMO

AIMS: The COMPASS trial demonstrated that the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5mg twice-daily and aspirin 100mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) by 24% during a mean follow-up of 23 months. We explored whether this effect varies by sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects were examined in women and men using log-rank tests and Kaplan-Meier curve. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from stratified Cox proportional hazards models to explore subgroup effects including subgroup of women and men according to baseline modified REACH risk score. Of 27,395 patients randomized, 18,278 were allocated to receive rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n = 9,152) or aspirin alone (n = 9,126), and of these 22.1% were women. Women compared with men had similar incidence rates for MACE and major bleeding but borderline lower rates for MI (1.7% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.05). The effect of combination therapy compared with aspirin in women and men were consistent for MACE (women: 3.8% vs. 5.2%, HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.97; men: 4.2% vs. 5.5%, HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.89; p interaction 0.75) and major bleeding (women: 3.1% vs. 1.4%, HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.42-3.46; men: 3.2% vs. 2.0%, HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.97; p interaction 0.19). There was no significant interaction between randomized treatment and baseline modified REACH score above or below the median for MACE or major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable CAD or PAD, the combination of rivaroxaban (2x2.5mg twice-daily) and aspirin compared with aspirin alone appears to produce consistent benefits in women and men, independent of baseline cardiovascular risk.

14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1672-1685, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the randomized EINSTEIN-Jr study showed similar efficacy and safety for rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulation for treatment of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). The rivaroxaban dosing strategy was established based on phase 1 and 2 data in children and through pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. METHODS: Rivaroxaban treatment with tablets or the newly developed granules-for-oral suspension formulation was bodyweight-adjusted and administered once-daily, twice-daily, or thrice-daily for children with bodyweights of ≥30, ≥12 to <30, and <12 kg, respectively. Previously, these regimens were confirmed for children weighing ≥20 kg but only predicted in those <20 kg. Based on sparse blood sampling, the daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0-24)ss ] and trough [Ctrough,ss ] and maximum [Cmax,ss ] steady-state plasma concentrations were derived using population PK modeling. Exposure-response graphs were generated to evaluate the potential relationship of individual PK parameters with recurrent VTE, repeat imaging outcomes, and bleeding or adverse events. A taste-and-texture questionnaire was collected for suspension-recipients. RESULTS: Of the 335 children (aged 0-17 years) allocated to rivaroxaban, 316 (94.3%) were evaluable for PK analyses. Rivaroxaban exposures were within the adult exposure range. No clustering was observed for any of the PK parameters with efficacy, bleeding, or adverse event outcomes. Results were similar for the tablet and suspension formulation. Acceptability and palatability of the suspension were favorable. DISCUSSION: Based on this analysis and the recently documented similar efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with standard anticoagulation, we conclude that bodyweight-adjusted pediatric rivaroxaban regimens with either tablets or suspension are validated and provide for appropriate treatment of children with VTE.

15.
Circulation ; 141(23): 1841-1854, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with established coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events. METHODS: In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies), we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus versus without diabetes mellitus in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major adverse limb events, including amputation). The primary safety end point was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria for major bleeding. RESULTS: There were 10 341 patients with diabetes mellitus and 17 054 without diabetes mellitus in the overall trial. A consistent and similar relative risk reduction was seen for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n=9152) versus placebo plus aspirin (n=9126) in patients both with (n=6922) and without (n=11 356) diabetes mellitus for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio, 0.74, P=0.002; and hazard ratio, 0.77, P=0.005, respectively, Pinteraction=0.77) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81, P=0.05; and hazard ratio, 0.84, P=0.09, respectively; Pinteraction=0.82). However, although the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% versus 1.4% for the primary efficacy end point at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction<0.0001; 1.9% versus 0.6% for all-cause mortality, Pinteraction=0.02; 2.7% versus 1.7% for major vascular events, Pinteraction<0.0001). Because the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes mellitus, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the patients with diabetes mellitus (2.7% versus 1.0%; Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral end points in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes mellitus, including a 3-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 12-19, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323190

RESUMO

Anticoagulant plasma concentrations and patient characteristics might affect the benefit-risk balance of therapy. The study objective was to assess the impact of model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis (VTE-P) after hip/knee replacement surgery. Post hoc exposure-response analyses were conducted using data from the phase 3 RECORD1-4 studies, in which 12,729 patients were randomized to rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or enoxaparin for ≤ 39 days. Multivariate regression approaches were used to correlate model-predicted individual rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with outcomes. In the absence of measured rivaroxaban exposure, exposure estimates were predicted based on individual increases in prothrombin time (PT) and by making use of the known correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentration and dynamics of PT. No significant associations between rivaroxaban exposure and total VTE or major bleeding were identified. A significant association between exposure and a composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding from day 4 after surgery was observed. The relationship was shallow, with an approximate predicted absolute increase in a composite of major or NMCR bleeding from 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.54] to 2.18% (95% CI 1.51-3.17) at the 5th and 95th percentiles of trough plasma concentration, respectively. In conclusion, based on the underlying data and analysis, no reliable target window for exposure with improved benefit-risk could be identified within the investigated exposure range. Hence, monitoring rivaroxaban levels is unlikely to be beneficial in VTE-P.

17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 1-11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323191

RESUMO

Anticoagulant plasma concentrations and patient characteristics might affect the benefit-risk balance of therapy. This study assessed the impact of model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism treatment (VTE-T) using data from the phase 3 EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies. In the absence of measured rivaroxaban exposure, exposure estimates were predicted based on individual increases in prothrombin time (PT) and the known correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and PT dynamics. The composite efficacy outcomes evaluated were recurrent deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and recurrent DVT, PE and all-cause death; safety outcomes were major bleeding and the composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding. Exposure-response relationships were evaluated using multivariate logistic and Cox regression for the twice-daily (BID) and once-daily (OD) dosing periods, respectively. Predicted rivaroxaban exposure and CrCl were significantly associated with both efficacy outcomes in the BID period. In the OD period, exposure was significantly associated with recurrent DVT and PE but not recurrent DVT, PE and all-cause death. The statistically significant exposure-efficacy relationships were shallow. Exposure-safety relationships were absent within the investigated exposure range. During both dosing periods, low baseline hemoglobin and prior bleeding were associated with the composite of major or NMCR bleeding. In conclusion, based on the underlying data and analysis, no reliable target window for exposure with improved benefit-risk could be identified within the investigated exposure range. Therefore, monitoring rivaroxaban levels is unlikely to be beneficial in VTE-T.

18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 20-29, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323192

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics may affect the rivaroxaban benefit-risk balance. This study aimed to quantify associations between model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics and efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), using data from the phase 3 ROCKET AF trial (NCT00403767). In ROCKET AF, 14,264 patients with NVAF were randomized to rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily [OD], or 15 mg OD if creatinine clearance was 30-49 mL/min) or dose-adjusted warfarin (median follow-up: 707 days); rivaroxaban plasma concentration was measured in a subset of 161 patients. In this post hoc exposure-response analysis, a multivariate Cox model was used to correlate individual predicted rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes in 7061 and 7111 patients, respectively. There was no significant association between model-predicted rivaroxaban trough plasma concentration (Ctrough) and efficacy outcomes. Creatinine clearance and history of stroke were significantly associated with efficacy outcomes. Ctrough was significantly associated with the composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding (hazard ratio [95th percentile vs. median]: 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.13-1.40]) but not with major bleeding alone. The exposure-response relationship for major or NMCR bleeding was shallow with no clear threshold for an acceleration in risk. History of gastrointestinal bleeding had a greater influence on safety outcomes than Ctrough. These results support fixed rivaroxaban 15 mg and 20 mg OD dosages in NVAF. Therapeutic drug monitoring is unlikely to offer clinical benefits in this indication beyond evaluation of patient characteristics.

19.
Circulation ; 141(14): 1141-1151, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People using Anticoagulation Strategies) demonstrated that dual pathway inhibition (DPI) with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily versus aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced the primary major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as, mortality, in patients with chronic coronary syndromes or peripheral arterial disease. Whether this remains true in patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. METHODS: In a prespecified subgroup analysis from COMPASS, we examined the outcomes of patients with chronic coronary syndrome with or without a previous PCI treated with DPI versus aspirin alone. Among patients with a previous PCI, we studied the effects of treatment according to the timing of the previous PCI. RESULTS: Of the 27 395 patients in COMPASS, 16 560 patients with a chronic coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to DPI or aspirin, and, of these, 9862 (59.6%) had previous PCI (mean age 68.2±7.8, female 19.4%, diabetes mellitus 35.7%, previous myocardial infarction 74.8%, multivessel PCI 38.0%). Average time from PCI to randomization was 5.4 years (SD, 4.4) and follow-up was 1.98 (SD, 0.72) years. Regardless of previous PCI, DPI versus aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE (PCI: 4.0% versus 5.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.88]; no PCI: 4.4% versus 5.7%; HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.61-0.94], P-interaction=0.85) and mortality (PCI: 2.5% versus 3.5%; HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.58-0.92]; no PCI: 4.1% versus 5.0%; HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.64-1.00], P-interaction=0.59), but increased major bleeding (PCI: 3.3% versus 2.0%; HR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.34-2.21]; no PCI: 2.9% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.17], P-interaction=0.68). In those with previous PCI, DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent (robust) reductions in MACE irrespective of time since previous PCI (as early as 1 year and as far as 10 years; P-interaction=0.65), irrespective of having a previous myocardial infarction (P-interaction=0.64). CONCLUSIONS: DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE and mortality but with increased major bleeding with or without previous PCI. Among those with previous PCI 1 year and beyond, the effects on MACE and mortality were consistent irrespective of time since last PCI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

20.
N Engl J Med ; 382(21): 1994-2004, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease who have undergone lower-extremity revascularization are at high risk for major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in this context are uncertain. METHODS: In a double-blind trial, patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone revascularization were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding, defined according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) classification; major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was a secondary safety outcome. RESULTS: A total of 6564 patients underwent randomization; 3286 were assigned to the rivaroxaban group, and 3278 were assigned to the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 508 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 584 in the placebo group; the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the incidence at 3 years were 17.3% and 19.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.96; P = 0.009). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 44 patients in the placebo group (2.65% and 1.87%; hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.10; P = 0.07). ISTH major bleeding occurred in 140 patients in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 100 patients in the placebo group (5.94% and 4.06%; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.84; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone lower-extremity revascularization, rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of the composite outcome of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes than aspirin alone. The incidence of TIMI major bleeding did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of ISTH major bleeding was significantly higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin than with aspirin alone. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; VOYAGER PAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02504216.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Isquemia/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
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